Brantford is a city in southwestern Ontario, founded on the Grand River. It is surrounded by Brant County, but is politically separate with a municipal government of its own, independent of the county's municipal government. Brantford is named after Joseph Brant, an important Mohawk chief during the American Revolutionary War and who led his people in their first decades in Upper Canada. Many of his descendants, other First Nations citizens, live on the nearby Reserve of Six Nations of the Grand River, 20 kilometers from Brantford. Brantford is known as the "Telephone City" as the city's famous resident, Alexander Graham Bell, invented the first telephone at his father's homestead, Melville House, now the Bell Homestead; the Iroquoian-speaking Attawandaron, known in English as the Neutral Nation, lived in the Grand River valley area before the 17th century. This community, like the rest of their settlements, was destroyed when the Iroquois declared war in 1650 over the fur trade and exterminated the Neutral nation.

In 1784, Captain Joseph Brant and the Mohawk people of the Iroquois Confederacy left New York State for Canada. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant, referred to as the Haldimand Tract, on the Grand River; the original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day city at a location favourable for landing canoes. Brant's crossing of the river gave the original name to the area: Brant's ford; the area began to grow from a small settlement in the 1820s as the Hamilton and London Road was improved. By the 1830's, Brantford became a stop on the Underground Railroad, a sizable number of runaway African-Americans settled in the town. From the 1830's to the 1860's - several hundred people of African descent settled in the area around Murray Street, in Cainsville. In Brantford, they established their own school and church, now known as the S. R. Drake Memorial Church. In 1846, it is estimated 2000 residents lived in the city's core while 5199 lived in the outlying rural areas.

There were 8 churches in Brantford at this time - Episcopal, Catholic, two Methodist, Baptist and one for the African-Canadian residents. By 1847, Europeans began to settle further up the river at a ford in the Grand River and named their village Brantford; the population increased after 1848 when river navigation to Brantford was opened and again in 1854 with the arrival of the railway to Brantford. Because of the ease of navigation from new roads and the Grand River, several manufacturing companies could be found in the town by 1869; some of these factories included Victoria Foundry and Britannia Foundry. Several major farm implement manufacturers, starting with Cockshutt and Harris, opened for business in the 1870s; the history of the Brantford region from 1793 to 1920 is described at length in the book At The Forks of The Grand. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, both the United States and Canadian governments encouraged education of First Nations children at residential schools, which were intended to teach them English and European-American ways and assimilate them to the majority cultures.

These institutions in Western New York and Canada included the Thomas Indian School, Mohawk Institute Residential School in Brantford, Southern Ontario, Haudenosaunee boarding school, the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Decades and since the late 20th century, numerous scholarly and artistic works have explored the detrimental effects of the schools in destroying Native cultures. Examples include: the film Unseen Tears: A Documentary on Boarding School Survivors, Ronald James Douglas' graduate thesis titled Documenting Ethnic Cleansing in North America: Creating Unseen Tears, the Legacy of Hope Foundation's online media collection: "Where are the Children? Healing the Legacy of the Residential Schools". In June of 1945, Brantford became the first city in Canada to fluoridate its water supply. Brantford generated controversy in 2010 when its city council expropriated and demolished 41 historic downtown buildings on the south side of its main street, Colborne Street.

The buildings constituted one of the longest blocks of pre-Confederation architecture in Canada, included one of Ontario's first grocery stores and an early 1890s office of the Bell Telephone Company of Canada. The decision was criticized by Ontario's heritage preservation community, however the city argued it was needed for downtown renewal. Plaques and monuments erected by the provincial and federal governments provide additional glimpses into the early history of the area around Brantford; the famed Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant led his people from the Mohawk Valley of New York State to Upper Canada after being allied with the British during the American Revolution where they lost their land holdings. A group of 400 settled in 1788 on the Grand River at Mohawk Village which would become Brantford. Nearly a century the Joseph Brant Memorial would be erected in Burlington, Ontario in honour of Brant and the Six Nations Confederacy; the Mohawk Chapel, built by the British Crown in 1785 for the Mohawk and Iroquois people was dedicated in 1788 as a reminder of the original agreements made with the British during the American Revolution.

In 1904 the chapel received Royal status by King Edward VII in memory of the longst

P. W. Goldring

Philip Wallace Goldring was an English solicitor in Hong Kong and Shanghai and member of the Sanitary Board. Goldring was born on 15 March 1875 in Crouch End, England, he was educated at the Working Clifton College. He obtained his Bachelor of Arts from the Trinity College, Oxford in classical moderations and in the final school of jurisprudence in 1896, he was admitted to practice as a solicitor in 1899 in England. Goldring moved to Hong Kong in 1903 to join the local law firm Brutton and Goldring until in April 1906 he started to practise on his own account, he was the head of the Goldring & Morrell, the Goldring and Russ solicitors firm, until He moved to Shanghai in around 1920 after living 17 years in Hong Kong. During his residence in Hong Kong, he was elected to the Sanitary Board in 1914 by-election caused by the absence of the incumbent F. B. L. Bowley from Hong Kong. Goldring defeated W. L. Carter in the election with 142 to 33 votes. During the First World War, Goldring served with the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps for one year.

He was connected with the Chinese Labour Corps for six months and served with the Hong Kong Police Reserve for two years afterward. After he moved to Shanghai, he joined the Supreme Court of the Shanghai International Settlement, he was subsequently appointed second legal adviser to E. T. Maitland, Prosecuting Solicitor of the Shanghai Municipal Council, due to his work in the Shanghai Provisional Court. Goldring became the Assistant Prosecuting Solicitor for the Council in November 1926. Goldring was an enthusiastic sportsman, he played football, cricket and fishing and was member of the Hong Kong Club and the Sports Club, London. He married Miss Luchung on 29 January 1919 from a well-known and popular family among the younger generation of local Chinese, he lived at "Parkside" during his residence in Hong Kong. He died on 13 May 1928 in Shanghai after a short illness. Tributes was paid by Judge Liang Lone and C. E. Whitemore in the Supreme Court of Shanghai after his death

Reboot Restore Rx

Reboot Restore Rx by Horizon Data Sys, is a freeware application for Microsoft Windows that acts as an alternative to Windows SteadyState in that it allows users to restore the computer back to an established baseline. This helps prevent long term damage to operating system. Upon installation by the Administrator, Reboot Restore Rx will establish a baseline; the baseline is the point. Only the Administrator is allowed to update this baseline; as the program operates outside of Windows in the Master Boot Record it not only protects the MBR, but it allows a user to boot into Windows if Windows is otherwise unbootable, whether that be from a software change or a Blue Screen of Death. As an alternative to Windows SteadyState, Reboot Restore Rx works to maintain your computer in a constant state. There are a few alternatives to this including Faronic's Deep Freeze, ToolWiz Time Machine, Reboot Restore Rx Pro, RollBack Rx. With the latter two being developed by the same developer of Reboot Restore Rx, Horizon Data Sys.

Reboot Restore Rx has received favourable reviews and has received many awards. In its review, TechRepublic said, "If you are looking to make a publically -accessible PC junk proof and reliable, Reboot Restore Rx is a nice product to consider for preserving the peace; the freeware release might not be nearly as customizable as Microsoft SteadyState was at the time, but at least your system will thank you for not allowing its condition to deteriorate from abuse."In a review of the product, Lifehacker wrote, "There's nothing worse than rebooting your computer thinking everything is fine only to find out something's busted and you need to troubleshoot it. It's bad if you start having problems after a driver update or a series of Windows updates, you're stuck trying to figure out which thing caused the problem in the first place. Reboot Restore RX takes the hassle out of it; the app can restore when Windows won't boot at all."Reboot Restore Rx won an award for best new product at the 31st Annual Tech and Learning Awards