Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign; the kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929. Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April 1941. In 1943, a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In 1944 King Peter II living in exile, recognised it as the legitimate government; the monarchy was subsequently abolished in November 1945. Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946, when a communist government was established.
It acquired the territories of Istria and Zadar from Italy. Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito ruled the country as president until his death in 1980. In 1963, the country was renamed again, as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; the six constituent republics that made up the SFRY were the SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia, SR Slovenia. Serbia contained two Socialist Autonomous Provinces and Kosovo, which after 1974 were equal to the other members of the federation. After an economic and political crisis in the 1980s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics' borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars. From 1993 to 2017, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia tried political and military leaders from the former Yugoslavia for war crimes and other crimes. After the breakup, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro formed a reduced federation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which aspired to the status of sole legal successor to the SFRY, but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.
Serbia and Montenegro accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. In 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed to State Union of Montenegro; the union peacefully broke up when Serbia and Montenegro became independent states in 2006, while Kosovo proclaimed its independence from Serbia in 2008. The concept of Yugoslavia, as a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the Illyrian Movement of the 19th century; the name was created by the combination of the Slavic words "jug" and "slaveni". Yugoslavia was the result of the Corfu Declaration, as a project of the Serbian Parliament in exile and the Serbian royal Karađorđević dynasty, who became the Yugoslav royal dynasty; the country was formed in 1918 after World War I as the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by union of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia. It was referred to at the time as the "Versailles state"; the government renamed the country leading to the first official use of Yugoslavia in 1929.
On 20 June 1928, Serb deputy Puniša Račić shot at five members of the opposition Croatian Peasant Party in the National Assembly resulting in the death of two deputies on the spot and that of leader Stjepan Radić a few weeks later. On 6 January 1929 King Alexander I suspended the constitution, banned national political parties, assumed executive power and renamed the country Yugoslavia, he hoped to mitigate nationalist passions. He imposed a new constitution and relinquished his dictatorship in 1931. However, Alexander's policies encountered opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany, where Fascists and Nazis rose to power, the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin became absolute ruler. None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander I. In fact and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy.
Alexander attempted to create a centralised Yugoslavia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas; the banovinas were named after rivers. Many politicians were kept under police surveillance; the effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from the idea of unity. During his reign the flags of Yugoslav nations were banned. Communist ideas were banned also; the king was assassinated in Marseille during an official visit to France in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, an experienced marksman from Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization with the cooperation of the Ustaše, a Croatian fascist revolutionary organisation. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son Peter II and a regency council headed by his cousin, Prince Paul; the international political scene in the late 1930s was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, by the aggressive attitude of the totalitarian regimes and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I was losing its strongholds and its sponsors were
Osijek is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 108,048 in 2011. It is the largest city and the economic and cultural centre of the eastern Croatian region of Slavonia, as well as the administrative centre of Osijek-Baranja County. Osijek is located on the right bank of the river Drava, 25 kilometres upstream of its confluence with the Danube, at an elevation of 94 metres; the name was given to the city due to its position on elevated ground which prevented the city being flooded by the local swamp waters. Its name Osijek comes from the Croatian word "oseka" which means "ebb tide". Due to its history within the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Ottoman Empire, as well as the presence of German and Hungarian minorities throughout its history, Osijek has its names in other languages, notably Hungarian: Eszék, German: Esseg or Essegg, Turkish: Ösek, Latin: Essec, it is spelled Esgek. Its ancient name is supposed to come from the Proto-Indo-European word * móri; the same root is seen in the toponyms "Marsonia" and "Mariniana".
The origins of human habitation of Osijek dates back to Neolithic times, with the first known inhabitants belonging to the Illyrians and invading Celtic tribes. After the conquest of Pannonia, known at the time as Mursa, was under the administration and protection of the Roman 7th legion which maintained a military castrum at the colony and a bridge over the river Drava. Roman emperor Hadrian raised the old settlement of Mursa to a colony with special privileges in 131. After that, Mursa had a turbulent history, with several decisive battles taking place at its immediate proximity, among which the most notable are the battle between Aureolus and Ingenuus in 260 and brutal and bloody Battle of Mursa Major in 351; these battles the latter one, had long-term consequences for the colony and the region, under ever-increasing pressure from the invading Goths and other invading tribes. The earliest recorded mention of Osijek dates back to 1196; the town was a feudal property of Kórógyi family between 1353 and 1472.
After the death of the last Kórógyi, King Mathias granted it to the Rozgonyi family. The city was completely destroyed by the Ottoman conquerors on 8 August 1526; the Turks rebuilt it in Ottoman oriental style and it was mentioned in the Turkish census of 1579. In 1566, Suleiman the Magnificent built a famous, 8 kilometer-long wooden bridge of boats in Osijek, considered at that time to be one of the wonders of the world. In Ottoman Empire Osijek was part of the Budin Eyalet. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1687, Osijek was liberated by the Habsburg Monarchy on 29 September 1687. Osijek was restored to western rule on 29 September 1687 when the Turks were ousted and the city was occupied by the Habsburg Empire. Between 1712 and 1715, the Austrian authorities built a new fortress, outer walls and all five planned bastions known as Tvrđa, in the heart of the town. Holy Trinity Square is surrounded on the north by the building of the Military Command, on the west by the Main Guard building and on the east by the Magistrate building.
In the middle of the square there is a monument to the plague, erected in 1729 by general Maximilian Petras' widow. The Gornji Grad was founded in 1692 and Donji Grad followed on 1698 settled by the inhabitants from swampy area of Baranja. Tvrđa, Donji grad continued as separate municipalities until 1786 when they were united into a single entity. In late 18th century it took over from Virovitica as the centre of the Verőce county; the Habsburg empire facilitated the migration and settlement of German immigrants into the town and region during this period. In 1809, Osijek was granted the title of a Free Royal City and during the early 19th century it was the largest city in Croatia; the city developed along the lines of other central European cities, with cultural and socio-economic influences filtering down from Vienna and Buda. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Osijek was the seat of the Virovitica County of the autonomous territory Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia in Austria-Hungary.
During the 19th century, cultural life revolved around the theatre, museums and printing houses. City society, whose development was accompanied by a prosperous economy and developed trade relations, was related to religious festivals, public events and sports; the Novi Grad section of the city was built in the 19th century, as well as Retfala to the west. The newest additions to the city include Sjenjak, Vijenac and Jug II, which were built in the twentieth century; the city's geographical riverside location, noted cultural and historical heritage – the baroque Tvrđa, one of the most recognizable structures in the region – facilitated the development of tourism. The Osijek oil refinery was a strategic bombing target of the Oil Campaign of World War II. After the war, the daily newspaper Glas Slavonije was relocated to Osijek and has printed there since. A history archive was established in the city in 1947 and GISKO in 1949; the Children's theatre and the art gallery were open in 1950. As a continuation of the tradition of promoting national heritage in music, society of culture and art "Pajo Kolarić" was established on 21 March 1954.
Osijek has been connected with the Croatian republic's capital Zagreb and the previous federal capital Belgrade by a modern paved road since 1958
Joram Lindenstrauss was an Israeli mathematician working in functional analysis. He was a professor of mathematics at the Einstein Institute of Mathematics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Joram Lindenstrauss was born in Tel Aviv, he was the only child of a pair of lawyers. He began to study mathematics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1954 while serving in the army, he became a full-time student in 1956 and received his master's degree in 1959. In 1962 Lindenstrauss earned his Ph. D. from the Hebrew University. He worked as a postdoc at Yale University and the University of Washington in Seattle from 1962 - 1965, he was appointed senior lecturer at the Hebrew University in 1965, associate professor on 1967 and full professor in 1969. He became the Leon H. and Ada G. Miller Memorial Professor of Mathematics in 1985, he retired in 2005. Lindenstrauss was married to theoretical computer scientist Naomi Lindenstrauss. Two of their children, Ayelet Lindenstrauss and Fields Medallist Elon Lindenstrauss, are mathematicians.
Joram was the cousin of Micha Lindenstrauss. Lindenstrauss worked in various areas of functional analysis and geometry Banach space theory, finite- and infinite-dimensional convexity, geometric nonlinear functional analysis and geometric measure theory, he authored more than 100 papers as well as several books in Banach space theory. Among his results is the Johnson–Lindenstrauss lemma which concerns low-distortion embeddings of points from high-dimensional into low-dimensional Euclidean space. Another of his theorems states that in a Banach space with the Radon–Nikodym property, a closed and bounded set has an extreme point. In 1981 Lindenstrauss was awarded the Israel Prize, for mathematics. In 1997, Lindenstrauss was the first mathematician from outside Poland to be awarded the Banach Medal of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Classical Banach spaces I. Springer-Verlag, 1977. Classical Banach spaces II. Springer-Verlag, 1979. Banach spaces with a unique unconditional basis, up to permutation. Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, vol 322.
American Mathematical Society, 1985 Geometric nonlinear functional analysis. Colloquium publications, 48. American Mathematical Society, 2000. Handbook of the geometry of Banach spaces. Elsevier, Vol. 1, Vol. 2. List of Israel Prize recipients
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Victor L. Klee, Jr. was a mathematician specialising in convex sets, functional analysis, analysis of algorithms and combinatorics. He spent his entire career at the University of Washington in Seattle. Born in San Francisco, Vic Klee earned his B. A. degree in 1945 with high honors from Pomona College, majoring in chemistry. He did his graduate studies, including a thesis on Convex Sets in Linear Spaces, received his PhD in mathematics from the University of Virginia in 1949. After teaching for several years at the University of Virginia, he moved in 1953 to the University of Washington in Seattle, where he was a faculty member for 54 years. Klee wrote more than 240 research papers, he proposed the art gallery theorem. Kleetopes are named after him, as is the Klee–Minty cube, which shows that the simplex algorithm for linear programming does not work in polynomial time in the worst–case scenario. Klee served as president of the Mathematical Association of America from 1971 to 1973. In 1972 he won a Lester R. Ford Award.
Grünbaum, Branko. "Remembering Vic Klee". Maa Focus. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America. 27: 20–22. ISSN 0731-2040. Retrieved 2009-05-22. Short biography, reminiscences of colleagues. Applied Geometry and Discrete Mathematics a volume dedicated to Klee on his 65th birthday. Brief obituary at the Mathematical Association of America AMS column: People Making a Difference Victor Klee at the Mathematics Genealogy Project MAA presidents: Victor LaRue Klee Shapes of the Future: Some unsolved problems in geometry. Two dimensions, Three dimensions
Günter M. Ziegler
Günter Matthias Ziegler is a German mathematician, serving as president of the Free University of Berlin since 2018. Ziegler is known for his research in discrete mathematics and geometry, on the combinatorics of polytopes. Ziegler studied at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich from 1981 to 1984, went on to receive his Ph. D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1987, under the supervision of Anders Björner. After postdoctoral positions at the University of Augsburg and the Mittag-Leffler Institute, he received his habilitation in 1992 from the Technical University of Berlin, which he joined as a professor in 1995. Ziegler has since joined the faculty of the Free University of Berlin. Ziegler was awarded the one million Deutschmark Gerhard Hess Prize by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in 1994 and the 1.5 million Deutschmark Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, Germany's highest research honor, by the DFG in 2001. He was awarded the 2005 Gauss Lectureship by the German Mathematical Society.
In 2006 the Mathematical Association of America awarded Ziegler and Florian Pfender its highest honor for mathematical exposition, the Chauvenet Prize, for their paper on kissing numbers. In 2006 Ziegler became president of the German Mathematical Society for a two-year term. In 2009, the European Research Council awarded Ziegler one of the ERC Advanced Grants in the amount of 1.85 million Euros. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society. In 2013 Ziegler was granted the Hector Science Award and became a member of the Hector Fellow Academy. Since 2016 Ziegler has been chair of the Berlin Mathematical School. In 2018 he received the Leroy P. Steele Prize for Mathematical Exposition. German Institute for Economic Research, Member of the Board of Trustees Genshagener Kreis, Member of the Board of Trustees Berlin Social Science Center, Member of the Board of Trustees Klaus Tschira Foundation, Member of the Board of Trustees Lesbian and Gay Federation in Germany, Member Proofs from THE BOOK, Berlin, 1998, ISBN 3-540-63698-6 Aigner, Martin.
Björner, Anders. "8 Introduction to greedoids". In White, Neil. Matroid Applications. Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications. 40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 284–357. Doi:10.1017/CBO9780511662041.009. ISBN 0-521-38165-7. MR 1165537. Drösser, Christoph, "Ein etwas anderer Streber", Die Zeit. Article in German about Ziegler. "Ziegler's homepage at the Free University". Günter M. Ziegler in the German National Library catalogue Günter M. Ziegler at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Günter M. Ziegler publications indexed by Google Scholar
Alexander Soifer is a Russian-born American mathematician and mathematics author. His works include over 400 articles, 13 books. Soifer received his Ph. D. in 1973. Soifer has been a professor of mathematics at the University of Colorado since 1979, he was visiting fellow at Princeton University 2002–2004, again 2006–2007. Soifer teaches courses on art history and European cinema, his publications include 13 books and over 400 articles. Every spring, along with other mathematician colleagues, sponsors the Colorado Mathematical Olympiad at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Soifer writes most of the problems for the contest; the CMO was founded by Soifer on April 18, 1983. In 1991 Soifer founded the research quarterly Geombinatorics, publishes it with the Editorial Board, which includes Ronald L. Graham, Jaroslav Nešetřil, Branko Grünbaum, Heiko Harborth, Peter D. Johnson Jr. Geoffrey Exoo, János Pach. Paul Erdős was an editor. In July 2006 at the University of Cambridge, Alexander Soifer was presented with the Paul Erdős Award by the World Federation of National Mathematics Competitions.
Soifer is the President of the World Federation of National Mathematics Competitions. Soifer's Erdős number is 1. Soifer's current projects include new publications and new expanded editions through scientific publisher, Springer of published books, "Mathematics as Problem Solving," "How does one cut a triangle?," "Geometric Etudes in Combinatorial Mathematics," and "Colorado Mathematical Olympiad: The First Ten Years and Further Explorations." The latter aforementioned title is expected to be expanded to cover twenty years of the Colorado Mathematical Olympiad, in its 35th year running. In recognition of 35 years of leadership, the judges and winners decided in 2018 to rename the Colorado Mathematical Olympiad to the Soifer Mathematical Olympiad. Soifer is the father of Mark Soifer, Julia Soifer, Isabelle Soifer and Leon Soifer; the Scholar and the State: In Search of Van der Waerden Springer, New York, 2015 Mathematics as Problem Solving Center for Excellence in Mathematical Education, Colorado Springs, 1987 How does one cut a triangle?
Center for Excellence in Mathematical Education, Colorado Springs, 1990 Colorado Mathematical Olympiad: The First Ten Years and Further Explorations Center for Excellence in Mathematical Education, Colorado Springs, 1991 Geometric Etudes in Combinatorial Mathematics Center for Excellence in Mathematical Education, Colorado Springs, 1994 The Mathematical Coloring Book Springer, New York 2009: The Mathematical Coloring Book: Mathematics of Coloring and the Colorful Life of Its Creators, has been in the works for 18 years. Mathematics as Problem Solving 2nd ed. Springer, New York 2009 How Does One Cut a Triangle? 2nd ed. Springer, New York 2009 The Colorado Mathematical Olympiad and Further Explorations: From the Mountains of Colorado to the Peaks of Mathematics Springer, New York 2011 The Colorado Mathematical Olympiad; this book is the report of a 12-year historical investigation into the life of the 20th-century algebraist Bartel Leendert van der Waerden, the author of Modern Algebra. The expanded English edition, The Scholar and the State: In Search of Van der Waerden, was published by Birkhäuser-Springer in 2017.
Problems of pgom Erdös, New York, to appear in 2019 Memory in Flashback: A Mathematician’s Adventures on Both Sides of the Atlantic, Birkhäuser-Springer, Basel, to appear in 2019 Geombinatorics is a quarterly scientific journal of mathematics. It was established by editor-in-chief Alexander Soifer in 1991 and is published by the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs; the journal covers problems in discrete and combinatorial geometry, as well as related areas. The journal is indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Excellence Research Australia, MathSciNet; the Editorial Board includes Geoffrey Exoo, Ronald L. Graham, Branko Grünbaum, Heiko Harborth, Peter D. Johnson Jr. Jaroslav Nešetřil, János Pach. Paul Erdős was an editor. List of publications Alexander Soifer's web homepage Alexander Soifer's Books in Springer Geombinatorics Soifer Mathematical Olympiad Documentary: The Colorado Mathematical Olympiad with Dr. Alex Soifer