Point of Entry
Point of Entry is the seventh studio album from the British heavy metal band Judas Priest. It was released on 26 February 1981. In 1980 Judas Priest garnered some airplay with "Breaking the Law" and "Living After Midnight" from their album British Steel; as a result, the band pursued a more radio friendly direction on Point of Entry. Following the conclusion of the British Steel World Tour, the band began work on their next project. By this time, they had sufficient funds to fly all their equipment to the huge, state-of-the-art Ibiza Studios in Spain; this gave Point of Entry a louder, more "live" sound than previous Judas Priest albums. Three singles were released from the album: "Heading Out to the Highway", "Don't Go" and "Hot Rockin'", all of which had accompanying music videos; the song "Heading Out to the Highway" has been a staple in live shows since its release, "Desert Plains" was played throughout the 1980s and "Hot Rockin'" is still performed today. On the 2005 "Re-united" tour they played "Solar Angels" on rare occasions, while on the World Wide Blitz Tour of 1981, it had been the opening song of every show.
"Europe got an intriguing and colorful sort of futuristic metal wing over a horizon shot...designed by Roslav Szaybo, who had done all the band's CBS albums to date." The North American cover differed from the rest of this being repeated with the remaster. The US artwork, featuring computer printer paper to simulate the line in the middle of the road and white cardboard boxes on the back, was designed by Columbia Record's John Berg. "'The sleeve was awful, scoffs the guitarist,'and we've got to blame management for that because they didn't shop around enough to get one, suitable. The American cover was different, but that turned out to be worse!'" The artwork saw the introduction of the 3D Judas Priest logo, which would be used up to Turbo. The album was remastered in 2001, with two bonus tracks added, a live version of "Desert Plains" and "Thunder Road", a track from the Ram It Down sessions. In the booklet of the Remastered CD, the band states: Recorded on the island of Ibiza with multiple distractions, glorious sunshine, low cost alcohol, this album was regarded with mixed feelings because it was different from what people expected.
The album was nearly all spontaneously written and performed in Ibiza - it was an experiment in the sense that before this we had written the majority of the songs before going into the studio. In 2005, Point of Entry was ranked number 352 in Rock Hard magazine's book of The 500 Greatest Rock & Metal Albums of All Time. In the 2007 book Metal: The Definitive Guide, author Garry Sharpe-Young wrote that the album consists of "radio-friendly fillers." Moreover, Sharpe-Young called the original British artwork "bland" and subsequent American alternative artwork "an worse compromise." All tracks written by Glenn Tipton, Rob Halford and K. K. Downing, except where noted. Judas PriestRob Halford – vocals K. K. Downing – guitars Glenn Tipton – guitars Ian Hill – bass Dave Holland – drumsProductionProduced by Judas Priest and Tom Allom Engineered by Louis Austin Mixed by Tom Allom Mastered by Ray Staff UK cover design by Rosław Szaybo US cover design by John Berg, photography by Art Kane
Ensiferum is a Finnish folk metal band from Helsinki. The members of the band label themselves as "melodic folk metal." Metal and folk melodies are played on lead guitar or keyboard, overlaying heavier heavy metal backing rhythms such as the classic gallop. The band include frequent use of acoustic guitars at the beginnings of songs; the lyrical themes of their music most relate to fantastical, archaic, or historic stories that can most be grouped in with Nordic concepts with heroic sentiment. Ensiferum was founded in 1995 by Sauli Savolainen and Kimmo Miettinen. For the band's name, they took the Latin adjective ensiferum, which means "sword bearer". In the next year, Jari Mäenpää was taken into the band as singer and second guitar-player. In 1997, the first demo was released. In 1998, Sauli and Kimmo were replaced by Jukka-Pekka Miettinen and Oliver Fokin. In January 1999, a second demo was recorded, which although it did not produce a recording deal, boosted the band's confidence. In November 1999 a third demo, "Hero in a Dream", was recorded, successful in obtaining a record deal with Spinefarm Records.
The logo that appears on all the bands releases was designed for the third demo by Tuomas Tahvanainen, who designed the logos for the earlier demos. In 2000, the band went into the studio to work on their first album, released in August 2001. In the same year, Meiju Enho joined them as a keyboard-player. In 2004, after the work was completed on the second album, Jari left the band due to conflicts between scheduled studio work on his side project Wintersun and touring with Ensiferum. For the tour with Finntroll, Petri Lindroos from Norther replaced Jari on guitar and as singer, became a member of the band after the tour. In December 2004, Jukka-Pekka was replaced by Sami Hinkka. Oliver left in 2005 to be replaced by Janne Parviainen; the new Ensiferum line-up entered the studio that year to record an EP to be called Dragonheads, released in February 2006. As well as the title track, it contained two reworked demo songs. In June 2006, Ensiferum released their live DVD, 10th Anniversary Live, recorded in Nosturi, Helsinki, on 31 December 2005.
The recording of the third studio album, called Victory Songs, took place between November 2006 and early 2007, was released on 20 April 2007. A single titled "One More Magic Potion" was released on 7 February. Following the album's release, the band released through the producer's MySpace page, a music video for the song "Ahti," which included all band members featured as extras; the video was released after the album release due to video filming problems. On 10 September 2007, it was announced; this was posted in a bulletin on their MySpace page and confirmed on their website. The band used Emmi Silvennoinen of Exsecratus as a touring fill-in, she became a permanent member of the band during the recording of the From Afar album. Ensiferum headlined the Paganfest tour in Europe and North America in 2008. Others playing the tour included Týr and Eluveitie, with Moonsorrow and Korpiklaani joining them on the European part of the tour, Turisas in North America, they supported Megadeth on the opening night of their United Abominations – Tour of Duty European tour.
Ensiferum supported Amon Amarth on their North American Twilight of the Thunder God tour. Shortly before their Russian tour in 2008, vocalist/guitarist Petri Lindroos fell "seriously ill" and was unable to participate; the band hired ex-bassist Jukka-Pekka Miettinen to assume Lindroos' guitar duties, while bassist Sami Hinkka took over his lead vocal duties for the tour. In the first half of 2009, Ensiferum performed at a string of festivals including Frostrock in Belgium, Finnish Metal Expo and Tuska Open Air in Finland, Rocktower and Rock am Härtsfeldsee in Germany, Summer Nights in Austria, Z7 Metal Dayz in Switzerland. In June and July they toured North America as part of the Summer Slaughter Tour with Necrophagist, Darkest Hour, Blackguard, Dying Fetus, Beneath the Massacre and Winds of Plague. In August they performed at the Global East Rock Festival in Ukraine and Jurassic Rock in Finland, Let's Open Air in Turkey. Ensiferum released their fourth studio album, on 9 September 2009 with Spinefarm Records.
The album was produced by Nightwish producer Tero Kinnunen and Victory Songs producer Janne Joutsenniemi, it was mixed by producer Hiili Hiilesmaa. The limited edition of the album includes a cover of Swedish folk rock group Nordman with guest vocalist Heri Joensen of Faroese band Týr. Following the release, the group embarked on a European tour with Estonian folk metal band Metsatöll and Finnish melodic death metal band Tracedawn. In October they performed at Hellflame Festival – The South Side of Hell and Devil's Revenge festival in Germany, Tattoo the Mind in France. Ensiferum performed on the second day of the inaugural Screamfest Festival in Sydney, Australia, on New Years Day 2010. In November/December they toured North America with Ex Deo, Blackguard. Ensiferum were confirmed to play Bloodstock Open Air at Catton Hall, United Kingdom in 2010. In October 2010, Ensiferum embarked on their first South African tour; this tour consisted of four shows in two cities, they were accompanied by numerous local meta
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Judas Priest are an English heavy metal band formed in West Bromwich in 1969. The band has sold over 50 million copies of their albums to date, they are ranked as one of the greatest metal bands of all time. Despite an innovative and pioneering body of work in the latter half of the 1970s, the band struggled with indifferent record production and lack of major commercial success or attention until 1980, when they adopted a more simplified sound on the album British Steel, which helped shoot them to rock superstar status; the band's membership has seen much turnover, including a revolving cast of drummers in the 1970s, the temporary departure of singer Rob Halford in the early 1990s. The current line-up consists of Halford, bassist Ian Hill, guitarists Glenn Tipton and Richie Faulkner, drummer Scott Travis; the band's best-selling album is 1982's Screaming for Vengeance with their most commercially successful line-up, featuring Hill, Tipton, guitarist K. K. Downing, drummer Dave Holland. Tipton and Hill are the only two members of the band to appear on every album.
Halford's operatic vocal style and the twin guitar sound of Downing and Tipton have been a major influence on metal and have been adopted by many bands. Their image of leather and other taboo articles of clothing were influential during the glam metal era of the 1980s; the Guardian referred to British Steel as the record. Despite a decline in exposure during the mid 1990s, the band has once again seen a resurgence, including worldwide tours, being inaugural inductees into the VH1 Rock Honors in 2006, receiving a Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance in 2010, their songs featured in video games such as Guitar Hero and the Rock Band series. Judas Priest formed in 1969 in industrial West Bromwich, in the Black Country, by vocalist Al Atkins and bassist Brian "Bruno" Stapenhill, with John Perry on guitar and John "Fezza" Partridge on drums. Perry soon died in a road accident, amongst the replacements the band auditioned were future Judas Priest guitarist Kenny "K. K." Downing. Stapenhill came up with the name Judas Priest from Bob Dylan's song "The Ballad of Frankie Lee and Judas Priest" on the album John Wesley Harding.
No member of that early line-up lasted long enough to play on the band's recordings, though several songs co-written by Atkins appeared on their first two albums. The band gained a three-album recording contract with the label Immediate in late 1969 after a gig in Walsall, but the label went out of business before an album could be recorded, the band split in 1970. Late in the year, Atkins found a heavy rock band rehearsing without a singer called Freight, made up of K. K. Downing on guitar, his childhood friend Ian "Skull" Hill on bass, drummer John Ellis, he joined them, they took on Atkins' defunct band's name. Their first gig was on 6 March 1971. Ellis quit that year and was replaced with Alan Moore. Early shows included Hendrix and Quatermass covers, in 1972 the set list included the originals "Never Satisfied", "Winter", the show-closer "Caviar and Meths". Moore left and was replaced with Christopher Louis "Congo" Campbell, the band joined Black Sabbath guitarist Tony Iommi's management agency Iommi Management Agency.
Atkins continued to write material for the band—including "Whiskey Woman", which became the base for the Judas Priest staple "Victim of Changes"—but as finances were tight and he had a family to support, he played his last gigs with the band in December 1972. Campbell left soon afterwards, the band enlisted two members of the band Hiroshima: drummer John Hinch and vocalist Rob Halford, the brother of Hill's girlfriend. Judas Priest made their first tour of continental Europe in early 1974 and returned to England that April to sign a recording deal with the label Gull. Gull suggested adding a fifth member to fill in the band's sound. A precursor of The Flying Hat Band called Shave'Em Dry featured future Starfighters drummer Barry Scrannage, who had played with original Priest members Ernest Chataway and Bruno Stapenhill in the band Bullion. Judas Priest went into the studio in June–July 1974 with Black Sabbath producer Rodger Bain; the band released their debut single "Rocka Rolla" that August and followed in September with an album of the same name.
The album features a variety of styles—straight-up rock, heavy riffing, progressive. Technical problems during the recording contributed to the poor sound quality of the record. Producer Rodger Bain, whose resume included Black Sabbath's first three albums as well as Budgie's first album, dominated the production of the album and made decisions with which the band did not agree. Bain chose to leave fan favourites from the band's live set, such as "Tyrant", "Genocide" and "The Ripper", off the album and he cut the song "Caviar and Meths" from a 10-minute song down to a 2-minute instrumental; the tour for Rocka Rolla was Judas Priest's first international tour with dates in Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark including one show at Hotel Klubben in Tønsberg, one hour from Oslo, which scored them a somewhat negative review in the local press. The album flopped upon release. Priest attempted to secure a deal with Gull Records to get a monthly pay of 50 pounds, because Gull Records were struggling as well, they declined.
Rocka Rolla has been for the most part dismissed by the band and none of its songs were played live after 1976 except for "Neve
Breaking the Law
"Breaking the Law" is a song by British heavy metal band Judas Priest released on their 1980 album British Steel. The song is one of the band's better known singles, is recognised by its opening guitar riff. Prior to releasing 1980's British Steel, Judas Priest had been making moves toward streamlining their music into a simpler, less processed sound; that approach came to full fruition on British Steel. "Breaking the Law" combines a recognisable minor-key opening riff and a rhythmic chorus as its main hooks. There is a change-up on the instrumental bridge, a new chord progression with Halford shouting "You don't know what it's like!" before the sound effect of a police car's siren leads back into the main riff. More recent live performances of the song have featured a short solo by Downing over the bridge; the outro of the song is the main riff played with Halford singing the chorus and Downing playing power chords. The lyrics tell of someone at the rock bottom in their life – out of work, unable to find work, feeling that nobody cares if they live or die turning to crime for survival.
The song features some sound effects, including the sound of a police siren. The band were recording British Steel at Tittenhurst Park, the home of The Beatles's drummer Ringo Starr. For the breaking glass effect, the band used milk bottles that a milkman brought them in the morning, the police siren was guitarist K. K. Downing using the tremolo arm on his Stratocaster. Directed by Julien Temple, the video starts with vocalist Rob Halford singing from the back of a 1974 Cadillac Fleetwood Eldorado convertible travelling along on the Westway section of the A40 in West London; the car parks outside an unnamed bank near Oxford Street. Halford meets with two men dressed as priests carrying guitar cases and they enter the bank together. For the breaking the law chorus the two men remove their disguises and are revealed to be guitarists K. K. Downing and Glenn Tipton, they are joined by bassist Ian Hill and drummer Dave Holland. The people in the bank are incapacitated by the guitars. Meanwhile, the security guard watches on in amazement on the CCTV screens.
The band breaks into the safe. Halford takes from the safe a golden record award for the British Steel album, they soon get back into the car and drive away. Concert footage of Judas Priest is now on the CCTV screens and we see the security guard miming along with a fake guitar much lost in the music; the video ends with the full band driving back along the A40 repeating the chorus until the song is finished. Since British Steel was released, "Breaking the Law" has been a popular staple at some of Judas Priest's most famous performances; the performance version of the song has changed since it was first performed on the 1981 World Wide Blitz Tour for the follow up to British Steel, Point of Entry: at first, the band would play it the original way it was on British Steel. The band sometimes played the opening riff with Halford picking for Downing, Downing picking for Tipton and Tipton picking for Hill quickly spreading apart to their respective usual positions on the stage for the verse. Over time, the band have raised the tempo of the song during live performances, a solo was added by Downing.
In live performances, Halford ends the song by screaming the words "Breaking the Law". The song made VH1's 40 Greatest Metal Songs at No. 40. In 2009 it was named the 12th greatest hard rock song of all time by VH1. HammerFall Motörhead Ensiferum Die Ärzte Stryper Firewind Doro Therapy? Lvzbel Pansy Division Hayseed Dixie Fightstar The Cooters The Meteors Berri Txarrak Volbeat Hellsongs Knorkator Unleashed Arch Enemy Babymetal (Live w/ Rob Halford at Alternative Press Music Awards 2016, w/ Chad Smith on The Getaway World Tour The song was both used and parodied in "Washing the Dog", a second season episode of the MTV show and Butt-head. During the show the title duo chant a parody version "Washing the dog, washing the dog" to the tune of the song while washing neighbor Mr Anderson's dog in a washing machine, they view the actual Breaking the Law video in the third season episode "Scared Straight". During the viewing they are distressed by Rob Halford's clothing and decide that though they still like Judas Priest as a band, the video sucks.
The comedian Noel Fielding pretended to sing this song into a baby's face as a lullaby, on the British musical comedy TV show Never Mind the Buzzcocks in November 2013. A "glam folk" version of the song is featured over the end credits of the Mighty Boosh episode "Electro"; the song was featured on an episode of The Simpsons. "Breaking the Law" was parodied in the episode "Steal This Episode" where Homer has gained asylum in a Swedish apartment building, as the FBI is after him for bootlegging movies, the FBI attempts to get him out by bringing in Judas Priest to sing a copyright-minded version of the song, which included the lyrics "Respecting the law, copyright law." The song is featured in the video game Guitar Hero Live. The song "Breaking the Law" was covered by Big John Bates & the Voodoo Dollz on their 2009 LP Bangtown. Rob Halford – vocals K. K. Downing – lead guitar Glenn Tipton – lead guitar Ian Hill – bass guitar Dave Holland – drums "Metal Gods" is a song by British heavy metal band Ju
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro