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Brassicaceae

Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family. Most are herbaceous plants, some shrubs, with simple, although sometimes incised, alternatingly set leaves without stipules or in leaf rosettes, with terminal inflorescences without bracts, containing flowers with four free sepals, four free alternating petals, two short and four longer free stamens, a fruit with seeds in rows, divided by a thin wall; the family contains 4,060 accepted species. The largest genera are Draba, Lepidium and Alyssum; the family contains the cruciferous vegetables, including species such as Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Brassica napus, Raphanus sativus, Armoracia rusticana, but a cut-flower Matthiola and the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Pieris rapae and other butterflies of the family Pieridae are some of the best-known pests of Brassicaceae species planted as commercial crops. Trichoplusia ni moth is becoming problematic for crucifers due to its resistance to used pest control methods.

Some rarer Pieris butterflies, such as Pieris virginiensis, depend upon native mustards for their survival, in their native habitats. Some non-native mustards, such as garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata, an invasive species in the United States, can be toxic to their larvae. Carl Linnaeus in 1753 regarded the Brassicaceae as a natural group, naming them "Klass" Tetradynamia. Alfred Barton Rendle placed the family in the order Rhoedales, while George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker in their system published from 1862–1883, assigned it to their cohort Parietales. Following Bentham and Hooker, John Hutchinson in 1948 and again in 1964 thought the Brassicaceae to stem from near the Papaveraceae. In 1994, a group of scientists including Walter Stephen Judd suggested to include the Capparaceae in the Brassicaceae. Early DNA-analysis showed that the Capparaceae—as defined at that moment—were paraphyletic, it was suggested to assign the genera closest to the Brassicaceae to the Cleomaceae; the Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae diverged 41 million years ago.

All three families have been placed in one order. The APG II system, merged Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae. Other classifications have continued to recognize the Capparaceae, but with a more restricted circumscription, either including Cleome and its relatives in the Brassicaceae or recognizing them in the segregate family Cleomaceae; the APG III system has adopted this last solution, but this may change as a consensus arises on this point. Current insights in the relationships of the Brassicaceae, based on a 2012 DNA-analysis, are summarized in the following tree. Early classifications depended on morphological comparison only, but because of extensive convergent evolution, these do not provide a reliable phylogeny. Although a substantial effort was made through molecular phylogenetic studies, the relationships within the Brassicaceae have not always been well resolved yet, it has long been clear. One analysis from 2014 represented the relation between 39 tribes with the following tree; the name Brassicaceae comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Brassica, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy.

The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word brassica, referring to cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables. The alternative older name, meaning "cross-bearing", describes the four petals of mustard flowers, which resemble a cross. Cruciferae is one of eight plant family names, not derived from a genus name and without the suffix -aceae that are authorized alternative names. Version 1 of the Plantlist website lists 349 genera. Species belonging to the Brassicaceae are annual, biennial, or perennial herbaceous plants, some are dwarf shrubs or shrubs, few vines. Although terrestrial, a few species such as water awlwort live submerged in fresh water, they may have a taproot or a sometimes woody caudex that may have few or many branches, some have thin or tuberous rhizomes, or develop runners. Few species have multi-cellular glands. Hairs consist of one cell and occur in many forms: from simple to forked, star-, tree- or T-shaped taking the form of a shield or scale, they are never topped by a gland.

The stems may be upright, rise up towards the tip, or lie flat, are herbaceous but sometimes woody. Stems carry leaves or the stems may be leafless, some species lack stems altogether; the leaves do not have stipules, but there may be a pair of glands at base of leafstalks and flowerstalks. The leaf may have a leafstalk; the leaf blade is simple, entire or dissected trifoliolate or pinnately compound. A leaf rosette at the base may be absent; the leaves along the stem are always alternately arranged apparently opposite. The stomata are of the anisocytic type; the genome size of Brassicaceae compared to that of other Angiosperm families is small to small, varying from 150 Mbp in Arabidopsis thaliana and Sphaerocardamum spp. to 2375 Mbp Bunias orientalis. The number of homologous chromosome sets varies from four in some Physaria and Stenopetalum species, five in other Physaria and Stenopeta

Ipswich Buses

Ipswich Buses is a bus company that operates in Ipswich, Suffolk. It is owned by Ipswich Borough Council; the company operates buses throughout surrounding villages. Its depot is situated near Ipswich Town's Portman Road football ground. First Norfolk & Suffolk operate bus services in the town on complementary routes; the origins of Ipswich Buses can be traced to November 1903 when Ipswich Corporation commenced operating trams. In 1923 the trams were replaced by trolleybuses. Buses were introduced from August 1950. To comply with the Transport Act 1985, in 1986 the assets of Ipswich Corporation were transferred to a new legal entity, Ipswich Buses; as at March 2018 Ipswich Buses operate 33 routes. Ipswich Buses operated the Ipswich park & ride system under contract to Suffolk County Council from 1997 until 2008 when First Eastern Counties took over the service. In November 2013 Ipswich Buses recommenced operating the ride service. In July 2017 First Norfolk & Suffolk took over its operation; as at March 2019 the fleet consisted of 77 buses.

Trolleybuses in Ipswich List of bus operators of the United Kingdom Media related to Ipswich Buses at Wikimedia Commons Company website

Barry O'Donnell

Barry O'Donnell was an Irish pediatric surgeon who worked at Our Lady's Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin in Dublin, who along with Prem Puri pioneered the sub-ureteric Teflon injection procedure for vesico-ureteric reflux. He was awarded the Urology Medal by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the first pediatric surgeon working outside the USA to be so honored. O'Donnell, a native of Cork, was educated at University College Cork graduating in 1949, training at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London and in Boston, USA, he has held posts at the Temple Street Children's University Hospital and National Children's Hospital, Harcourt Street. He is past president of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, former president of British Association of Pediatric Surgeons and former Chairman of the British Medical Journal. B. 1926 Cork, eldest son of Michael O’Donnell and Kitty O’Donnell Died: 26th November 2019 Education: Christian Brothers College, Cork. Married 1959: Mary Leydon b.1933 – d.2015.