Minas Geraes, spelled Minas Gerais in some sources, was a dreadnought battleship of the Brazilian Navy. Named in honor of the state of Minas Gerais, the ship was laid down in April 1907 as the lead ship of its class, making the country the third to have a dreadnought under construction and igniting a naval arms race between Brazil and Chile. Two months after its completion in January 1910, Minas Geraes was featured in Scientific American, which described it as "the last word in heavy battleship design and the... most powerfully armed warship afloat". In November 1910, Minas Geraes was the focal point of the Revolt of the Lash; the mutiny spread from Minas Geraes to other ships in the Navy, including its sister São Paulo, the elderly coastal defense ship Deodoro, the commissioned cruiser Bahia. Led by the "Black Admiral" João Cândido Felisberto, the mutineers threatened to bombard the Brazilian capital of Rio de Janeiro if their demands were not met; as it was not possible to end the situation militarily—the only loyal troops nearby being small torpedo boats and army troops confined to land—the National Congress of Brazil gave in and the rebels disbanded.
When Brazil entered the First World War in 1917, Britain's Royal Navy declined Brazil's offer of Minas Geraes for duty with the Grand Fleet because the ship was outdated. São Paulo underwent modernization in the United States in 1920. A year Minas Geraes sailed to counter the first of the Tenente revolts. São Paulo shelled the rebels' fort, they surrendered shortly thereafter. In 1924, mutineers seized São Paulo and attempted to persuade the crews of Minas Geraes and several other ships to join them, but were unsuccessful. Minas Geraes was modernized at the Rio de Janeiro Naval Yard in the 1930s, underwent further refitting from 1939 to 1943. During the Second World War, the ship was anchored in Salvador as the main defense of the port, as it was too old to play an active part in the war. For the last nine years of its service life, Minas Geraes remained inactive, was towed to Italy for scrapping in March 1954. Beginning in the late 1880s, Brazil's navy fell into obsolescence, helped along by an 1889 revolution, which deposed Emperor Dom Pedro II, naval revolts in 1891 and 1893–94.
By the turn of the 20th century it was lagging behind the Chilean and Argentine navies in quality and total tonnage, despite Brazil having nearly three times the population of Argentina and five times the population of Chile. At the turn of the twentieth century, soaring demand for coffee and rubber brought prosperity to the Brazilian economy; the government of Brazil used some of the extra money from this economic growth to finance a large naval building program in 1904, which authorized the construction of a large number of warships, including three battleships. The Minister of the Navy, Admiral Júlio César de Noronha, signed a contract with Armstrong Whitworth for three battleships on 23 July 1906. While the first designs for these ships were derived from the Norwegian coastal defense ship Norge and the British Swiftsure class, the contracted ships were to follow Armstrong Whitworth's Design 439, they would displace 11,800 long tons, have a speed of 19 knots, be protected by belt armor of 9 inches and deck armor of 1.5 in.
Each ship would be armed with twelve 10-inch guns mounted in six twin turrets. These turrets would be mounted in a hexagonal configuration, similar to the German Nassau-class battleships. Two of these ships were laid down by Armstrong in Elswick, while the other was subcontracted out to Vickers in Barrow; the new dreadnought concept, which premiered in December 1906 upon the completion of the namesake ship in December 1906, rendered the Brazilian ships obsolete. The money authorized for naval expansion was redirected by new Minister of the Navy, Rear Admiral Alexandrino Fario de Alencar, to building two dreadnoughts, with plans for a third dreadnought after the first was completed, two scout cruisers, ten destroyers, three submarines; the three battleships on which construction had just begun were demolished beginning on 7 January 1907, the design of the new dreadnoughts was approved by the Brazilians on 20 February 1907. Though the greater cost of these ships meant that only two ships could begin plans went ahead.
Minas Geraes, the lead ship, was laid down by Armstrong on 17 April 1907, while São Paulo followed thirteen days at Vickers. The news shocked Brazil's neighbors Argentina, whose Minister of Foreign Affairs remarked that either Minas Geraes or São Paulo could destroy the entire Argentine and Chilean fleets. In addition, Brazil's order meant that they had laid down a dreadnought before many of the other major maritime powers, such as Germany, France or Russia, the two ships made Brazil just the third country to have dreadnoughts under construction, behind the United Kingdom and the United States. In particular, the United States now attempted to court Brazil as an ally. S. naval journals began using terms like "Pan Americanism" and "Hemispheric Cooperation". Newspapers and journals around the world in Britain and Germany, speculated that Brazil was acting as a proxy for a naval power which would take possession of the two dreadnoughts soon after completion, as they did not believe that a insignificant geopolitical power would contract for such powerful arm
The Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung, is a five volume collection of the written works of Mao Zedong ranging from the years 1926-1957. The collection was first published by the People's Publishing House in 1951, was translated into English by the state-owned Foreign Languages Press. A fifth volume, which included the works of Chairman Mao from 1949-1957, was released during the leadership of Hua Guofeng, but subsequently withdrawn from circulation for its perceived ideological errors. There has never been an official "Complete Works of Mao Zedong" collecting all his known publications. A number of unauthorized volumes of the Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung have been released, such as Volumes 6-9 which were published in India by the Communist Party of India. During the ten years of the Cultural Revolution, the People's Publishing House published 870 different editions of Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung, with a total of 325 million paperbacks and 2.55 million hardcover copies of the Chinese editions created.
The Selected Works were translated into a 14 different foreign languages. After the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Mao Zedong Thought became part of the guiding ideology of the Communist Party of China. During the Chinese Civil War, various Communist Party-controlled areas published unofficial anthologies of Mao Zedong, it is estimated. In 1951, when Mao Zedong visited the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin suggested that Mao Zedong publish his anthology. In May 1950, the Politburo of the Communist Party of China formally decided to establish the Mao Zedong Anthology Editorial Committee, with Liu Shaoqi as its director; the specific editing work was led by Chen Boda, assisted by Hu Qiaomu and Tian Jiaying, all compiled manuscripts were revised and authorized for publication by Mao Zedong himself. The five published volumes of the Selected Works include most of the important works by Mao Zedong between the years 1926 to 1949; the first volume covers the period of 1926 to 1936 with selections related to the revolutionary civil wars in China.
The second volume begins with the philisophical work by Mao, On Contradiction and contains writings from the years 1937 to 1938 related to the war against Japan. Selections discussing military strategy against both the Japanese and the Kuomintang are the subject of the third volume of the selected works, which contains selections from writings released between the years 1939 and 1940; the fourth volume covers the writings of Mao from the years 1941 to 1945, continuing the discussion of Chinese resistance to the Japanese. The fifth and final official publication is a selection of writings from the years 1945 to 1949 related to the final years of the Chinese civil war and the founding of the People's Republic of China; each volume of the Selected Works includes detailed notes referencing the historical context of each selection included in the volumes. The first volume of the Selected Works included a total of 17 articles ranging from 1925 until the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan.
Published in October 1951, it was first printed by Xinhua Printing Factory, Peking First Branch Factory. It was sold at 200,000 copies printed; the second volume of the Selected Works included a total of 40 articles by Mao Zedong in the early days of the War of Resistance Against Japan. It was formally published and distributed by the People's Publishing House on April 10, 1952, with a price of 25,000 yuan; the third volume of the Selected Works included 31 articles by Mao Zedong in the late period of the War of Resistance Against Japan. It was formally published and distributed by People's Publishing House on April 10, 1953, was priced at 15,000 yuan; the fourth volume of the Selected Works included a total of 70 articles by Mao Zedong after the Second Sino-Japanese War and before the founding of the People's Republic of China. It was published and distributed by the People's Publishing House on September 30, 1960, priced at 14,000 yuan. After the publication, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China set up a translation room for Mao Zedong's works, which translated the Selected Works four volumes into a variety of foreign languages for publication.
Since the translation room has developed into the Document Translation Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. In addition to the four-volume edition, there is a four-volume "one volume". A fifth book was planned as early as 1960, to include selected writings from the PRC period, but Chairman Mao resisted its production as he felt his essays and speeches on Socialist Construction were still evolving compared to the views contained in the earlier volumes; the fifth volume of the Selected Works included 70 articles by Mao Zedong after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It was formally published and distributed by People's Publishing House on April 15, 1977, with a price of 1.25 yuan. The compilation and editing of this volume took ten years due to the Cultural Revolution and Mao Zedong's opposition to the publication of a fifth volume of his works. Hua Guofeng insisted on the publication of the fifth volume of the Selected Works. A number of unofficial volumes of the Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung Volumes 6-9 were published in India by Karanti Publications and Sramikavarga Prachuranalu, Hyderabad.
The Communist Party of China has not authorized or endorsed any further volumes of the Selected Works
A 2-8-8-4 steam locomotive, under the Whyte notation, has two leading wheels, two sets of eight driving wheels, a four-wheel trailing truck. The type was named the Yellowstone, a name given it by the first owner, the Northern Pacific Railway, whose lines run near Yellowstone National Park. Seventy-two Yellowstone-type locomotives were built for four U. S. railroads. Other equivalent classifications are: UIC classification: 1DD2 French classification: 140+042 Turkish classification: 45+46 Swiss classification: 4/5+4/6 Russian classification: 1-4-0+0-4-2The equivalent UIC classification is, refined for Mallet locomotives, D2′. A locomotive of this length must be an articulated locomotive. All Yellowstones had small drivers of 63 to 64 inches. Several classes of Yellowstone the Duluth and Iron Range's locomotives, are among the largest steam locomotives, with the exact ranking depending on the criteria used; the Northern Pacific Railway was the first railroad to order a 2-8-8-4. The first was built in 1928 by American Locomotive Company.
It had the largest firebox applied to a steam locomotive, some 182 square feet in area, to burn Rosebud coal, a cheap low-quality coal. But the firebed was too large for the fire burned poorly; the problem was mitigated by blocking off the first few feet of the grates. Baldwin Locomotive Works built 11 more for the Northern Pacific in 1930. None were saved; the Southern Pacific Railroad's famous "cab-forward" articulated steam locomotives were a Yellowstone in reverse. This was done to spare the crew from the heavy smoke output of the large engines on the former Central Pacific, where tunnels and snow sheds were common and lengthy. One is on display at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento; the ready availability of oil fuel in California made them possible. The SP owned some conventional 2-8-8-4s for use in areas where coal was plentiful and snow sheds were rare. Lima Locomotive Works built 12 AC-9 class locomotives in 1939. At first, they burned coal but were converted to oil. None were saved.
The Duluth and Iron Range Railway hauled iron ore in Minnesota. Iron ore is heavy and the DM&IR operated long trains of ore cars, requiring maximum power; these locomotives were based upon ten 2-8-8-2s that Baldwin had built in the 1930s for the Western Pacific Railroad. The need for a larger, coal-burning firebox and a longer, all-weather cab led to the use of a four-wheel trailing truck, giving them the "Yellowstone" wheel arrangement, they were the most powerful Yellowstones built, producing 140,000 lbf of tractive effort, had the most weight on drivers so that they were less prone to slipping. Eight locomotives were built by Baldwin in 1941; the Yellowstones met or exceeded the DM&IR specifications, so 10 more were ordered. The second batch was completed in late 1943 after the Missabe's seasonal downturn in ore traffic, so some of the new M-4s were leased to and delivered directly to the Denver & Rio Grande Western; the next winter, the D&RGW again leased the DM&IR's Yellowstones as helpers over Tennessee Pass and for other freight duties.
The Rio Grande returned the Yellowstones after air-brake failure caused No. 224 to wreck on the Fireclay Loop. This was despite the Rio Grande's earlier assessment that these Yellowstones were the finest engines to operate there. DM&IRs were the only Yellowstones to have a high-capacity pedestal or centipede tender, had roller bearings on all axles; some of the locomotives had a cylindrical Elesco feedwater heater ahead of the smoke stack, while others had a Worthington unit with its rectangular box in the same location. Only one Yellowstone was retired; the rest of the 2-8-8-4s were retired between 1963 as diesel locomotives took over. Of the eighteen built, three survive and are on display in Minnesota: No. 225 at Proctor, No. 227 at the Lake Superior Railroad Museum in Duluth and No. 229 at Two Harbors. When the U. S. entered World War II. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, along with other railroads, wanted to purchase more of the diesel locomotives since they were showing improved performance over steam locomotives.
But the War Production Board regulated the production of steam and diesel locomotives until the war emergency was over. So along with producing 40 new class T-3 4-8-2 type locomotives built in-house at their Mt. Clare shops in Baltimore, the B&O took delivery of 30 class EM-1 Yellowstones in 1944 and 1945, the largest number and the smallest of this type built by Baldwin as well as the most modern; the EM-1 produced 115,000 pounds-force of tractive effort on 64-inch drivers with 235 pounds per square inch steam pressure and four 24-by-32-inch cylinders. The tender carried 25 tons of coal; the engine weighed 627,000 pounds while the tender weighed 328,000 pounds for a combined 1,010,700 pounds. Nothing bigger could operate within the tunnel clearances and track restrictions on the B&O's main line, they were equipped with the newest technology including the Worthington feedwater heater, superheater with front-end throttle, Cyclone front end, thermic syphons, a lateral cushioning device in the front pair of drivers on both engines and the front wh