Brasher Doubloon

The Brasher Doubloon is a rare American coin minted in and after 1787. In 1787, Ephraim Brasher, a goldsmith and silversmith, submitted a petition to the State of New York to mint copper coins; the petition was denied when New York decided not to get into the business of minting copper coinage. Brasher was quite regarded for his skills, his hallmark was significant in early America. Brasher struck various coppers, in addition to a small quantity of gold coins, over the next few years. One of the surviving gold coins, weighing 26.6 grams and composed of 0.917 gold, was sold at public auction for $625,000 in March 1981. On January 12, 2005 Heritage Auction Galleries sold all three varieties of Brasher Doubloons as part of their Florida United Numismatists U. S. Coin Auction, Platinum Night Session; the coins realized $2,415,000 for the New York Style EB Punch on Wing NGC AU55, $2,990,000 for the unique New York Style EB Punch on Breast NGC XF45 and $690,000 for the rare but less iconic Lima Style Doubloon.

The unique Brasher Doubloon, the first gold coin made for the United States, was sold in December 2011 by rare-coin dealer, Steven L. Contursi of Laguna Beach, California, to Certified Acceptance Corporation of Far Hills, New Jersey. An undisclosed Wall Street investment firm subsequently purchased it from Blanchard and Company of New Orleans, Louisiana for nearly $7.4 million and was brokered by Sholom Gelt of Goldwater Gold, it was the most money paid for a coin minted in the United States. The coin was the subject of Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe mystery The High Window. Which was made into The Brasher Doubloon, it is mentioned in Lawrence Block's Bernie Rhodenbarr mystery The Burglar Who Studied Spinoza and John Bellairs's The Mansion in the Mist. List of most expensive coins Brasher's Doubloons – Introduction Legendary Coins & Currency: Brasher Doubloon, 1787 Brasher Doubloon in the collection of the American Numismatic Society

Ust'-Ishim man

"Ust'-Ishim man is the term given to the 45,000-year-old remains of one of the early modern humans to inhabit western Siberia. The fossil is notable in that it had intact DNA which permitted the complete sequencing of its genome, the oldest modern human genome to be so decoded; the remains consist of a single bone—left femur—of a male hunter-gatherer, discovered in 2008 protruding from the bank of the Irtysh River by Nikolai Peristov, a Russian sculptor who specialises in carving mammoth ivory. Peristov showed the fossil to a forensic investigator who suggested that it might be of human origin; the fossil was named after the Ust' - Ishim District of Siberia. The fossil was examined by paleoanthropologists in the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, located in Leipzig, Germany. Carbon dating showed that the fossil dates back to 45,000 years ago, making it the oldest human fossil to be so dated. Scientists found the DNA intact and were able to sequence the complete genome of Ust'-Ishim man to contemporary standards of quality.

Though genomes have been sequenced of hominins pre-dating Ust'-Ishim man, this is the oldest modern human genome to be sequenced to date. Ust'-Ishim man belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup K2a*, defined by the SNP M2308; the two subclades of K2a known from living men, the rare K2a1-Y28299 and the common NO-M214, belong to a branch distinct from Ust'-Ishim man's. In the original paper, he was classified only as Haplogroup K2, it may be inferred that K2a emerged in or near South Asia 47,000 years BP – i.e. K2 is estimated to have originated in South East Asia, about 47,000–55,000 BP, while its secondary descendant NO* is believed to have emerged 38,000 to 47,000 BP, he belonged to mitochondrial DNA haplogroup R*, differing from the root sequence of R by a single mutation. Both of these haplogroups and descendant subclades are now found among populations throughout Eurasia and The Americas, although no direct descendants of Ust Ishim man's specific lineages are known from modern populations. Examination of the sequenced genome indicates that Ust'-Ishim man lived at a point in time between the first wave of anatomically modern humans that migrated out of Africa and the divergence of that population into distinct populations, in terms of autosomal DNA in different parts of Eurasia.

Ust'-Ishim man is not more related to the first two major migrations of Homo Sapiens eastward from Africa into Asia: a group that migrated along the coast of South Asia, or a group that moved north-east through Central Asia. When compared to other ancient remains, Ust'-Ishim man is more related, in terms of autosomal DNA to Tianyuan man, found near Beijing and dating from 42,000 to 39,000 years ago. Analysis of modern human genomes reveals that humans interbred with Neanderthals between 37,000 and 86,000 years ago, resulting in the DNA of humans outside Africa containing between 1.5 and 2.1 percent DNA of Neanderthal origin. Neanderthal DNA in modern humans occurs in broken fragments; the genomic sequencing of Ust'-Ishim man has led to refinement of the estimated date of mating between the two hominin species to between 52,000 and 58,000 years ago. No relationship between Denisovans and the Ust'-Ishim man has been checked, although Denisovans have some descendants in Oceania and Asia. Ust’-Ishim is more related to modern East Asian and Oceanian populations than to modern West Eurasian populations, such as the current residents of the Ust’-Ishim area.

Modern West Eurasians are more related to other ancient remains. In a 2016 study, modern Tibetans were identified as the modern population that has the most alleles in common with Ust'-Ishim man. According to a 2017 study, "Siberian and East Asian populations shared 38% of their ancestry" with Ust’-Ishim man. Qiaomei Fu, Heng Li, Priya Moorjani, Flora Jay, Sergey M. Slepchenko, Aleksei A. Bondarev, Philip L. F. Johnson, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Kay Prüfer, Cesare de Filippo, Matthias Meyer, Nicolas Zwyns, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Yaroslav V. Kuzmin, Susan G. Keates, Pavel A. Kosintsev, Dmitry I. Razhev, Michael P. Richards, Nikolai V. Peristov, Michael Lachmann, Katerina Douka, Thomas F. G. Higham, Montgomery Slatkin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, David Reich, Janet Kelso, T. Bence Viola & Svante Pääbo. "Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia". Nature. 514: 445–449. Doi:10.1038/nature13810. Hdl:10550/42071. PMC 4753769. PMID 25341783. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list

USS Peterhoff (1863)

USS Peterhoff was a British ship captured by the Union Navy during the American Civil War. Condemned as a blockade runner, she served the Union Navy's struggle against the Confederate States of America as a gunboat; the Peterhoff was a 416-ton iron-hulled yacht built for the Tsar of Russia by C. J. Mare & Co. of Blackwall, with 140 hp steam engines by J & G. Rennie. Launched in 1850, During her delivery voyage to Saint Petersburg, Peterhoff was driven ashore on Saaremaa on 1 November 1850, she was abandoned by the crew and her insurers made a payment of £15,000 to the Imperial Russian Government. She was refloated and sank to preserve her from damage from the waves. Peterhoff was refloated in the spring of 1851 and taken in to Riga, where temporary repairs were made. Departing in early July, she reached London on 17 July; the ship was fitted out as a cargo ship. Peterhoff sailed from Falmouth, Cornwall on 27 January 1863. On 20 February 1863, she was boarded and searched by the USS Alabama off the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies.

Alabama released her. Peterhoff entered the harbour at St. Thomas where two U. S. Navy ships commanded by Acting Rear Admiral Charles Wilkes were at anchor. Wilkes notorious for his part in the "Trent Affair", ordered that the Peterhoff be boarded by the USS Vanderbilt just after she had left harbour on 25 February. Peterhoff had papers that stated that she was bound for Matamoros in Mexico, but a sailor aboard let slip that she was bound for Brownsville, just across the Rio Grande; this comment was taken as sufficient justification for Vanderbilt to seize the ship as a blockade runner, she was sent to Key West. Both the Danish and British governments vigorously protested the seizure, but the ship was condemned by the New York prize court and bought by the Union Navy, she was commissioned in February 1864 with Acting-Volunteer Lieutenant Thomas Pickering in command, assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. The ship departed Virginia, on 28 February to blockade Wilmington, North Carolina.

However, early on the morning of 6 March 1864, the Peterhoff was rammed by the gunboat Monticello who mistook her for a blockade runner. Although Peterhoff sank within half an hour, all of her crew were saved. On the night of 7 March 1864, men from Mount Vernon and Niphon boarded the wreck at low tide and destroyed as much as they could, cutting down the masts and spiking all the guns that they could reach. After the Civil War, the Supreme Court overturned the prize court's decision, the owners of the Peterhoff received compensation for their loss; the wreck of Peterhoff was rediscovered by divers in 1963 in 30 ft of water off Kure Beach, North Carolina. Three 32-pounder smoothbore cannon were salvaged. In 1974, a 30-pounder Parrott rifle was raised, is now on display at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. Other guns from the ship are on display at Fort Fisher State Historic Site and the Carteret County Museum of History at Morehead City, North Carolina; the wreck site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.

Blockade runners of the American Civil War Blockade mail of the Confederacy United States Navy List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. 72 U. S. 28 -The Peterhoff United States Supreme Court ruling