Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Only the head is eaten – the edible white flesh sometimes called "curd"; the cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds as the edible portion. Brassica oleracea includes broccoli, brussels sprouts, collard greens, kale, collectively called "cole" crops, though they are of different cultivar groups. In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex omnibus brassicae generibus suavissima est cyma,". Pliny's descriptions refer to the flowering heads of an earlier cultivated variety of Brassica oleracea, but comes close to describing modern cauliflower. In the Middle Ages early forms of cauliflower were associated with the island of Cyprus, with the Arab botanists Ibn al-'Awwam and Ibn al-Baitar, in the 12th and 13th centuries claiming its origins were Cyprus.
This association continued into Western Europe, where cauliflowers were sometimes known as Cyprus colewart, there was extensive trade in western Europe in cauliflower seeds from Cyprus, under the French Lusignan rulers of the island, until well into the sixteenth century. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois, they were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture, as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France. It was introduced to India in 1822 from England by the British; the word "cauliflower" derives from the Italian cavolfiore, meaning "cabbage flower". The ultimate origin of the name is from the Latin words caulis and flōs. Cauliflower is difficult to grow compared to cabbage, with common problems such as an underdeveloped head and poor curd quality; as weather is a limiting factor for producing cauliflower, the plant grows best in cool daytime temperatures 70–85 °F, with plentiful sun, moist soil conditions high in organic matter and sandy soils.
The earliest maturity possible for cauliflower is 7 to 12 weeks from transplanting. In the northern hemisphere, fall season plantings in July may enable harvesting before autumn frost. Long periods of sun exposure in hot summer weather may cause cauliflower heads to discolor with a red-purple hue. Transplantable cauliflowers can be produced in containers as flats, hotbeds, or in the field. In soil, loose, well-drained and fertile, field seedlings are shallow-planted 0.5 inches and thinned by ample space (about 12 plants per 1 foot. Ideal growing temperatures are about 65 °F when seedlings are 25 to 35 days old. Applications of fertilizer to developing seedlings begin when leaves appear with a starter solution weekly. Transplanting to the field begins late spring and may continue until mid-summer. Row spacing is about 15–18 inches. Rapid vegetative growth after transplanting may benefit from such procedures as avoiding spring frosts, using starter solutions high in phosphorus, irrigating weekly, applying fertilizer.
The most important disorders affecting cauliflower quality are a hollow stem, stunted head growth or buttoning, ricing and leaf-tip burn. Among major pests affecting cauliflower are aphids, root maggots, cutworms and flea beetles; the plant is susceptible to black rot, black leg, club root, black leaf spot, downy mildew. When cauliflower is mature, heads appear as clear white, 6–8 inches in diameter, should be cooled shortly after harvest. Forced air cooling to remove heat from the field during hot weather may be needed for optimal preservation. Short-term storage is possible using cool, high-humidity storage conditions. There are four major groups of cauliflower. Italian This specimen is diverse in appearance and annual in type; this group includes white, various brown, green and yellow cultivars. This type is the ancestral form from which the others were derived. Northern European annuals Used in Europe and North America for summer and fall harvest, it was developed in Germany in the 18th century, includes the old cultivars Erfurt and Snowball.
Northwest European biennial Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 19th century, includes the old cultivars Angers and Roscoff. Asian A tropical cauliflower used in China and India, it was developed in India during the 19th century from the now-abandoned Cornish type, includes old varieties Early Benaras and Early Patna. There are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world. A comprehensive list of about 80 North American varieties is maintained at North Carolina State University. White White cauliflower is the most common color of cauliflower having a contrasting white head surrounded by green leaves. Orange Orange cauliflower contains beta-carotene as the orange pigment, a provitamin A compound; this orange trait originated from a natural mutant found in a cauliflower field in Canada. Cultivars include'Cheddar' and'Orange Bouquet'. Green Green cauliflower, of the B. oleracea botrytis group, is sometimes called broccoflower.
It is available in the normal curd shape and with a fractal spiral curd cal
Rapeseed known as rape, oilseed rape, and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola, is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae, cultivated for its oil-rich seed. It is the third-largest source of vegetable oil and second-largest source of protein meal in the world; the term "rape" derives from the Latin word for turnip, rapa or rapum, cognate with the Greek word hrapys. Rapeseed belongs to the Brassicaceae family of flowering plants, it has two subspecies, the Brassica napus ssp. napobrassica known as the swedes rape and the brassica napus ssp. napus which includes the winter and spring oilseed and fodder rape forms. The pabularia variety is a distinct leaf rape form of the napus subspecies which used to be common as a winter-annual vegetable. Brassica napus grows to 100 cm height with pinnatifid and glaucous lower leaves and with the upper leaves clasping the stem. Brassica napus can be distinguished from Brassica nigra by the upper leaves which do not clasp the stem, from Brassica rapa by its smaller petals which are less than 13 mm across.
Rapeseed flowers are yellow and about 17 mm across. They comprise of four petals in a typical cross-form, alternating with four sepals, they have indeterminate racemose flowering starting at the lowest bud and growing upward in the following days. The flowers have two lateral stamens with short filaments, four median stamens with longer filaments whose anthers split away from the flower's center upon flowering; the rapeseed pods are green and elongated siliquae during development that ripen to brown. Each pod has two compartments separated by a inner central wall within which a row of oilseeds develop; the oilseeds are hard at maturity. In north-east of Ireland B. napus and B. rapa are recorded as escapes in roadside verges and waste ground. Rapeseed is grown for the production of animal feed, edible vegetable oils, biodiesel. Rapeseed was the third-leading source of vegetable oil in the world in 2000, after soybean and palm oil, it is the world's second-leading source of protein meal after soybean.
Processing of rapeseed for oil production produces rapeseed meal as a byproduct. The byproduct is a high-protein animal feed, competitive with soybean; the feed is employed for cattle feeding, but is used for pigs and poultry. However, natural rapeseed oil contains 50% erucic acid and high levels of glucosinolates that lowers the nutritional value of rapeseed press cakes for animal feed. Rapeseed oil is one of the oldest known vegetable oils, but was used in limited quantities due to high levels of erucic acid, damaging to cardiac muscle of animals, glucosinolates, which made it less nutritious in animal feed. Rapeseed oil can contain up to 54% erucic acid. Food-grade canola oil derived from rapeseed cultivars known as rapeseed 00 oil, low erucic acid rapeseed oil, LEAR oil, rapeseed canola-equivalent oil, has been recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Canola oil is limited by government regulation to a maximum of 2% erucic acid by weight in the USA and 5% in the EU, with special regulations for infant food.
These low levels of erucic acid are not believed to cause harm in human neonates. Rapeseed oil is used as diesel fuel, either as biodiesel, straight in heated fuel systems, or blended with petroleum distillates for powering motor vehicles. Biodiesel may be used in pure form in newer engines without engine damage and is combined with fossil-fuel diesel in ratios varying from 2% to 20% biodiesel. Owing to the costs of growing and refining rapeseed biodiesel, rapeseed-derived biodiesel from new oil costs more to produce than standard diesel fuel, so diesel fuels are made from the used oil. Rapeseed oil is the preferred oil stock for biodiesel production in most of Europe, accounting for about 80% of the feedstock because rapeseed produces more oil per unit of land area compared to other oil sources, such as soybeans, but because canola oil has a lower gel point than most other vegetable oils. Rapeseed is used as a cover crop in the US during the winter as it prevents soil erosion, produces large amounts of biomass, suppresses weeds and can improve soil tilth with its root system.
Some cultivars of rapeseed are used as annual forage and are ready for grazing livestock 80 to 90 days after planting. Rapeseed is a main forage crop for honeybees. Monofloral rapeseed honey has a whitish or milky yellow color, peppery taste and, due to its fast crystallization time, a soft-solid texture, it can ferment over time if stored improperly. The low fructose-to-glucose ratio in monofloral rapeseed honey causes it to granulate in the honeycomb, forcing beekeepers to extract the honey within 24 hours of it being capped. Biolubricants containing 70% or more canola/rapeseed oil has replaced petroleum-based chainsaw oil in Austria although they are more expensive. Rapeseed has been researched as a means of containing radionuclides that contaminated the soil after the Chernobyl disaster as it has a rate of uptake up to three times more than other grains, only about 3 to 6% of the radionuclides go into the oilseeds. Rapeseed meal is used as a soil fertilizer rather than for animal feed in China.
Crops from the Brassica family, including rapeseed, were among the earliest plants to be cultivated by mankind as early as 10,000 years ago. Rapeseed was being cultivated in India as early as 4000 B. C. and it spread to Japan 2000 years ago. Oilseed rape is predominantly cultivated in its winter for
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place". Examples are plants unwanted in human-controlled settings, such as farm fields, gardens and parks. Taxonomically, the term "weed" has no botanical significance, because a plant, a weed in one context is not a weed when growing in a situation where it is in fact wanted, where one species of plant is a valuable crop plant, another species in the same genus might be a serious weed, such as a wild bramble growing among cultivated loganberries. In the same way, volunteer crops are regarded as weeds in a subsequent crop. Many plants that people regard as weeds are intentionally grown in gardens and other cultivated settings, in which case they are sometimes called beneficial weeds; the term weed is applied to any plant that grows or reproduces aggressively, or is invasive outside its native habitat. More broadly "weed" is applied pejoratively to species outside the plant kingdom, species that can survive in diverse environments and reproduce quickly.
Weed control is important in agriculture. Methods include hand cultivation with hoes, powered cultivation with cultivators, smothering with mulch, lethal wilting with high heat, burning, or chemical attack with herbicides. Certain classes of weeds share adaptations to ruderal environments; that is to say: disturbed environments where soil or natural vegetative cover has been damaged or gets damaged, disturbances that give the weeds advantages over desirable crops, pastures, or ornamental plants. The nature of the habitat and its disturbances will affect or determine which types of weed communities become dominant. Examples of such ruderal or pioneer species include plants that are adapted to occurring disturbed environments such as dunes and other windswept areas with shifting soils, alluvial flood plains, river banks and deltas, areas that are burned repeatedly. Since human agricultural practices mimic these natural environments where weedy species have evolved, some weeds are preadapted to grow and proliferate in human-disturbed areas such as agricultural fields, lawns and construction sites.
The weedy nature of these species gives them an advantage over more desirable crop species because they grow and reproduce they have seeds that persist in the soil seed bank for many years, or they may have short lifespans with multiple generations in the same growing season. In contrast, perennial weeds have underground stems that spread under the soil surface or, like ground ivy, have creeping stems that root and spread out over the ground; some plants become dominant when introduced into new environments because the animals in their original environment, that compete with them or feed on them are absent. An example is Klamath weed, that threatened millions of hectares of prime grain and grazing land in North America after it was accidentally introduced, but was reduced to a rare roadside weed within several years after some of its natural enemies were imported during World War II. In locations where predation and mutually competitive relationships are absent, weeds have increased resources available for growth and reproduction.
The weediness of some species that are introduced into new environments may be caused by their production of allelopathic chemicals which indigenous plants are not yet adapted to, a scenario sometimes called the "novel weapons hypothesis". These chemicals may limit the growth of established plants or the germination and growth of seeds and seedlings. Another of the ways in which the ecological role of a plant can make it a weed if it is in itself inoffensive, is if it harbours a pest, dependent on it for survival. A number of native or non-native plants are unwanted in a specific location for a number of reasons. An important one is that they interfere with food and fiber production in agriculture, wherein they must be controlled in order to prevent lost or diminished crop yields. Other important reasons are that they interfere with other cosmetic, decorative, or recreational goals, such as in lawns, landscape architecture, playing fields, golf courses, they can be of concern for environmental reasons whereby introduced species out-compete for resources or space with desired endemic plants.
For all these reasons. In weed ecology some authorities speak of the relationship between "the three Ps": plant, perception; these have been variously defined, but the weed traits listed by H. G. Ba
Kohlrabi called German turnip, is a biennial vegetable, a low, stout cultivar of wild cabbage. It is the same species as cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, gai lan, it can be cooked. Edible preparations are made with the leaves. Despite its common names, it is not the same species as turnip; the name comes from the German Rübe ~ Rabi, because the swollen stem resembles the latter. Kohlrabi is a eaten vegetable in German-speaking countries and American states with large ancestral German populations such as Wisconsin, but is very popular in the northern part of Vietnam where it is called su hào, in eastern parts of India and Bangladesh where it is called'Ol Kopi', it is found in the Kashmir valley in Northern India and is there known as'Monj-hakh','monj' being the round part, and'hakh' being the leafy part. This vegetable is called'Nol Khol' in Northern India,'Navalkol' in Maharashtra,'Navilu Kosu' in Karnataka and in Sri Lanka as'Nol col', it is native in Cyprus where it is known as'kouloumpra'.
Kohlrabi has been created by artificial selection for lateral meristem growth. The taste and texture of kohlrabi are similar to those of a broccoli stem or cabbage heart, but milder and sweeter, with a higher ratio of flesh to skin; the young stem in particular can be as juicy as an apple, although much less sweet. Except for the Gigante cultivar, spring-grown kohlrabi much over 5 cm in size tend to be woody, as do full-grown kohlrabi much over 10 cm in size; the plant matures in 55–60 days after sowing and has good standing ability for up to 30 days after maturity. The approximate weight is 150 g. There are several varieties available, including'White Vienna','Purple Vienna','Grand Duke','Gigante','Purple Danube', and'White Danube'. Coloration of the purple types is superficial: the edible parts are all pale yellow; the leafy greens can be eaten. One used variety grows without a swollen stem, having just leaves and a thin stem, is called Haakh. Haakh and Monj are popular. In the second year, the plant will develop seeds.
Kohlrabi comes in three different colors: white and pale green. Kohlrabi stems are surrounded by two distinct fibrous layers that do not soften appreciably when cooked; these layers are peeled away prior to cooking or serving raw, with the result that the stems provide a smaller amount of food than one might assume from their intact appearance. The bulbous kohlrabi stem is used raw in salad or slaws, it has a texture similar to that of a broccoli stem, but with a flavor, sweeter and less vegetal. Kohlrabi leaves can be used interchangeably with collard greens and kale. Kohlrabi is an important part of the Kashmiri cuisine and one of the most cooked foods, it is served with a light soup and eaten with rice. In Cyprus it is popularly served as an appetizer; some varieties are grown as feed for cattle. PROTAbase on Brassica oleracea Horticultural information on the tasty kohlrabi From the Learn2Grow databases Kohlrabi and Brussels Sprouts Are European Texts on Wikisource: "Kohl-rabi". Encyclopedia Americana.
1920. "Kohl-rabi". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, savoy and gai lan. In its uncultivated form, it is called "wild cabbage,” and is native to coastal southern and western Europe, its high tolerance for salt and lime, its intolerance of competition from other plants restrict its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs, like the chalk cliffs on both sides of the English Channel, the windswept coast on the western side of the Isle of Wight. Wild B. oleracea is a tall biennial plant that forms a stout rosette of large leaves in the first year. The leaves are fleshier and thicker than other Brassica species—an adaptation that helps it store water and nutrients in its difficult growing environment. In its second year, it uses the stored nutrients to produce a flower spike 1 to 2 metres tall with numerous yellow flowers. B. oleracea has become established as an important human food crop plant, used because of its large food reserves, which are stored over the winter in its leaves.
It is rich in essential nutrients including vitamin C. A diet rich in cruciferous vegetables is linked to a reduced risk of several human cancers. Researchers believe it has been cultivated for several thousand years, but its history as a domesticated plant is not clear before Greek and Roman times, when it was a well-established garden vegetable. Theophrastus mentions three kinds of rhaphanos: a curly-leaved, a smooth-leaved, a wild-type, he reports the antipathy of the cabbage and the grape vine, for the ancients believed cabbages grown near grapes would impart their flavour to the wine. It has been bred into a wide range of cultivars, including cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts and kale, some of which are hardly recognisable as being members of the same genus, let alone species; the historical genus of Crucifera, meaning "cross-bearing" in reference to the four-petaled flowers, may be the only unifying feature beyond taste. According to the Triangle of U theory, B. oleracea is closely related to five other species of the genus Brassica.
The cultivars of B. oleracea are grouped by developmental form into seven major cultivar groups, of which the Acephala group remains most like the natural wild cabbage in appearance: Brassica oleracea Acephala group – kale and collard greens Brassica oleracea Alboglabra group – kai-lan Brassica oleracea Botrytis group – cauliflower, Romanesco broccoli, broccoflower Brassica oleracea Capitata group – cabbage Brassica oleracea Gemmifera group – brussels sprouts Brassica oleracea Gongylodes group – kohlrabi Brassica oleracea Italica group – broccoliIn places such as the Channel Islands and Canary Islands, where the frost is minimal and plants are thus freed from seasonality, some cultivars, known as Jersey cabbages, can grow up to 3 m tall. These "tree cabbages" yield fresh leaves throughout the year, are perennial, do not need to be destroyed at harvest as with a normal cabbage, their woody stalks are sometimes made into walking sticks. With the advent of agriculture and the domestication of wild crop plants, the people of the northern Mediterranean began cultivating wild cabbage.
Through artificial selection for various phenotype traits, the emergence of variations of the plant with drastic differences in looks took only a few thousand years. Preference for leaves, terminal bud, lateral bud and inflorescence resulted in selection of varieties of wild cabbage into the many forms known today; the preference for the eating of the leaves led to the selection of plants with larger leaves being harvested and their seeds planted for the next growth. Around the fifth century BC, the formation of what is now known as kale had developed. Preference led to further artificial selection of kale plants with more bunched leaves, or terminal bud. Somewhere around the first century AD emerged the phenotype variation of B. oleracea known as cabbage. Phenotype selection preferences in Germany led kale down another evolutionary pathway. By selecting for fatter stems, the variant plant known as kohlrabi emerged around the first century AD. Further selection in Belgium in lateral bud led to Brussels sprouts in the 18th century.
European preference emerged for eating selection for inflorescence. By the 15th century AD, cauliflower had developed, leading to the emergence of broccoli in Italy about 100 years later; the Lumbee tribe of North Carolina has traditionally used the leaves of B. oleracea in medicine that they believed to have cleansing qualities, as well as a mild laxative, an anti-inflammatory, treatment for glaucoma and pneumonia. Media related to Brassica oleracea at Wikimedia Commons PROTAbase on Brassica oleracea PROTAbase on Brassica oleracea Video Overview of Brassica oleracea: from Untamed Science
Kale or leaf cabbage is one of certain cultivars of cabbage grown for their edible leaves, although some are used as ornamentals. Kale plants have green or purple leaves, the central leaves do not form a head. Kales are considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most of the many domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea. Kale originates from Northern Middle English cale for various cabbages; the ultimate origin is Latin caulis'cabbage'. Kale originated in the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor, where it was cultivated for food beginning by 2000 BCE at the latest. Curly-leaved varieties of cabbage existed along with flat-leaved varieties in Greece in the 4th century BCE; these forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. The earliest record of cabbages in western Europe is of hard-heading cabbage in the 13th century. Records in 14th-century England distinguish between loose-leaf kale. Russian kale was introduced into Canada, into the United States, by Russian traders in the 19th century.
USDA botanist David Fairchild is credited with introducing kale to Americans, having brought it back from Croatia, although Fairchild himself disliked cabbages, including kale. At the time, kale was grown in Croatia because it was easy to grow and inexpensive, could desalinate soil. For most of the twentieth century, kale was used in the United States for decorative purposes. During World War II, the cultivation of kale in the U. K. was encouraged by the Dig for Victory campaign. The vegetable was easy to grow and provided important nutrients missing from a diet because of rationing. Kale is an annual plant grown from seed with a wide range of germination temperatures, it is hardy and thrives in wintertime, can survive in temperatures as low as –15° Celsius. Kale can become sweeter after a heavy frost. One may differentiate between kale varieties according to the low, intermediate, or high length of the stem, along with the variety of leaf types; the leaf colours range from light green to green, to dark green and violet-green, to violet-brown.
Classification by leaf type: Curly-leaf Bumpy-leaf Plain-leaf Leaf and spear, or feathery-type leaf Ornamental Because kale can grow well into winter, one variety of rape kale is called "hungry gap" after the period in winter in traditional agriculture when little else could be harvested. An extra-tall variety is known as Jersey cow cabbage. Kai-lan or Chinese kale is a cultivar used in Chinese cuisine. In Portugal, the bumpy-leaved kale is called "couve galega". Many varieties of kale and cabbage are grown for ornamental leaves that are brilliant white, pink, blue or violet in the interior of the rosette; the different types of ornamental kale are peacock kale, coral prince, kamone coral queen, color up kale and chidori kale. Ornamental kale is as edible as any other variety, but not as palatable. Kale leaves are used as an ingredient for vegetable bouquets and wedding bouquets. Raw kale is composed of 84% water, 9% carbohydrates, 4% protein, 1% fat. In a 100 gram serving, raw kale provides 49 calories and a large amount of vitamin K at 3.7 times the Daily Value.
It is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, manganese. Kale is a good source of thiamin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E and several dietary minerals, including iron, calcium and phosphorus. Boiling raw kale diminishes most of these nutrients, while values for vitamins A, C, K, manganese remain substantial. Kale is high in oxalic acid but this can be reduced by cooking the leaves. Kale is a source of the carotenoids and zeaxanthin; as with broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, kale contains glucosinolate compounds, such as glucoraphanin, which contributes to the formation of sulforaphane, a compound under preliminary research for its potential to affect human health. Boiling kale decreases the level of glucosinate compounds, whereas steaming, microwaving or stir frying does not cause significant loss. Kale contains high levels of polyphenols, such as ferulic acid, with levels varying due to environmental and genetic factors. Flavored "kale chips" have been produced as a potato chip substitute.
In the Netherlands, a traditional winter dish called "boerenkoolstamppot" is a mix of curly kale and mashed potatoes, sometimes with fried bacon, served with rookworst. In Italy, cavolo nero kale is an ingredient of the Tuscan soup ribollita. A traditional Portuguese soup, caldo verde, combines pureed potatoes, diced kale, olive oil and salt. Additional ingredients can include sliced, cooked spicy sausage. In Montenegro and Croatia and kale, locally known as raštika or raštan, is a favourite vegetable, it is popular in the winter, cooked with smoked mutton and potatoes. In Scotland, kale provided such a base for a traditional diet that the word in some Scots dialects is synonymous with food. To be "off one's kail" is to feel too ill to eat. In Ireland, kale is mixed with mashed pota