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Break key

The Break key of a computer keyboard refers to breaking a telegraph circuit and originated with 19th century practice. In modern usage, the key has no well-defined purpose, but while this is the case, it can be used by software for miscellaneous tasks, such as to switch between multiple login sessions, to terminate a program, or to interrupt a modem connection; because the break function is combined with the pause function on one key since the introduction of the IBM Model M 101-key keyboard in 1985, the Break key is called the Pause key. It can be used to pause some computer games. A standard telegraph circuit connects all the keys and batteries in a single series loop, thus the sounders actuate only. So the receiving operator has to hold their key down or close a built-in shorting switch in order to let the other operator send; as a consequence, the receiving operator could interrupt the sending operator by opening their key, breaking the circuit and forcing it into a "spacing" condition. Both sounders stop alerting the sender.

The teleprinter operated in a similar fashion except that the sending station kept the loop closed during short pauses between characters. Holding down a special "break" key opened the loop, forcing it into a continuous logic 0, or "spacing", condition; when this occurred, the teleprinter mechanisms continually actuated without printing anything, as the all-0s character is the non-printing NUL in both Baudot and ASCII. The resulting noise got the sending operator's attention; this practice carried over to teleprinter use on time-sharing computers. A continuous spacing condition violates the rule that every valid character has to end with one or more logic 1 "stop" bits; the computer recognized this as a special "break" condition and generated an interrupt that stopped a running program or forced the operating system to prompt for a login. Although asynchronous serial telegraphy is now rare, the Break key once used with terminal emulators can still be used by software for similar purposes. On the Sinclair ZX80 and ZX81 computers, the Break is accessed by pressing Space.

On the Sinclair ZX Spectrum it is accessed by Caps Shift+Space. The Spectrum+ and computers have a dedicated Break key, it does not trigger an interrupt but will halt any running BASIC program, or terminate the loading or saving of data to cassette tape. An interrupted BASIC program can be resumed with the CONTINUE command; the Sinclair QL computer, without a Break key, maps the function to Ctrl+Space. On a BBC Micro computer, the Break key generates a hardware reset which would cause a warm restart of the computer. A cold restart is triggered by pressing Ctrl+Break. If a filing system is installed, ⇧ Shift+Break will cause the computer to search for and load or run a file called! Boot on the filing system's default device; the latter two behaviours were inherited by the successor to Acorn MOS, RISC OS. These behaviours could be changed or exchanged in software, were used in rudimentary anti-piracy techniques; because of the BBC Micro's near universal usage in British schools versions of the machine incorporated a physical lock on the Break key to stop children from intentionally resetting the computer.

On many modern PCs, Pause interrupts screen output by BIOS. This is effective in a DOS box in Windows safe mode with 50 lines. On early keyboards without a Pause key the Pause function was assigned to Ctrl+NumLock, the Break function to Ctrl+ScrLock. Pressing the dedicated Pause key on 101/102-key keyboards sends the same scancodes as pressing Ctrl NumLock releasing them in the reverse order would do; the Pause key is different from all other keys. On modern keyboards, the Break key is labeled Pause with Break below, sometimes separated by a line: Pause/Break, or Pause on the top of the keycap and Break on the front. In most Windows environments, the key combination ⊞ Win+Pause brings up the system properties. Compact and notebook keyboards do not have a dedicated Pause/Break key; these may use the following substitutes for Break: Ctrl+Fn+F11 or Fn+B or Fn+Ctrl+B on certain Lenovo laptops. Ctrl + Fn + Fn + B on certain Dell laptops. Fn+Esc on Samsung. Ctrl+Fn+⇧ Shift on certain HP laptops. Fn+R on certain HP laptops.

Substitutes for Pause: Fn+P or Fn+Ctrl+P or Fn+Alt+P on certain Lenovo laptops. Fn+B on certain Dell laptops. Fn+⇧ Shift on certain HP laptops. Fn+W on certain HP laptops. Apple keyboards do not have the Pause/Break key. For some Dell laptops without a Break key press the ALT+Space bar and select "Interrupt". While both Ctrl+Break and Ctrl+C combination are implemented as a way of breaking the execution of a console application, they are used for similar effect in integrated development environments. Although these two are considered interchangeable and execution environments assign different signals to these. Additionally, in some kernels (e.g. miscellaneous DOS variant

Nutfield railway station

Nutfield railway station is on the Redhill to Tonbridge Line and serves Nutfield, England. It is about a mile south of Nutfield itself, located in South Nutfield, a settlement which did not exist before the coming of the railway, it is 24 miles 47 chains measured from London Charing Cross via Redhill. Since 2008 the station, all trains serving it, have been operated by Southern, following the ending of the previous Southeastern service; the railway line between Redhill and Tonbridge was opened by the South Eastern Railway on 26 May 1842. Nutfield station opened on that line on 1 January 1884, although a public siding named'Mid Street' had been provided here from an early date; the station buildings were similar in style to those at Sandling Junction, although no footbridge was provided at Nutfield. The buildings were demolished in the late 1960s; until electrification all passengers crossed the lines at rail level at the Western end of platforms, close to the signal box. For many years a private siding from Nutfield station served the chemical works of the Nutfield Manufacturing Company, situated Southwest of the station on the site of a former brickworks.

Goods facilities were withdrawn in January 1966, coal traffic ceased in November of that year. Full-time staffing ended on 5 November 1967 but staff was provided at morning commuter peak hours until around 1990; the signal box remained in use until 10 May 1970. In 1993 the line was electrified and services started to run through to London rather than being an extension of the Reading to Tonbridge North Downs Line service; the two platforms are now linked by a footbridge. Trains heading to Tonbridge have an information board displaying the next train details, in May 2011 an information board was installed on Platform 1 which heads to Redhill and London. In 2008, a PERTIS machine was installed at this station at the entrance to the Redhill-bound platform; the typical off peak service is one train per hour east to Tonbridge, calling at Godstone, Penshurst and Tonbridge, west to Redhill, calling at Redhill only

Ludwig Crocius

Ludwig Crocius was a German Calvinist minister. He was a delegate at professor of theology and philosophy in Bremen. Ludwig Crocius was born in the son of Paul Crocius, he was at one time tutor to the sons of the counts of Wittgenstein-Berleburg. From 1583, he was Superintendent in Laasphe. Crocius was the author of a book of Protestant martyrology Groß Matyrbuch und Kirchenhistorien. Johann Crocius was his younger brother, his grandfather Matthias Crocius had been a minister in Zwickau, was close to Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon. Crocius studied at Herborn Academy, from 1603 studied theology at the University of Marburg where he graduated M. A. in 1604. On 5 September 1607 his father died, vacating his position as preacher and inspector of the county of Katzenelnbogen in Langenschwalbach—Crocius succeeded him, but in 1608 he asked for leave from Moritz of Hesse-Kassel for further study. Crocius went to the universities in Bremen and Basel. On 4 April 1609, he graduated D. D. in Basel, travelled on to Geneva, in order to study there further.

From Geneva, he returned to Bremen and the St. Martini church as first preacher and teacher of philosophy and theology professor at the Gymnasium Illustre, from 1610, he turned down offers of positions made by John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg and the Landgrave Moritz of Hesse-Kassel, a chance to become General superintendent for Silesia. From 1630 to 1639, from 1647 to his death, he was a prorector at the High School Illustre, he corresponded with Samuel Hartlib and John Dury, with Gerardus Vossius. In 1651 Crocius suffered an attack of apoplexy, but he remained until 14 May 1652 at his post of preacher in the Liebfrauenkirche church, he taught at the Gymnasium Illustre up to his death. Crocius travelled to the 1618 Synod of Dort with Heinrich Isselburg; the senate of Bremen required of its three delegates that they would represent a mild theological line going back to Philipp Melanchthon, as defined in the Consensus Bremensis of 1595 and corresponds to the local practices. Crocius and Martinius were in the small group of Dort delegates.

Crocius made a public criticism of Johannes Bogermann who chaired the Synod, for his harshness towards the Remonstrants. The Bremen representatives subscribed to the Canons of Dort. In practical terms they implied no restrictions or obligations for the church in Bremen, given that the conclusions of the Synod were given no confessional standing there; this was not for Bremen's reputation among Calvinists. He was attacked by the Lutheran Balthasar Mentzer in his Anti-Crocius of. After the Synod of Dort the arguments over predestination resonated in Bremen; the preacher of the St. Ansgarii Church, Philipp Caesar, was an advocate of the strict doctrine. Caesar preached along these lines to the local council. In 1624 he resigned his post and left Bremen, but both the St. Ansgari and St. Stephani churches strove to gain Caesar as preachers. Heinrich Isselburg, the preacher of the Liebfrauenkirche church, died on 29 March 1628 and it seemed that Caesar could take the vacant position. To prevent that Ludwig Crocius was appointed to the place.

Caesar in 1628 was able to preach in the St. Martini, since this position had become free. In 1630, Caesar again left the city, converted to Catholicism; the situation in Breman resolved with Crocius, Conrad Bergius at St. Ansgarii, Balthasar Willius, preacher at the Liebfrauenkirche as representatives of the moderate teachings of Melanchthon, on the other hand the High School rector Johann Combach, Henricus Flockenius at St. Remberti, Petrus Carpenter at St. Stephani as representatives of the strict doctrine; the debates at Dort still cast a long shadow, in 1640, when Crocius was attacked as an Arminian by Hendrik Alting who had participated, John Davenant and Joseph Hall intervened in the controversy to defend him. Crocius was classed with the eirenicist writers of his time, he had a reputation as tolerant and moderate, was on friendly terms with Calixtus at Helmstedt. His Antisocinismus Contractus attacked Socinians on the centenary of the death of Fausto Sozzini; the work may have been intended for pedagogical use with students.

He translated Basilius, in 1617 published an edition of Ficino's De Religione Christiana. He was a prolific writer, with an estimated 71 publications. Syntagma sacrae Theologiae was a major work. Others were: Vier Tractaten van de Verstandicheit der Heyligen principelyk ghestelt teghens het boek P. Bertii van den Afval der Heyligen door Lud. Crocium. Hoe Austriaco, polemical. Defensis, he wrote on the De Germania of Tacitus as a school work, the Idea viri boni hoc est octo et quadringenta Sixti sive Xisti sententiae quae vitae honestae et religiosae epitomen complectuntur. WorldCat page CERL page Works by Ludwig Crocius at Post-Reformation Digital Library

ADSS (ADS Securities)

ADS Securities LLC, dba ADSS, is a private financial services firm headquartered in Abu Dhabi that offers online trading, wealth management and asset management services for institutional and retail clients. It provides foreign investment markets analysis on CNBC, CNBC Arabiya. ADS Securities LLC is licensed by the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates to act as a financial and monetary intermediary in the conduct of financial and monetary brokerage business for the sale and purchase of currencies and intermediating in money market transactions as permitted in accordance with Central Bank Resolution Number 126/5/1995 and to carry out certain categories of financial investment business as permitted under Central Bank Resolution Number 164/8/1994. ADSS is the biggest foreign-exchange trader in the Middle East and North Africa region and serves central banks, asset managers, brokerage firms, hedge funds; as of March 2012, it managed a daily forex volume of $4–5 billion. In March 2018, this increased to managing daily forex volumes of up to US$20 billion.

As of September 2019, daily forex volumes declined back to $4–5 billion and the company has started a complete restructuring after the departure of its CEO Philippe Ghanem. The firm was established with $400 million in capital under ADS Holding LLC and began trading in March 2011. At the end of 2016 the company suffered losses in excess of $300 Million USD in a case related to bond financier Lars Windhorst. ADS had given Lars a line of credit of $200 Million and he had struggled for two years to meet payments on a $645 million bill to ADS Securities Ltd. In order to keep the company afloat, the shareholders increased their capital investment with an additional $185 million to increase the total capitalisation to $585 million by end of 2016. ADS Securities was part of a failed bond issuance deal related to EA Partners. EA Partners issued a first set of junk-rated bonds totalling $700 million in September 2015. ADS Securities helped to sell the bonds along with Goldman Sachs; the busted airline deal is now being investigated by detectives.

Operations are headquartered in Abu Dhabi with regional offices in Singapore, Hong Kong regulated by the SFC and in November 2014 ADS Securities London Limited was opened. ADS London is owned by ADS Holding LLC, works in partnership with ADS Securities LLC. ADS Securities London is authorised and regulated by the FCA. ADSS business areas include and brokerage based on its own multi-asset trading technology; the company has a cross-asset investment service, investment banking and offers wealth and asset management. The firm is known for its pricing of CFDs including a Dubai Oil CFD which gave Middle Eastern investors access to the local commodity for the first time. On 4 May 2016, the company announced the launch of an Arabic language trading application called OREX mobile. ADSS has two main regional offices in London and Hong Kong, established under the entities ADS Securities London Limited and ADS Securities Hong Kong Limited respectively. ADSS London is authorised and regulated in the UK by the Financial Conduct Authority and is an IFPRU 730K firm, with its registered office at 9th Floor, 125 Old Broad Street, London, EC2N 1AR, registration number: 07785265.

ADSS Hong Kong is licensed by the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission to act as a financial intermediary in the conduct of brokerage business for the sale and purchase of securities, futures contract, leveraged foreign exchange and advising on corporate finance as permitted in accordance with the Securities and Futures Ordinance of Hong Kong. ADSS Hong Kong holds SFC 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 licenses. Official website

Poppy (novel)

Poppy is a children's novel written by Avi and illustrated by Brian Floca. The novel was first published by Orchard Books in 1995. Poppy is the first-published of Avi's Tales From Dimwood Forest series. Within the narrative sequence of the series, it is the second book; the complete series is composed of Poppy and Rye, Ereth's Birthday, Poppy's Return, Poppy and Ereth. In 1996, Poppy received the Boston Globe–Horn Book Award for fiction. Avi conceived the idea for Poppy while living in Corvallis, when his wife was a visiting professor at Oregon State University. At a university bookstore, he found a book written by a naturalist, who described his experience rescuing a baby owlet and nurturing it back to health and into the wild. Avi decided to write his own novel about an owl named Mr. Ocax. While developing the story, Avi's interest shifted towards the mouse that Mr. Ocax planned to eat, the mouse became the primary focus of the book. Both the book and the mouse were named Pip, but after discovering that another children's book existed about a mouse named Pip, he decided to rename the book and the character to Poppy.

In the Dimwood region, a large family of mice inhabit. Poppy, a young deer mouse, goes with her boyfriend Ragweed, a golden mouse, to Bannock Hill for a proposal. However, Mr. Ocax, a great horned owl who acts as a tyrannical ruler over the family, tries to catch both of the mice while they are distracted. Ocax only manages to scratch Poppy's nose, but he kills and eats Ragweed, who had daringly been out in the open. Poppy narrowly escapes again; when Poppy returns to Gray House, she learns that the family must relocate to New House, where there is a more abundant food supply. However, Ocax refuses to give the family permission to move to the area, citing Poppy and Ragweed's refusal to ask his permission to go to Bannock Hill as a reason, his refusal makes Poppy curious, so she decides to travel to New House to ascertain Ocax's reasons. While in Dimwood Forest Poppy stumbles upon Ereth, a porcupine, contrary to the stories Ocax told Poppy's family, is surly but overall friendly and does not eat mice.

He reveals he has no title of king. Ereth offers her continued protection from Ocax in exchange for the salt lick at New House that he can't obtain on his own. Ereth drops Poppy off at the boundaries of New House, she discovers that Ocax is afraid of a large artificial owl there, why he had refused the mice family permission to move. Armed with a quill she retrieved from Ereth, Poppy confronts and taunts Ocax about the figure but inadvertently reveals that it is fake. Ocax attacks Poppy but is defeated when Poppy stabs him with the quill. In a desperate attempt to get rid of it, he slams into the impact killing him. Ereth is able to get the salt lick and Poppy goes home to tell her family they were now free from Ocax and able to move. A few moons she meets and marries Rye, Ragweed's brother, they have eleven kids and each night they dance on Bannock Hill. In 1996, Poppy received the Boston Globe–Horn Book Award for fiction. In a 2017 blog post reflecting on Poppy, Avi wrote that Orchard Books, the original publisher had been "foundering", as a result, bookstores were finding it difficult to obtain a copy of Poppy.

Referring to the Horn Book Award, Avi wrote that it came in "the proverbial nick of time" and that he has "absolutely no doubt that the award saved Poppy", allowing him to write all the other books in the series. The novel was listed on the American Library Association's Notable Books for Children list in 1996. Carolyn Phelan, writing in the ALA's Booklist, called Poppy "a good old-fashioned story with an exciting plot, well-drawn characters, a satisfying ending", noting themes of power among the novel's three main characters: Poppy, who finds courage. Kirkus Reviews described Poppy as a "cute, but rather standard offering from Avi"; the School Library Journal referred to it as a "fast-paced, allegorical animal story", commenting that "the underlying messages, to challenge unjust authority and to rely on logic and belief in oneself, are palatably blended with action and suspense." Poppy on the Avi Official Website Poppy at Google Books

Nawab of Junagarh

Nawab of Junagarh or Junagadh refers to the now defunct ex-lineage of rulers of the princely Junagarh State in British Raj, nowadays Junagadh district in the state of Gujarat in India. There are still several forts and palaces in India which were owned by princely Junagarh family but after Partition of India property claimed by the Indian Government. Given below is the list of Nawabs who ruled in the princely Junagarh State before the Partition of India. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, the title of Nawab of Junagarh has no official status, it still is used as a courtesy title. The Partition of India in 1947 resulted in the exile of Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III, the last ruling Nawab of Junagarh; the Nawab, being Muslim, was in favor of declaring the state as part of newly created Muslim majority Pakistan. For this purpose he signed the documents for incorporation of its state in Pakistan, but soon the state was surrounded and occupied by Indian forces and the nawab and his family fled to Pakistan.

After his exile, he settled down in Pakistan and the Junagarh family resides at the'Junagarh House' in Karachi, Pakistan. After one year of occupation the Indian Government held a referendum asking the people of state to agree to be part of India. Pathans of Gujarat List of Sunni dynasties Babi dynasty Babai List of Pashtun empires and dynasties Official Website of State of Junagadh