Many reefs are built using objects that were built for other purposes, for example by sinking oil rigs, scuttling ships, or by deploying rubble or construction debris. Other artificial reefs are built from PVC or concrete. Shipwrecks may become artificial reefs when preserved on the sea floor, the construction of artificial reefs is thousands of years old. Since at least the 1830s, US fishermen used interlaced logs to build artificial reefs, more recently, castaway junk, such as old refrigerators, shopping carts, ditched cars, out-of-service vending machines replaced the logs in ad hoc reefs. Officially sanctioned projects have incorporated decommissioned subway cars, vintage battle tanks, armored personnel carriers, artificial reefs tend to develop in more or less predictable stages. Next come creatures seeking protection from the oceans lethal openness—hole and crevice dwellers such as grouper, squirrelfish, opportunistic predators such as jack and barracuda appear, waiting for their prey to venture out.
Over months and years the structure becomes encrusted with algae, tunicates and soft corals. Mineral accretion involves applying a low voltage current to a structure to cause limestone to crystallize on the surface, to which coral planulae can attach. The electric current speeds post-attachment growth, EMA works like charging a battery with a positive pole, the cathode, and a negative pole, the anode. Applying electric current attracts various dissolved minerals to either the cathode or the anode, chemical reactions take place at both poles. On the anode, bubbles of oxygen and chlorine gas form and these bubbles float to the surface and dissolve into the air. On the cathode, bubbles of gas and a limestone precipitate appear. The voltage is low enough that it can be generated by floating solar panels or from wave motion, artificial surfing reefs have been created in several locations around the world. Supporters cite subsidiary benefits such as protection, habitat enhancement. The worlds first attempt was made in El Segundo, near Los Angeles, the next attempt was at Mosman Beach, Western Australia.
This reef was constructed of granite rocks placed in a pyramidal shape to form an appropriate breaking wave form that would suit surfers. An artificial reef constructed of over 400 massive, geotextile bags filled with sand was constructed in 2000 at Narrowneck on the Gold Coast of Queensland and this artificial reef had two objectives, stabilizing beach nourishment and improving surfing conditions. Europes first artificial reef was approved in 2008, construction began August 30,2008, in Boscombe, Bournemouth, UK, and opened in November 2009
Norfolk /ˈnɔːrfək/ is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the west and north-west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, of the countys population, 40% live in four major built up areas, Great Yarmouth, Kings Lynn and Thetford. The Broads is a network of rivers and lakes in the east of the county, the area is not a National Park although it is marketed as such. It has similar status to a park, and is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in times, with camps along the higher land in the west. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD, the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD47, and again in 60 led by Boudica. The crushing of the second opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county, situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, and forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons.
Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in -ton and -ham. Endings such as -by and -thorpe are common, indicating Danish place names, in the 9th century the region came under attack. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, and settlements grew in these areas. Migration into East Anglia must have high, by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable agriculture, the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which dramatically reduced the population in 1349. During the English Civil War Norfolk was largely Parliamentarian, the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich which was an addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation, during the Second World War agriculture rapidly intensified, and it has remained very intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolks low-lying land and easily eroded cliffs, many of which are chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to the sea, the low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is currently managed by the Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding
In coastal engineering, a tetrapod is a tetrahedral concrete structure used as armour unit on breakwaters. Earlier barrier material used in breakwaters, such as boulders and conventional concrete blocks and similar structures are often numbered so any displacement that occurs can be monitored from photographs. The unit was developed in 1950 by Laboratoire Dauphinois dHydraulique in Grenoble. They are no longer protected by a patent, and are used all over the world. In Japan, the word tetrapod is often used as a name for wave-dissipating blocks including other types and shapes. Tetrapods and concrete have become a Japanese institution in modern times and their manufacture and dispersal create jobs for Japanese citizens and contracts for construction companies. It is estimated that nearly 50 percent of Japans 35,000 kilometer coastline has been covered or somehow altered by Tetrapods, artificial reef Breakwater Coastal management Coastal erosion Dolos KOLOS Ocean surface wave Seawall Xbloc Lagasse, P. F.
Countermeasures to protect bridge piers from scour, Environmentally friendly coastal protection, proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmentally Friendly Coastal Protection Structures, Bulgaria, 25-27 May 2004. Tetrapodistas, Beauty beheld in huge concrete forms and Loathing Japans Concrete Coasts, Where Tetrapods Reign
Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government, Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868, Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. The Tokyo metropolitan government administers the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo, the metropolitan government administers 39 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains. The population of the wards is over 9 million people. The prefecture is part of the worlds most populous metropolitan area with upwards of 37.8 million people, the city hosts 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world.
Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit, the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo ranked first in the Global Economic Power Index and fourth in the Global Cities Index. The city is considered a world city – as listed by the GaWCs 2008 inventory – and in 2014. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle, the Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo ranked first in the world in the Safe Cities Index, the 2016 edition of QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, Tokyo was originally known as Edo, which means estuary. During the early Meiji period, the city was called Tōkei, some surviving official English documents use the spelling Tokei.
However, this pronunciation is now obsolete, the name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the twelfth century
Once attached, the island is known as a tied island. Several islands tied together by bars which rise above the level are called a tombolo cluster. Two or more tombolos may form an enclosure that can fill with sediment. The shoreline moves toward the island due to accretion of sand in the lee of the island where wave energy and longshore drift are reduced, true tombolos are formed by wave refraction and diffraction. As waves near an island, they are slowed by the water surrounding it. These waves bend around the island to the side as they approach. The wave pattern created by water movement causes a convergence of longshore drift on the opposite side of the island. The beach sediments that are moving by lateral transport on the lee side of the island will accumulate there, in other words, the waves sweep sediment together from both sides. Eventually, when sediment has built up, the beach shoreline, known as a spit, will connect with an island. Tombolos are more prone to fluctuations of profile and area as a result of tidal.
Because of this susceptibility to weathering, tombolos are sometimes made more sturdy through the construction of roads or parking lots, the sediments that make up a tombolo are coarser towards the bottom and finer towards the surface. It is easy to see this pattern when the waves are destructive and wash away finer grained material at the top, revealing coarser sands, sea level rise may contribute to accretion, as material is pushed up with rising sea levels. This is the case with Chesil Beach, notable because the ridge is parallel rather than perpendicular to the coast. Tombolos demonstrate the sensitivity of shorelines, a small piece of land, such as an island, can change the way that waves move, leading to different deposition of sediments
Alamitos Bay is an inlet on the Pacific Ocean coast of southern California, United States, between the cities of Long Beach and Seal Beach, at the outlet of the San Gabriel River. The bay is named for the Spanish word for little poplars, Alamitos Bay is protected by both the natural sand spit Peninsula and the Long Beach Breakwater. It is divided from the San Gabriel River and Seal Beach by a pair of jetties, the natural geography has been heavily altered by dredging and landfill subsequent to development. Alimitos Bay contains Marine Stadium, created for Olympic rowing events, naples, a collection of three islands, is entirely within Alamitos Bay
Brixham /ˈbrɪksəm/ is a small fishing town and civil parish in the district of Torbay in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England. Brixham is at the end of Torbay, across the bay from Torquay. At the time of the 2011 census it had a population of 16,693 and it is thought that the name Brixham came from Briocs village. Brioc was an old English or Brythonic personal name and -ham is an ancient term for home derived from Old English, the town is hilly and built around the harbour which remains in use as a dock for fishing trawlers. It has a focal tourist attraction in the replica of Sir Francis Drakes ship Golden Hind that is moored there. In summer the Cowtown carnival is held, a reminder of when Brixham was two communities with only a marshy lane to connect them. Cowtown was the area on top of the hill where the farmers lived, while a mile away in the harbour was Fishtown where the seamen lived. Cowtown, the St Marys Square area, is on the road leaving Brixham to the south west, in the direction of Kingswear, the town holds a yearly pirate event which competes for the title of most pirates in one place and this draws visitors from far and wide.
Although there is evidence of Ice age inhabitants here, and probable trading in the Bronze Age and it is possible that Saxon settlement originated by sea from Hampshire in the 6th century, or overland around the year 800. Brixham was called Briseham in the Domesday Book, Brixham was part of the former Haytor Hundred. The population was 3,671 in 1801 and 8,092 in 1901, in 1334, the towns value was assessed at one pound, twelve shillings and eightpence, by 1524, the valuation had risen to £24 and sixteen shillings. It is recorded as a borough from 1536, and a market is recorded from 1822, William de Whithurst, a distinguished Crown official and judge in Ireland, became parish priest of Brixham in 1350. Many local people still have Dutch surnames, being descendants of soldiers in that army. A road leading from the harbour up a hill, to where the Dutch made their camp, is still called Overgang. The coffin house reflects Brixham humour, it is coffin-shaped and when a father was asked for the hand in marriage of his daughter, he said he would see her in a coffin, amazed by this, the father gave his blessing.
The street names reflect the towns history, pump Street is where the village pump stood. Monksbridge was a built by the monks of Totnes Priory. Lichfield Drive was the route that the dead were taken for burial at St Mary’s churchyard, salutation Mews, near the church, dates from when England was Catholic, and the salutation was to the Virgin Mary
A groyne is a rigid hydraulic structure built from an ocean shore or from a bank that interrupts water flow and limits the movement of sediment. It is usually out of wood, concrete or stone. In the ocean, groynes create beaches or prevent them being washed away by longshore drift, in a river, groynes prevent erosion and ice-jamming, which in turn aids navigation. Ocean groynes run generally perpendicular to the shore, extending from the foreshore or beach into the water. All of a groyne may be water, in which case it is a submerged groyne. The areas between groups of groynes are groyne fields, Groynes are generally placed in groups. They are often used in tandem with seawalls, however, may cause a shoreline to be perceived as unnatural. A groynes length and elevation, and the spacing between groynes is determined according to local energy and beach slope. Groynes that are too long or too high tend to accelerate downdrift erosion, Groynes that are too short, too low, or too permeable are ineffective because they trap too little sediment.
If a groyne does not extend far enough landward, water may flow past the end and erode a channel bypassing the groyne. A groyne creates and maintains a wide area of beach or sediment on its updrift side and it is a physical barrier to stop sediment transport in the direction of longshore drift. This causes a build-up, which is accompanied by accelerated erosion of the downdrift beach. Groynes add sediment to the beach by capturing downward drift, this can cause severe erosion on shorelines downstream from the groyne. If a groyne is correctly designed, the amount of material it can hold will be limited, however, if a groyne is too large it may trap too much sediment, which can cause severe beach erosion on the down-drift side. River groynes are often constructed nearly perpendicular to the riverbanks, beginning at a riverbank with a root and they maintain a channel to prevent ice jamming, and more generally improve navigation and control over lateral erosion, that would form from meanders. Groynes have a impact on the river morphology, they cause autonomous degradation of the river.
They are used bridges to prevent bridge scour. Groynes can be distinguished by how they are constructed, whether they are submerged, Groynes can be permeable, allowing the water to flow through at reduced velocities, or impermeable and deflecting the current
Devon, known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the northeast, combined as a ceremonial county, Devons area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia, during the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936, Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England thereafter. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, and the bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns. The inland terrain is rural, generally hilly, and has a low density in comparison to many other parts of England.
Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England at 954 km2, to the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart. As well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is linked with tourism, in the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh, Breton and Cornish, each meaning deep valleys. One erroneous theory is that the suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire. However, there are references to Defenascire in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced human remains from 30–40,000 years ago, Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC. The Romans held the area under occupation for around 350 years. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, and it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD, the arrival of William of Orange to launch the Glorious Revolution of 1688 took place at Brixham. Devon has produced tin and other metals from ancient times, Devons tin miners enjoyed a substantial degree of independence through Devons Stannary Parliament, which dates back to the 12th century. The last recorded sitting was in 1748, agriculture has been an important industry in Devon since the 19th century
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. The Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736, due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century. The city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its core, significant job growth. The Santa Monica Pier remains a popular and iconic destination, Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language, the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3,1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the name came to be. One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her sons early impiety.
In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios, following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2,1848, in the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, and a wharf out into the bay. The first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building, a beer hall and it is Santa Monicas oldest extant structure. By 1885, the towns first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel, around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica, the two ethnic minorities were often viewed differently by White Americans who were often well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community.
Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company, in 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply, one report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000. Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt, in the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica. The federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall, the main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, weather is understood to mean the weather of Earth. Weather is driven by air pressure and moisture differences between one place and another and these differences can occur due to the suns angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations, the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earths axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, on Earths surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C annually.
Over thousands of years, changes in Earths orbit can affect the amount and distribution of energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate. Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences, higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes as most atmospheric heating is due to contact with the Earths surface while radiative losses to space are mostly constant. Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. The Earths weather system is a system, as a result. Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout history, and there is evidence that human activities such as agriculture, studying how the weather works on other planets has been helpful in understanding how weather works on Earth. A famous landmark in the Solar System, Jupiters Great Red Spot, is a storm known to have existed for at least 300 years. However, weather is not limited to planetary bodies, a stars corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System.
The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar wind, on Earth, the common weather phenomena include wind, rain, snow and dust storms. Less common events include natural disasters such as tornadoes, typhoons, almost all familiar weather phenomena occur in the troposphere. Weather does occur in the stratosphere and can affect weather lower down in the troposphere, Weather occurs primarily due to air pressure and moisture differences between one place to another. These differences can occur due to the sun angle at any particular spot, in other words, the farther from the tropics one lies, the lower the sun angle is, which causes those locations to be cooler due the spread of the sunlight over a greater surface. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the large scale atmospheric circulation cells and the jet stream, Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin