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Breaking Away

Breaking Away is a 1979 American coming of age comedy-drama film produced and directed by Peter Yates and written by Steve Tesich. It follows a group of four male teenagers in Bloomington, who have graduated from high school; the film stars Dennis Christopher, Dennis Quaid, Daniel Stern, Jackie Earle Haley, Barbara Barrie, Paul Dooley, Robyn Douglass. Breaking Away won the 1979 Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for Tesich, received nominations in four other categories, including Best Picture, it won the 1979 Golden Globe Award for Best Film, received nominations in three other Golden Globe categories. As the film's young lead, Christopher won the 1979 BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer and the 1979 Young Artist Award for Best Juvenile Actor, as well as getting a Golden Globe nomination as New Star of the Year; the film is ranked eighth on the List of America's 100 Most Inspiring Movies compiled by the American Film Institute in 2006. In June 2008, AFI announced its 10 Top 10—the best ten films in ten classic American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community.

Breaking Away ranked as the eighth best film in the sports genre. Tesich was an alumnus of Indiana University Bloomington; the film was shot around Bloomington and on the university's campus. Dave, Mike and Moocher are working-class friends living in the college town of Bloomington, Indiana. Now turning 19, they all graduated from high school the year before and are not sure what to do with their lives, they spend much of their time together swimming in an old abandoned water-filled quarry. They sometimes clash with the more affluent Indiana University students in their hometown, who habitually refer to them as "cutters", a derogatory term for locals related to the local Indiana limestone industry and the stonecutters who worked the quarries. Dave is obsessed with competitive bicycle racing, Italian racers in particular, because he won a Masi bicycle, his down-to-earth father Ray, a former stonecutter who now operates his own used car business, is puzzled and exasperated by his son's love of Italian music and culture, which Dave associates with cycling.

However, his mother Evelyn prepares Italian dishes for him. Dave develops a crush on a university student named Katherine and masquerades as an Italian exchange student in order to romance her. One evening, he serenades "Katerina" outside her sorority house, with Cyril providing guitar accompaniment; when her boyfriend Rod finds out, he and some of his fraternity brothers beat Cyril up, mistaking him for Dave. Though Cyril wants no trouble, Mike insists on starting a brawl; the university president reprimands the students for their arrogance toward the "cutters" and, over their objections, invites the latter to participate in the annual Indiana University Little 500 race. When a professional Italian cycling team comes to town for a race, Dave is thrilled to be competing with them. However, the Italians become irked. One of them jams a tire pump in Dave's wheel, causing him to crash, he subsequently confesses his deception to Katherine, heartbroken. Dave's friends persuade him to join them in forming a cycling team for the Little 500.

Dave's parents provide T-shirts with the name "Cutters" on them. Ray tells his son how, when he was a young stonecutter, he was proud to help provide the material to construct the university, yet he never felt comfortable on campus. Dave runs into Katherine, leaving for a job in Chicago. Dave is so much better than the other competitors in the Little 500 that, while the college teams switch cyclists every few laps, he rides without a break and builds up a big lead. However, he has to stop. After some hesitation, Moocher and Mike take turns pedaling, but soon the Cutters' lead vanishes. Dave has them tape his feet to the pedals and starts to make up lost ground. Ray takes to riding a bicycle himself. Dave enrolls at the university, where he meets a pretty French student. Soon, he is extolling to her the virtues of French cyclists; the Little 500 bicycle race that forms the centerpiece of the plot is a real race held annually at Indiana University. A reenactment of the race was staged for the film in the "old" Memorial Stadium on the IU campus, demolished in 1982, four years after Breaking Away was shot.

The team is based on the 1962 Phi Kappa Psi Little 500 champions, which featured legendary rider and Italian enthusiast Dave Blase, who provided screenwriter and fellow Phi Kappa Psi team member Steve Tesich the inspiration for the main character in the movie. Blase, together with team manager Bob Stohler, provided the name of this character: Dave Stohler. In the 1962 race, Blase rode one hundred thirty-nine out of two hundred laps and was the victory rider crossing the finish line, much like the main character in the film. Blase himself appears in the movie as the race announcer; the scenes filmed in and around Bloomington, were filmed during the summer of 1978. Many of the scenes in the movie were filmed on the Indiana University campus. Dave Stoller's house in the film is located at


Polyopisthocotylea is a subclass of parasitic flatworms in the class Monogenea. There are only two subclasses in the class Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea; the name means "a single posterior sucker" - the attachment organ is simple. Polyopisthocotylea; the name means "several posterior suckers" - the attachment organ is complex, with several clamps or suckers. The subclass Polyopisthocotylea contains the four following orders: Order Chimaericolidea Order Diclybothriidea Order Mazocraeidea Order Polystomatidea Microcotyle visa, one of the numerous species which are parasitic on gills of marine fish. Diplozoon paradoxum, famous for its perfect monogamy, with the two individuals of the pair fused together Lethacotyle vera, a parasite of the brassy trevally, "the monogenean which lost its clamps" Polystoma integerrimum, a parasite of frogs which synchronises its breeding with that of its host Protocotyle euzetmaillardi, a parasite of the bigeyed sixgill shark Hexanchus nakamurai Chimaericola leptogaster, a parasite of the gills of the chimaera Chimaera monstrosa

Wim van Heumen

Wilhelmus "Wim" Maria van Heumen was a field hockey coach from the Netherlands, in charge of the Dutch National Men's Team from 1975 to 1986. Van Heumen graduated in 1954 with a degree in physical education. Beginning in 1956 he taught this subject at the Academy of Physical Education in Tilburg. In 1966 he became a coach with the field hockey club of's-Hertogenbosch and a national coach with a first match played on 19 July 1975, he retired from this position in April 1986 after supervising 232 matches with 139 wins and 35 draws. Van Heumen introduced new elements to Dutch hockey such as playing on artificial grass and combining summer training on grass with winter plays indoors. A member of the Catholic People's Party and its successor the Christian Democratic Appeal Van Heumen was a member of the municipal council of's-Hertogenbosch from 1970 till his death in 1992. From 1990 he was an alderman. Van Heumen was born to Hendrikus Johannes van Petronella Henkelman. On 9 February he married Martina Gijsberdina Theresia Vollebergh.

They had one daughter. One son, Gijs van Heumen, became a prominent field hockey coach with the women's team in the 1980s

Peter Suhrkamp

Peter Suhrkamp was a German publisher and founder of the Suhrkamp Verlag. Suhrkamp was a farmer's son from some ten miles south-east of Oldenburg; the house where he was born is still standing: in the town hall at Kirchhatten there is a bust of him by Johannes Cernota as well as a portrait, while a few of his works are exhibited at the local library. As a young man Suhrkamp was a candidate for the priesthood at the Evangelical seminary in Oldenburg. Like many of his generation, in 1914 he volunteered for the army where he would serve as an infantryman and as a Battalion Patrol Leader. For his contribution as an Assault Troop leader he won the Knight’s Cross of the Royal Order of Hohenzollern, awarded "with swords, for particular bravery”, his experiences on the frontline led him to a nervous breakdown. After the war he studied Literature and linguistics at, Heidelberg and Munich. During his studies he worked as a teacher at the Odenwald School, a private boarding school in Heppenheim and at the prestigious Free School Community in Wickersdorf.

From 1921 to 1925 Suhrkamp worked as dramatic director at the Landestheater Darmstadt. Between 1925 and 1929 he returned to teaching at the Free School Community in Wickersdorf where he had earlier worked while a student, he gave up teaching in 1929 and relocated to Berlin where he worked as a freelancer with the Berliner Tageblatt, a leading liberal newspaper of the time working on the monthly magazine “Uhu”, produced by the same publisher as the BT. During this time he was married three times: to Ida Plöger, a teacher, from 1913-1918, to Irmgard Caroline Lehmann from 1919-1923 and, more in 1923/24 to the opera singer, Fanny Cleve. In 1932 he joined the S. Fischer Verlag as editor of the Neue Rundschau, a literary magazine. In 1933 he joined the company’s board. In 1935 he married Annemarie Seidel, who had started a career as an actress but been obliged to retire on health grounds. A year the S. Fischer Verlag company was split when Gottfried Bermann Fischer moved to Vienna, taking part of the business with him.

Part of the business had to remain in Germany, being purchased by Peter Suhrkamp, who would continue to lead it till he was accused of high treason and arrested by the Gestapo in April 1944. The legal process continued till early in 1945, when he was placed in “protective custody" in the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg. Two weeks suffering from a serious lung disease, he was released. Several celebrities from the world of culture and the arts had approached members of the leader’s inner circle, to urge Suhrkamp’s release; these included the sculptor Arno Breker who had intervened with Albert Speer, the writer Gerhart Hauptmann who had invoked support from Baldur von Schirach, the writer Hans Carossa who had approached Ernst Kaltenbrunner. After the German surrender, Suhrkamp received, on 8 October 1945, the first publishing license from the British Military Government in Berlin and began the rebuilding of the company, he cooperated with Bermann Fischer, publishing some of his authors, in Germany.

Suhrkamp and Fischer discussed a reintegration of the two businesses that had split when the political situation had obliged Fisher to leave Germany back in 1936. There was talk of refounding S. Fischer Verlag in Frankfurt am Main. In due course Fischer was re-established in Frankfurt, but there was a rift between Fischer and Suhrkamp over the future of the business. Following an out-of-court settlement, it was Bermann Fischer who recovered the Frankfurt publishing business that carried his name and Peter Suhrkamp who left to establish, in 1950, his own publishing house, Suhrkamp Verlag; the creation of the "new“ Suhrkamp Verlag owed much to the initiative of Hermann Hesse who provided encouragement and moral support, was able to provide valuable contacts with investors, notably the Swiss Reinhart family. Authors who had remained with Fischer Verlag during the Nazi years were given a free choice as to whether to stay with the existing business, now under Bermann Fischer, or have their future works published by Peter Suhrkamp’s new concern.

In the end, 33 of the 48 authors in question, including Bertolt Brecht and Hermann Hesse, switched to Suhrkamp Verlag. Suhrkamp’s fourth marriage was lasting better than the first three, his wife Annemarie Seidel joined the firm, working as an editor and translator. Public recognition followed the commercial success of Suhrkamp Verlag, in 1956 Suhrkamp received the Goethe Plaque of the City of Frankfurt. Honorary membership of the German Academy for Language and Literature followed in 1957. Suhrkamp was an enthusiastic visitor to the Island of Sylt where his wife had retained a villa following the ending of her marriage to the wealthy musicologist Anthony van Hoboken; the villa had been constructed in 1929 directly on the Wadden Sea. In the years following the war the Suhrkamps entertained eminent guests here, such as Max Frisch. However, in 1953 the holiday villa was sold to the energetic newspaper magnate Axel Springer and his wife for 45,000 Marks: Surhkamp invested his windfall in the German language publishing rights for Marcel Proust’s works.

Authors published by Suhkamp included Theodor W. Adorno, Samuel Beckett, Bertolt Brecht, T. S. Eliot, Max Frisch, Ernst Penzoldt, Rudolf Alexander Schröd


Somondoco is a town and municipality in the Colombian Department of Boyacá. This town and larger municipal area are located in the Valle de Tenza; the Valle de Tenza is the ancient route connecting the Llanos. The area is dotted with many such little towns all located at the same altitude. Somondoco borders Almeida in the east, Guayatá in the west and Sutatenza in the north and in the south the Cundinamarca municipality of Ubalá; the nearest larger town is Guateque, about 30 minutes away by car. In Somondoco are several small companies producing handicrafts and collectables. Somondoco is derived from the Chibcha words So = stone, Mon = bath, Co = support; the village is named after cacique Sumindoco. Somondoco is a old center of population extending back into prehistory; the Muisca settled here due to the abundance of emeralds mined in the Andes mountains. When the Spanish conquistadores led by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada arrived, Somondoco was ruled by a cacique named Sumindoco, he was loyal to the zaque of Hunza.

The date of foundation of Somondoco is November 6, 1537. Main economical activities of Somondoco are emerald agriculture. Branquet, Yannick. 1999. Emeralds in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia: Two tectonic settings for one mineralization. Geology 27. 597-600. Accessed 2017-01-05. Giuliani, Gaston. 1995. An evaporitic origin of the parent brines of Colombian emeralds: fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope evidence. European Journal of Mineralogy 7. 151-165. Accessed 2017-01-05. Ortega Medina, Laura Milena. 2007. Tipología y condiciones de formaciónde las manifestaciones del sector esmeraldífero "Peña Coscuez", 1-121. Universidad Industrial de Santander. Accessed 2017-01-05. Pignatelli, Isabella. 2015. Colombian Trapiche Emeralds: Recent Advances in Understanding Their Formation. Gems & Gemology LI. 222-259

Kiekrz, PoznaƄ

Kiekrz is part of the city of Poznań in western Poland, situated on the northwest edge of the city, adjoining Kierskie Lake. It has several holiday sites and sailing clubs, a significant number of detached houses. Kiekrz is one of the 42 osiedles; the town's name has been attributed by ornithologists to the sounds. The name of the town was recorded as Kerz; the current name was only given in 1524. Humans appeared around the Kierskie Lakes eight thousand years ago; the origin of the settlement are unknown. It is possible that between the 12th and 13th centuries the dukes of Greater Poland granted Kiekrz to the Nałęcze family; the first residents of Kiekrz were the Łodziowie and Lubowie families. By the 15th century the only family still residing there was the Lubowie family, who over time adopted the name of Kierscy from the name of the town. In 1793, as a result of the Second Partition of Poland, Kiekrz fell under Prussian rule. After signing the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, Napoleon created the Duchy of Warsaw in whose borders Kiekrz found itself.

The defeat of Napoleon and the provisions of the Congress of Vienna caused Kiekrz to fall under the jurisdiction of the King of Prussia as part of the Grand Duchy of Poznań in 1815, where it remained until the 1850s. The owners of Kiekrz, until Poland regained independence, were Germans, it became German property thanks to the actions of the Prussian Settlement Commission. During the First World War much of the local male population was drafted into the German army; this resulted in a severe drop in the local level of education as the number of students at the local schools diminished. At the end of World War I Kiekrz along with the villages on the north-western shore of the lake became part of Gmina Rokietnica; the local people of Kiekrz were not noted as having taken part in the Greater Poland Uprising. The Wehrmacht entered Kiekrz without fighting in 1939 and Kiekrz became part of the Reichsgau Wartheland; the Polish school in Kiekrz was shut down and the Nazi authorities created a German school in the old Evangelical school.

The Nazis tried to eradicate local culture. The local population was beaten for no reason and forced to work on the local estate. Kiekrz, which had never before had a Jewish population, now housed two Nazi prisons for Jewish people, one for men and one for women; the Nazis devastated the local religious symbols, cutting down crosses and vandalising shrines and other crosses, which began disappearing. Some of these were taken by the locals for safekeeping and returned after the war; the Red Army entered Kiekrz at the end of January 1945. The general of the division of the Red Army that entered Kiekrz organised a meeting to appoint a local militia; the image of Kiekrz in February 1945 was a saddening one with huge losses caused by the Nazi occupation. On 1 January 1987 part of the village of Kiekrz and part of the Wielkie village, from Gmina Rokietnica became part of Poznań; the rest of the village is an autonomous sołectwo. Kiekrz was part of the Jeżyce district of Poznań between the years 1987–1990.

An auxiliary unit of the city, the Osiedle Poznań-Kiekrz was created in 1992. On 1 January 2011 the borders of the Kiekrz Housing Estate were changed according to the 2010 Poznań reform of auxiliary units; the former village church is located in the centre. The parish church's origin lies either in the thirteenth century; the first documented record comes from the year 1397, which mentions a "Provost Paweł from Kiekrz". The original church of St. Michael, built on the highest point in Kiekrz, was made out of wood. Parish documents that survive to this day begin in 1407. At the end of the sixteenth century the local landowners, the Kierscy family, built a brick church consecrated by Bishop Suffragan of Poznań in the year 1591, as the church of St. Michael the Archangel and Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Two centuries in the seventeenth century, Maria Kierska, Chatelaine of Rogoźno, expanded the church to its current size; the development was finished in 1770. The tower fell in 1854 and was rebuilt in 1863.

The church is built in the interior in the rococo style. A painting of St. Michael, the patron saint of the parish, adorns the altar. Two figures of the archangels Raphael and Gabriel stand on either side of the altar. A painting of the Holy Family and that of Anthony of Padua adorn the walls of the presbytery; the side altars feature paintings of St. John of Nepomuk. During the last war the church was converted into an arsenal. All of the church’s equipment was stolen by the Nazis; the church was restored in 1947. The church bells were consecrated on 28 September 1947 which were moved from a temporary bell tower to the church tower in 1964; the original manor was built in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. The only remaining part of the original Kiekrz Manor from before the demolition is the outbuilding from the eighteenth century; the manor was rebuilt in the first half of the nineteenth century and in the 1970s. It is a brick building one-storeyed house, with a basement and an attic with a steep hip roof with dormers.

The outbuilding was covered with shingle. The building now houses the office of the Rehabilitation Hospital for Children; the p