A gable is the triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system used, which reflects climate, material availability, aesthetic concerns. A gable wall or gable end more refers to the entire wall, including the gable and the wall below it. A parapet made of a series of curves or horizontal steps may hide the diagonal lines of the roof. Gable ends of more recent buildings are treated in the same way as the Classic pediment form, but unlike Classical structures, which operate through trabeation, the gable ends of many buildings are bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing can be misleading. Gable style is used in the design of fabric structures, with varying degree sloped roofs, dependent on how much snowfall is expected. Sharp gable roofs are a characteristic of the classical Greek styles of architecture; the opposite or inverted form of a gable roof is a butterfly roof. While a front-gabled building faces the street with its gable, a side-gabled building faces it with its cullis, meaning the ridge is parallel to the street.
The terms are used in city planning to determine a building in its urban situation. Front-gabled buildings are considered typical for German city streets in the medieval gothic period, while Renaissance buildings, influenced by Italian architecture are side-gabled. In America, front-gabled houses, such as the gablefront house, were popular between the early 19th century and 1920. A wimperg, in German and Dutch, is a Gothic ornamental gable with tracery over windows or portals, which were accompanied with pinnacles, it was a typical element in Gothic architecture in cathedral architecture. Wimpergs had crockets or other decorative elements in the Gothic style; the intention behind the wimperg was the perception of increased height. The gable end roof is a poor design for hurricane regions, as it peels off in strong winds; the part of the roof that overhangs the triangular wall often creates a trap that can catch wind like an umbrella. Winds blowing against the gable end can exert tremendous pressure, both on the triangular wall and on the roof edges where they overhang the triangular wall, causing the roof to peel off and the triangular wall to cave in.
Anne of Green Gables, a novel by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery, based in Canada The House of the Seven Gables The Seven Lamps of Architecture, John Ruskin's influential opinion on truth in architecture Bell-gable Cape Dutch architecture Crow-stepped gable Dutch gable Facade Gablet roof Hip roof List of roof shapes Tympanum Pugin, Augustus. A series of ornamental timber gables, from existing examples in England and France of the 16th Century. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gable". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. P. 380. Lexicon of architecture
Benkovac is a town and municipality in the interior of Zadar County, Croatia. Benkovac is located where the plain of Ravni Kotari and the karstic plateau of Bukovica meet, 20 km from the town of Biograd na Moru and 30 km from Zadar; the Zagreb-Split motorway and Zadar-Knin railway pass through the town. It borders the municipalities of Novigrad, Obrovac, Lišane Ostrovičke, Kistanje and Stankovci. According to the 2011 census, the municipality had 11,026 inhabitants of which 13.8% were from a Serbian descent and 84.9% were Croatian. Before the Croatian War of Independence, Serbs made up about 57%, Croats about 41%, however Croats only held 18% of the jobs in the local government, which led to high tensions in the 1990s. During the Operation Storm all of the Serbs were expelled from the town, after the war they were replaced by expelled Bosnian Croat settlers. According to the Austrian Census in 1900, the town of Benkovac consisted of 356 Catholics and 156 Orthodox, with area surrounding Benkovac it included 8,119 Catholics and 5,981 Orthodox.
The 1910 census recorded a total of 810 residents, 388 of which were 422 Orthodox. Both censuses were conducted according to language; the population of Benkovac itself is 2,622, the rest is distributed in 38 villages surrounding it. The first traces of human life in the Benkovac area were found around the village of Smilčić that belonged to the Danilo culture. Before Roman conquest the area was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of Liburnians. During the Roman Civil war the Liburnians sided with Caesar; the Romans mention the following Liburnian settlements: "Nedinum, Carinium and Asseria. In 7th century the area was settled by Croats; the area of Benkovac was at the crossroads of four Croatian župas - Novljanska, Sidraška, Bribirska and Karinska. Near the village of Šopot, an inscription from the 9th century was found that mentions Branimir as a Croatian Duke. In 1409 King Ladislaus of Naples sold his rights of Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice and the Benkovac area became a border region. New fortresses around the border were built - Korlat, Kličevica, Polača, behind them Benković i Perušić.
The fortress of Benković was named after the family of nobles that built it and the city of Benkovac was established. In 1527 Benkovac became part of the Ottoman Empire, it was settled by Croats-Bunjevci and Vlachs. In October 1683, the population of Venetian Dalmatia, principally Uskoks of Ravni kotari, took arms and together with the rayah of the Ottoman frontier regions rose up, taking Skradin, Vrana and Obrovac, it became part of the Republic of Venice following the Morean War. Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy in the district of the same name, one of 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Dalmatia; the name was BENCOVACZ before 1867. From 1929 to 1939, Benkovac was part of the Littoral Banovina and from 1939 to 1941 of the Banovina of Croatia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; the area was bombed by the Allies during World War II. During the Croatian War of Independence, Benkovac was a center of unrest and hostilities between Croats and Serbs. On 17 March 1990, tensions erupted when groups of local Serbs rebelled against the decision of the government to disarm local police in which Serbs were most of the employees.
During that time the provincial Croatian government continued arming police forces and paramilitaries in villages with ethnic Croat majorities. Tensions continued to boil, five months Benkovac was included in the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Five years on 5 August 1995, Benkovac was retaken by the Croatian Army during Operation Storm; the following settlements are part of Benkovac: Official website Historical Monuments of Benkovac 1991. Census results for Benkovac county
A beam is a structural element that resists loads applied laterally to the beam's axis. Its mode of deflection is by bending; the loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beam's support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal stresses and deflections of the beam. Beams are characterized by their manner of support, profile and their material. Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but any structures such as automotive automobile frames, aircraft components, machine frames, other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed to carry lateral loads are analyzed in a similar fashion. Beams were squared timbers but are metal, stone, or combinations of wood and metal such as a flitch beam. Beams can carry vertical gravitational forces but are used to carry horizontal loads; the loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members and to ground.
In light frame construction, joists may rest on beams. In carpentry, a beam is called a plate as in a sill plate or wall plate, beam as in a summer beam or dragon beam. In engineering, beams are of several types: Simply supported – a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have no moment resistance. Fixed – a beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation. Over hanging – a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end. Double overhanging – a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on both ends. Continuous – a beam extending over more than two supports. Cantilever – a projecting beam fixed only at one end. Trussed – a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss. In the beam equation I is used to represent the second moment of area, it is known as the moment of inertia, is the sum, about the neutral axis, of dA*r^2, where r is the distance from the neutral axis, dA is a small patch of area. Therefore, it encompasses not just how much area the beam section has overall, but how far each bit of area is from the axis, squared.
The greater I is. Internally, beams subjected to loads that do not induce torsion or axial loading experience compressive and shear stresses as a result of the loads applied to them. Under gravity loads, the original length of the beam is reduced to enclose a smaller radius arc at the top of the beam, resulting in compression, while the same original beam length at the bottom of the beam is stretched to enclose a larger radius arc, so is under tension. Modes of deformation where the top face of the beam is in compression, as under a vertical load, are known as sagging modes and where the top is in tension, for example over a support, is known as hogging; the same original length of the middle of the beam halfway between the top and bottom, is the same as the radial arc of bending, so it is under neither compression nor tension, defines the neutral axis. Above the supports, the beam is exposed to shear stress. There are some reinforced concrete beams in which the concrete is in compression with tensile forces taken by steel tendons.
These beams are known as prestressed concrete beams, are fabricated to produce a compression more than the expected tension under loading conditions. High strength steel tendons are stretched; when the concrete has cured, the tendons are released and the beam is under eccentric axial loads. This eccentric loading creates an internal moment, and, in turn, increases the moment carrying capacity of the beam, they are used on highway bridges. The primary tool for structural analysis of beams is the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation; this equation describes the elastic behaviour of slender beams where the cross sectional dimensions are small compared to the length of the beam. For beams that are not slender a different theory needs to be adopted to account for the deformation due to shear forces and, in dynamic cases, the rotary inertia; the beam formulation adopted here is that of Timoshenko and comparative examples can be found in NAFEMS Benchmark Challenge Number 7. Other mathematical methods for determining the deflection of beams include "method of virtual work" and the "slope deflection method".
Engineers are interested in determining deflections because the beam may be in direct contact with a brittle material such as glass. Beam deflections are minimized for aesthetic reasons. A visibly sagging beam if structurally safe, is unsightly and to be avoided. A stiffer beam creates less deflection. Mathematical methods for determining the beam forces include the "moment distribution method", the force or flexibility method and the direct stiffness method. Most beams in reinforced concrete buildings have rectangular cross sections, but a more efficient cross section for a beam is an I or H section, seen in steel construction; because of the parallel axis theorem and the fact that most of the material is away from the neutral axis, the second moment of area of the beam increases, which in turn increases the stiffness. An I-beam is only the most efficient shape in one direction of be
Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing. Excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances, it is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document. Epigraphy and history are competences practised by the same person. An epigraph is any sort of text, from a single grapheme to a lengthy document. Epigraphy overlaps other competences such as numismatics or palaeography; when compared to books, most inscriptions are short. The media and the forms of the graphemes are diverse: engravings in stone or metal, scratches on rock, impressions in wax, embossing on cast metal, cameo or intaglio on precious stones, painting on ceramic or in fresco.
The material is durable, but the durability might be an accident of circumstance, such as the baking of a clay tablet in a conflagration. Epigraphy is a primary tool of archaeology; the US Library of Congress classifies epigraphy as one of the auxiliary sciences of history. Epigraphy helps identify a forgery: epigraphic evidence formed part of the discussion concerning the James Ossuary; the study of ancient handwriting in ink, is a separate field, palaeography. The character of the writing, the subject of epigraphy, is a matter quite separate from the nature of the text, studied in itself. Texts inscribed in stone are for public view and so they are different from the written texts of each culture. Not all inscribed texts are public, however: in Mycenaean Greece the deciphered texts of "Linear B" were revealed to be used for economic and administrative record keeping. Informal inscribed texts are "graffiti" in its original sense; the science of epigraphy has been developing since the 16th century.
Principles of epigraphy vary culture by culture, the infant science in European hands concentrated on Latin inscriptions at first. Individual contributions have been made by epigraphers such as Georg Fabricius; the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, begun by Mommsen and other scholars, has been published in Berlin since 1863, with wartime interruptions. It is the most extensive collection of Latin inscriptions. New fascicles are still produced; the Corpus is arranged geographically: all inscriptions from Rome are contained in volume 6. This volume has the greatest number of inscriptions. Specialists depend on such on-going series of volumes in which newly discovered inscriptions are published in Latin, not unlike the biologists' Zoological Record— the raw material of history. Greek epigraphy has unfolded with different corpora. There are two; the first is Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum of which four volumes came out, again at Berlin, 1825-1877. This marked a first attempt at a comprehensive publication of Greek inscriptions copied from all over the Greek-speaking world.
Only advanced students still consult it, for better editions of the texts have superseded it. The second, modern corpus is Inscriptiones Graecae arranged geographically under categories: decrees, honorary titles, funeral inscriptions, all presented in Latin, to preserve the international neutrality of the field of classics. Other such series include the Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum, Corpus Inscriptionum Crucesignatorum Terrae Sanctae, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum, Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, "Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia" and "Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period" and so forth. Egyptian hieroglyphs were solved using the Rosetta Stone, a multilingual stele in Classical Greek, Demotic Egyptian and Classical Egyptian hieroglyphs; the work was done by the French scholar, Jean-François Champollion, the British scientist Thomas Young. The interpretation of Maya hieroglyphs was lost as a result of the Spanish Conquest of Central America. However, recent work by Maya epigraphers and linguists has yielded a considerable amount of information on this complex writing system.
Inscriptions were incised on stone, metal, terracotta, or wood. In Egypt and Mesopotamia hard stones were used for the purpose, the inscriptions are therefore well preserved and easy to read. In Greece the favourite material in Athens, was white marble, which takes an admirably clear lettering, but is liable to weathering of the surface if exposed, to wear if rebuilt into pavements or similar structures. Many other kinds of stone, both hard
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Split is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia, with about 200,000 people living in its urban area. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in AD 305, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos in the 3rd or 2nd century BC, it became a prominent settlement around 650 when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities.
Venice prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943, it was re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia.
In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence. By a popular theory, the city draws its name from the spiny broom, after which the Greek colony of Aspálathos or Spálathos was named; the theory is dubious as it's Spanish broom, a frequent plant in the area. Given their similar flowers, it is understandable; as the city became a Roman possession, the Latin name became Spalatum or Aspalatum, which in the Middle Ages evolved into Aspalathum, Spalathum and Spalatro in the Dalmatian language of the city's Romance population. The Croatian term became Split or Spljet, while the Italian-language version, became universal in international usage by the Early Modern Period. In the late 19th century, the Croatian name came to prominence, replaced Spalato in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after World War I. For a significant period, the origin of the name was erroneously thought to be related to the Latin word for "palace", a reference to Diocletian's Palace which still forms the core of the city.
Various theories were developed, such as the notion that the name derives from S. Palatium, an abbreviation of Salonae Palatium; the erroneous "palace" etymologies were notably due to Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, were mentioned by Thomas the Archdeacon. The city, however, is several centuries older than the palace. Although the beginnings of Split are traditionally associated with the construction of Diocletian's Palace in 305, the city was founded several centuries earlier as the Greek colony of Aspálathos, or Spálathos, it was a colony of the polis of Issa, the modern-day town of Vis, itself a colony of the Sicilian city of Syracuse. The exact year the city was founded is not known, but it is estimated to have been in the 3rd or 2nd century BC; the Greek settlement lived off trade with the surrounding Illyrian tribes the Delmatae. After the Illyrian Wars of 229 and 219 BC, the city of Salona, only a short distance from Spálathos, became the capital of the Roman Province of Dalmatia.
The history of Spálathos becomes obscure for a while at this point, being overshadowed by that of nearby Salona, to which it would become successor. The Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293 began the construction of an opulent and fortified palace fronting the sea, near his home town of Salona, selecting the site of Spálathos; the Palace was built as a massive structure, much like a Roman military fortress. The palace and the city of Spalatum which formed its surroundings were at times inhabited by a population as large as 8,000 to 10,000 people. Between 475 and 480 the Palace hosted Flavius Julius Nepos, the last recognised Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Salona was lost to the Ostrogothic Kingdom in 493, along with most of Dalmatia, but the Emperor Justinian I regained Dalmatia in 535–536; the Pannonian Avars sacked and destroyed Salona in 639. The Dalmatian region and its shores were at this time settled by tribes of Croats, a South Slavic people subservient to the Avar khagans; the Salonitans regained the land under Severus the Great in 650 and settled the 300-year-old Palace of Diocletian, which could not be besieged by the Slavic tribes of the mainland.
The Emperor Constans II granted them an Imperial mandate to es
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published