Breakfast cereal

Breakfast cereal is a traditional breakfast food made from processed cereal grains in Western societies. Warm cereals like porridge and grits have the longest history. Ready-to-eat cold cereals, appearing around the late 19th century, are most mixed with milk, but can be paired with yogurt instead or eaten plain. Fruit or nuts are sometimes added. Many breakfast cereals are produced via extrusion; some companies promote their products for the health benefits that come from eating oat-based and high-fiber cereals. In the United States, cereals are fortified with vitamins but can still lack many of the vitamins needed for a healthy breakfast. A significant proportion of cereals are made with high sugar content. Many are marketed towards children, feature a cartoon mascot, may contain a toy or prize. Between 1970 and 1998, the number of different types of breakfast cereals in the U. S. more than doubled, from about 160 to around 340. In this competitive market, breakfast cereal companies have developed an ever-increasing number of flavors.

Although many plain wheat and corn- based cereals exist, other varieties are sweetened, while some brands include freeze-dried fruit as a sweet element. The breakfast cereal industry has gross profit margins of 40–45%, 90% penetration in some markets, steady and continued growth throughout its history. Cereal and porridge became an important breakfast component in North America. Barley was a common grain used, though yellow peas could be used. In many modern cultures, porridge is still eaten as a breakfast dish. North American Indians had found a way to make ground corn palatable called grits. While this became a staple in the southern U. S. grits never gained a hold in the northern states. Food reformers in the 19th century called for cutting back on excessive meat consumption at breakfast, they explored numerous vegetarian alternatives. Late in the century, the Seventh-day Adventists based in Michigan made these food reforms part of their religion, indeed non-meat breakfasts were featured in their sanitariums and led to new breakfast cereals.

Ferdinand Schumacher, a German immigrant, began the cereals revolution in 1854 with a hand oats grinder in the back room of a small store in Akron, Ohio. His German Mills American Oatmeal Company was the nation's first commercial oatmeal manufacturer, he marketed the product locally as a substitute for breakfast pork. Improved production technology, combined with an influx of German and Irish immigrants boosted sales and profits. In 1877, Schumacher adopted the Quaker symbol, the first registered trademark for a breakfast cereal; the acceptance of "horse food" for human consumption encouraged other entrepreneurs to enter the industry. Henry Parsons Crowell started operations in 1882, John Robert Stuart in 1885. Crowell cut costs by consolidating every step of the processing—grading, hulling, rolling and shipping —in one factory operating at Ravenna, Ohio. Stuart operated mills in Iowa. Stuart and Crowell initiated a price war. After a fire at his mill in Akron, Schumacher joined Stuart and Crowell to form the Consolidated Oatmeal Company.

The American Cereal Company created a cereal made from oats in 1877, manufacturing the product in Akron, Ohio. Separately, in 1888, a trust or holding company combined the nation's seven largest mills into the American Cereal Company using the Quaker Oats brand name. By 1900 technology and the "Man in Quaker Garb"—a symbol of plain honesty and reliability—gave Quaker Oats a national market and annual sales of $10 million. Early in the 20th century, the Quaker Oats Company jumped into the world market. Schumacher, the innovator. Alexander Anderson's steam-pressure method of shooting rice from guns created Puffed rice and puffed wheat. Crowell's intensive advertising campaign in the 1920s and 1930s featured promotions with such celebrities as Babe Ruth, Max Baer, Shirley Temple. Sponsorship of the popular Rin-Tin-Tin and Sergeant Preston of the Yukon radio shows aided the company's expansion during the depression. Meat rationing during World War II boosted annual sales to $90 million, by 1956 sales topped $277 million.

By 1964 the firm sold over 200 products, grossed over $500 million, claimed that eight million people ate Quaker Oats each day. Expansion included the acquisition of Aunt Jemima Mills Company in 1926, which continues as a leading brand of pancake mixes and syrup, the sport drink Gatorade in 1983, in 1986, the Golden Grain Company, producers of Rice-A-Roni canned lunch food. In 2001 Quaker Oats was itself bought out by PepsiCo; the first cold breakfast cereal, was invented in the United States in 1863 by James Caleb Jackson, operator of Our Home on the Hillside, replaced by the Jackson Sanatorium in Dansville, New York. The cereal never became popular, due to the inconvenient necessity of tenderizing the heavy bran and graham nuggets by soaking them overnight. George H. Hoyt created Wheatena circa 1879, during an era when retailers would buy cereal (the most po

Unification (physics)

Unification of the observable fundamental phenomena of nature is one of the primary goals of physics. The "first great unification" was Isaac Newton's 17th century unification of gravity, which brought together the understandings of the observable phenomena of gravity on Earth with the observable behaviour of celestial bodies in space; the "second great unification" was James Clerk Maxwell's 19th century unification of electromagnetism, brought together the understandings of the observable phenomena of magnetism and light (and more broadly, the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. This was followed in the 20th century by Albert Einstein's unification of space and time, of mass and energy. Quantum field theory unified quantum mechanics and special relativity; this process of "unifying" forces continues today, with the ultimate goal of finding a theory of everything – it remains the most important of the unsolved problems in physics. There remain four fundamental forces which have not been decisively unified: the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions, which produce significant long-range forces whose effects can be seen directly in everyday life, the strong and weak interactions, which produce forces at minuscule, subatomic distances and govern nuclear interactions.

Gravity and electromagnetism have been proposed together in the theory of Gravitoelectromagnetism. Electromagnetism and the weak interactions are considered to be two aspects of the electroweak interaction. Attempt to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity into a single theory of quantum gravity, a program ongoing for over half a century, have not yet been decisively resolved; the ancient Chinese observed. This effect was called magnetism, first rigorously studied in the 17th century, but before the Chinese discovered magnetism, the ancient Greeks knew of other objects such as amber, that when rubbed with fur would cause a similar invisible attraction between the two. This was first studied rigorously in the 17th century and came to be called electricity. Thus, physics had come to understand two observations of nature in terms of some root cause. However, further work in the 19th century revealed that these two forces were just two different aspects of one force—electromagnetism; this process of "unifying" forces continues today, electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force are now considered to be two aspects of the electroweak interaction.

Physics hopes to find an ultimate reason for why nature is as it is

George E. Alter

George Elias Alter was a Pennsylvania lawyer and politician, who served a term as state Attorney General. Alter was born the son of Martha Ferson Alter. Elias was a carpenter, involved in local school politics. Elias's aunt, Susanna Alter, had been the wife of former Pennsylvania governor Joseph Ritner. Alter was educated at public schools, read law, was admitted to the bar in 1893. In 1902, he married Diana J. Swanton, they would have four children. Alter was involved in local school politics, he was elected to three terms in the state House of Representatives: 1908, 1910, 1912, he served as Speaker of the House, 1913–14. Late in 1920, Attorney General William I. Schaffer was appointed to the state Supreme Court, Alter was appointed in his place. In 1922, while Attorney General, Alter campaigned for Governor, with the backing of the party, was expected to win the Republican nomination. Gifford Pinchot ran against him, defeated Alter in a close election with a strong showing among women voters, went on to win the full election.

From 1924 to 1925, Alter was president of the Pennsylvania Bar Association. From 1927–32, he was a member of a commission on uniform State laws. Jordan, John W. ed.. A Century and a Half of Pittsburg and Her People. 3. Lewis Publishing Company. Miller, Herman P. ed.. Smull's Legislative Hand Book and Manual of the State of Pennsylvania