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Brassica juncea

Brassica juncea brown mustard, Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, Oriental mustard and vegetable mustard, is a species of mustard plant. Brassica juncea cultivars can be divided into four major subgroups: integrifolia, juncea and tsatsai. In 100 grams, cooked mustard greens provide 26 calories and are a rich source of vitamins A, C, K, high as a multiple of its Daily Value. Mustard greens are a moderate source of vitamin calcium. Greens are 4.5 % carbohydrates, 2.6 % protein and 0.5 % fat. The leaves and stems of this mustard variety are edible; the plant appears in some form in African, Chinese, Indian, Nepali, Pakistani and African-American cuisines. Cultivars of B. juncea are grown for their greens, for the production of oilseed. The mustard condiment made from the seeds of the B. juncea is called brown mustard and is considered to be spicier than yellow mustard. Because it may contain erucic acid, a potential toxin, mustard oil is restricted from import as a vegetable oil into the United States.

Essential oil of mustard, however, is accepted as GRAS. But in Russia, this is the main species grown for the production of mustard oil, it is used in canning and margarine production in Russia, the majority of Russian table mustard is made from B. juncea. The leaves are used in African cooking, all plant parts are used in Nepali cuisine in the mountain regions of Nepal, as well as in the Punjabi cuisine in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, where a dish called sarson da saag is prepared. B. juncea subsp. Tatsai, which has a thick stem, is used to make the Nepali pickle called achar, the Chinese pickle zha cai; the Gorkhas of the Indian states of Darjeeling, West Bengal and Sikkim as well as Nepal prepare pork with mustard greens. It is eaten with relish and steamed rice, but can be eaten with roti. In Nepal it is a common practice to cook these greens with meat of all sorts specially goat meat. Brassica juncea is more pungent than greens from the related Brassica oleracea, is mixed with these milder greens in a dish of "mixed greens".

Chinese and Japanese cuisines make use of mustard greens. In Japanese cuisine, it is known as takana and pickled for use as filling in onigiri or as a condiment. Many varieties of B. juncea cultivars are used, including zha cai, takana, juk gai choy, xuelihong. Asian mustard greens are most stir-fried or pickled. A Southeast Asian dish called asam gai choy or kiam chai boey is made with leftovers from a large meal, it involves stewing mustard greens with dried chillies and leftover meat on the bone. Brassica juncea is known as gai choi, siu gai choi, xaio jie cai, baby mustard, Chinese leaf mustard or mostaza. Vegetable growers sometimes grow mustard as a green manure, its main purpose is to act as a mulch. If grown as a green manure, the mustard plants are cut down at the base when sufficiently grown, left to wither on the surface, continuing to act as a mulch until the next crop is due for sowing, when the mustard is dug in. In the UK, mustard sown in summer and autumn is cut down starting in October.

April sowings can be cut down in June. One of the disadvantages of using mustard as a green manure is its propensity to harbor club root; this mustard plant is used in phytoremediation to remove heavy metals, such as lead, from the soil in hazardous waste sites because it has a higher tolerance for these substances and stores the heavy metals in its cells. In particular, Brassica juncea was effective at removing cadmium from soil; the process of removing heavy metals ends when the plant is properly discarded. Phytoremediation has been shown to be cheaper and easier than traditional methods for heavy metal reduction in soils. In addition, it has the effect of reducing cross-site contamination. Sinapis alba – yellow or white mustard, another mustard variety Brassica oleracea – wild cabbage Brassica nigra – black mustard, another mustard variety Brassica rapa – related family of edible greens used in Asian cooking Brassica carinata – Ethiopian mustard For other edible plants in the family Brassicaceae, see cruciferous vegetables.

Everitt, J. H.. L.. R.. Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2. PROTAbase on Brassica juncea Brassica juncea " Multilingual taxonomic information". University of Melbourne. Mustard Green Manures: Washington State University Extension paper on cover crops


Jongo known as caxambu or tabu, is a dance and musical genre of black communities from southeast Brazil. It originated from the dances performed by slaves who worked at coffee plantations in the Paraíba Valley, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, at farms in some areas of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Jongo is a member of a larger group of Afro-Brazilian dances, such as batuque, tambor de crioula, zambê, which feature many elements in common, including the use of fire-tuned drums, the call-and-response form of group singing, the poetical language used in the songs, the umbigada, a distinctive step whereby two dancers hit their bellies. Jongos take place during a nightlong party in which several people dance in pairs or in a circle, to the sound of two or more drums, while a soloist sings short phrases answered by the group; the drums, built from hollow tree trunks covered with animal hide in one of the extremities and tuned by the heat of a bonfire, are called caxambu or tambu and candongueiro.

Other instruments can be used, such as a large and low-pitched friction drum, called puíta or angoma-puíta, a rattle made of straw and small beads, called guaiá, inguaiá, or angóia. Jongo songs called pontos, are sung in Portuguese but may include words of African origin. Improvised, they are of several types, each one with a particular function: the pontos de louvação are used to salute spiritual entities, the owners of the house and the ancestors. Performed on weekends or on the eve of holidays, they were the only form of entertainment available to the slaves, the only opportunity to perform forbidden African religious rites if disguised as profane dances; the use of African terms, combined with a rich metaphorical language, made jongo songs obscure to the white masters, thus providing a means for the expression of social criticism and cryptic messages from one slave to the others. Though in the twentieth century jongo became a profane diversion, it never lost its religious aspects, is related to umbanda, a syncretic religion mixing African and spiritist beliefs born in the first decades of the twentieth century.

Jongo and umbanda share a common cosmology, many jongueiros are devout umbandistas. Today, jongos continue to be performed by descendants of slaves in a least a dozen communities, in rural settings as well as in the periphery of cities. Since the 1990s jongo has experienced a revival and become more known as a hallmark of Afro-Brazilian culture. Carneiro, Edison. “Samba de umbigada.” In: Folguedos Tradicionais. Rio de Janeiro: Funarte/INF, 1982. Dias, Paulo. “A outra festa negra.” In: Festa: cultura e sociabilidade na América Portuguesa, edited by I. Jancsó and I. Kantor. São Paulo: Hucitec/Edusp/Fapesp/Imprensa Oficial, 2001. Lara, Silvia Hunold & Pacheco, Gustavo Memória do jongo: as gravações históricas de Stanley J. Stein. Rio de Janeiro: Folha Seca, 2007. Meira Monteiro, Pedro & Stone, Michael Cangoma calling: Spirits and Rhythms of Freedom in Brazilian Jongo Slavery Songs. Dartmouth: University of Massachusetts, Luso-Asio-Afro-Brazilian Studies & Theory, vol. 3, 2013. Http:// Pacheco, Gustavo.

“Jongos.” In: Colin Palmer Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History: The Black Experience in the Americas. New York: Macmillan, 2005. Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes Borges. O Jongo. Rio de Janeiro: Funarte/Instituto Nacional do Folclore, 1984. Stein, Stanley J. Vassouras: A Brazilian Coffee County, 2nd ed. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1985. "Pontão de Cultura do Jongo", web site and cultural program develop by the Universidade Federal Fluminense and the National Heritage Institute of Brazil together with 16 communities that practice jongo in Southeast Brazil: "Jongo no Sudeste", dossier produced by the National Heritage Institute of Brazil: "Jongo da Serrinha", first video shot in Serrinha in the late 70's, YouTube

Xwi7xwa Library

The X̱wi7x̱wa Library IPA: is an indigenous library at the Vancouver campus of the University of British Columbia. The library, which draws its name from the Squamish word for echo, is notable for its approaches to organizing First Nations knowledge and major collections and holdings. X̱wi7x̱wa Library began as a small collection of Aboriginal materials in a mobile home; the collection was maintained in conjunction with UBC's NITEP Indigenous Teacher Education Program. In 1993, the library became the First Nations House of Learning Library, part of a longhouse for indigenous students and scholars; the University's senate established a X̱wi7x̱wa librarian position in 1995, first held by Gene Joseph. The library began digitizing materials related to the First Nations House of Learning Longhouse in 2008, with the goal of sharing university resources with Aboriginal people worldwide; as of 2015, the library held over 15,000 items, consisting of Aboriginal materials. The X̱wi7x̱wa Library uses First Nations House of Learning Subject Headings, a local taxonomy that remedies many of the shortcomings of the Library of Congress Subject Headings with regard to First Nations materials.

This classification system arranges First Nations geographically and refers to them using their own names, rather than alphabetically by their European names. In 2004, the 11,000 FNHL headings were lost due to a system migration, were not recovered until 2009; the library employs a British Columbia-specific variant of the Brian Deer Classification System, an organization system which prioritizes relationships in its structure, reflecting an Indigenous worldview. The library records a subjective measure of suitability of materials that may be used to teach indigenous children; this practice rejects dominant conceptions of cataloging as "objective" and recognizes the ongoing misrepresentation of Indigenous people. Official site Classification system Bibliography of publications about X̱wi7x̱wa Library

Hugo Chan

Hugo Sai Keung Chan: is a member of the Election Committee of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong SAR, the National Director of the Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International in Hong Kong. In 1973, Chan went to England to read law at the University of Southampton. After finishing his Solicitors Qualifying Examination in 1979, he returned to Hong Kong and started his legal career at Messrs, Stokes & Master, he is a partner of the law firm of Liau, Ho and Chan, focusing on property developments and China business. Chan is a notary public, a China-Appointed Attesting Officer and a member of the Hong Kong Law Society Mainland Legal Affairs Committee. Chan met his wife Yuenyi at university and married her in 1981, they have four grandchildren. Chan comes from one of the oldest indigenous clans in the New Territories of Hong Kong, his Hakka family ancestral hall, Sam Tung Uk Museum, situated at the centre of Tsuen Wan, is now a museum of local traditions and culture. Chan's father Chan Lau Fong, JP.

BBS. had served as district board chairman of Tsuen Wan from 1994 to 1999. Chan is a partner of AR Evans Capital Partners Ltd which provides corporate advisory and mergers & acquisitions services. Chan is the chairman of the Hong Kong Character City Movement, a non-profit organization promoting the culture of good character and conducting training amongst schools and institutions, he is the chairman of the Happymen Foundation, a non-profit organisation promoting the culture of gratitude and projects of happiness. During 2003 to 2006, Chan was the host to a weekly TV program「星火飛騰」on Asia Television Hong Kong, he is the co-founder of the Kingdom Revival Times「國度復興報」, a leading Christian newspaper published by the Kingdom Ministry Hong Kong. Chan is the founding vice-president of the Hong Kong Professionals and Senior Executives Association, an association consisting of leaders from the major professions, as well as the business and academic communities. On 30 October 2011, Chan was elected as one of the 10 members representing the Christian Sector in the 1200 Member Election Committee of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Chan is the national director of the Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International in Hong Kong. Chan has served as a member of China People's Political Consultative Conference in Shenzhen and Changchun, he is an appointed legal advisor to the Overseas Chinese Returnees in Shenzhen. In recognition of his contributions to the Christian and business communities. Chan was conferred an honorary Doctor of Letters by the Olivet Nazarene University, US

Thomas Gibson

Thomas Ellis Gibson is an American actor and director. He portrayed Daniel Nyland in the CBS television series Chicago Hope, Greg Montgomery in the ABC television series Dharma & Greg and Aaron Hotchner in the CBS television series Criminal Minds. Gibson was born in South Carolina, to Charles M. "Mac" and Beth Gibson. His mother was a social worker, his father was a lawyer and liberal Democrat who served in the South Carolina state Senate and House, he is Roman Catholic. Gibson's interest in the performing arts began at a young age. Gibson was fascinated with Louis Armstrong, he and his sister were on a swim team together and they frequented a pizza parlor after their swim meets. It was at this pizza parlor that Gibson would sing along with a Dixieland band, complete with his attempt at a Louis Armstrong voice; as a child, Gibson enrolled in Little Theater School and graduated from Bishop England High School. He attended the College of Charleston and became an intern at the Alabama Shakespeare Festival, where he was encouraged to apply to the prestigious Juilliard School.

After a year and a half at Charleston, Gibson won a scholarship to Juilliard's Drama Division, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1985. Gibson started acting, he appeared in Julian Wiles' Seize the Street: the Skateboard Musical, a Young Charleston Theater Company production. As a teenager, he began his classical theater training by becoming a member of the Young Charleston Theater Company and the Footlight Players performing at the historic Dock Street Theatre. During his time at College of Charleston, Gibson was an intern at the Alabama Shakespeare Festival. Gibson made his stage debut in David Hare's A Map of the World in the New York Shakespeare Festival, he subsequently appeared in more plays for producer Joe Papp, both in Public Theater and in Central Park. He worked on and off Broadway for the next ten years in a diverse range of plays by Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Molière, Tennessee Williams, Howard Brenton, Romulus Linney, Noël Coward, Alan Ball and many others before turning to the small screen.

Gibson waited tables at Tavern on the Green. Gibson's first television appearance was in 1987 in a guest role on CBS' legal drama Leg Work, followed by stints on the daytime dramas As the World Turns and Another World. In 1992, Gibson made his big screen debut in Ron Howard's Far and Away, in which he portrayed Stephen Chase. Chase was the villainous rival of Joseph Donnelly for Shannon Christie's affections, his next lead role was in 1993 in Denys Arcand's Love and Human Remains. In 1993, he played bisexual businessman misanthrope Beauchamp Day in the television version of Armistead Maupin's Tales of the City miniseries. At the time, Tales of the City was controversial for being shown on PBS as it contained gay, transgender and drag queen characters along with nudity, sexual situations, drug use and explicit language. Gibson reunited with Arcand in Stardom. Gibson returned to television when portraying Dr. Danny Nyland in the CBS medical drama Chicago Hope from 1994 to 1998, starring alongside future Criminal Minds costar Mandy Patinkin.

From 1997 to 2002, Gibson portrayed Greg Montgomery in the ABC sitcom Dharma & Greg, for which he was twice nominated for a Golden Globe Award. After Dharma & Greg, Gibson appeared in various TV movies. In 2005, he was cast in the role as Supervisory Special Agent Aaron "Hotch" Hotchner, the Unit Chief of the Behavioral Analysis Unit team, in the CBS series Criminal Minds. On August 11, 2016, Gibson was suspended following an on-set altercation with a writer-producer. Gibson had directed six episodes of Criminal Minds since 2013, along with two last season episodes of Dharma & Greg in 2001. Gibson has had a prior altercation with an assistant director and had undergone anger-management counseling at that time; the following day, ABC Studios and CBS Television Studios issued a statement announcing that Gibson's contract with the series had been terminated. The statement included the information that the exit storyline of the Aaron Hotchner character from the series had yet to be determined. In the October 12, 2016, episode, "Taboo", the absence of Gibson's character is explained as being away on special assignment.

Gibson and his former wife Christine have three children: James Parker, Travis Carter and Agatha Marie. They reside in Texas. Travis Carter was featured in the season 10 episode "Boxed In" of Criminal Minds as a friend of the Kidnapped Kid in that episode. Gibson and his wife separated in 2011 and in 2014 he filed for divorce; the divorce was finalized on February 14, 2018. Gibson enjoys golf, he plays at the AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am every year, as well as other golfing events, is friends with golfer Corey Pavin. He served as part of the 2010 Host Committee for the Inaugural SAG Foundation Golf Classic, co-hosted the 2nd Annual SAG Foundation Golf Classic with Criminal Minds castmate Joe Mantegna. Official website Thomas Gibson on IMDb

Sarath Chandrasiri Mayadunne

Sarath Chandrasiri Mayadunne is Sri Lankan civil servant and politician. He was the 36th Auditor General of Sri Lanka and was appointed to the Parliament of Sri Lanka in 2015. Graduating from University of Ceylon, Peradeniya with a Bachelor of Commerce in 1970, he became a Chartered Accountant, he is a Fellow of the Canadian Comprehensive Auditing Foundation. Joining the Auditor-General's Department, he was appointed Auditor General on 13 August 2000, succeeding S. M. Sabry, held the office until his retirement from public service on 23 October 2006, he was succeeded by P. A. Pematilaka, he was listed by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna as a national list candidate at the 2015 general election. Following the election Mayadunne was appointed to Parliament as a national list Member of Parliament taking oaths on 1 September 2015, however he resigned two days on 3 September 2015