The denarius was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III, when it was replaced by the Antoninianus. It continued to be minted in small quantities for ceremonial purposes and through the tetrarchy; the word dēnārius is derived from the Latin dēnī "containing ten", as its value was of 10 assēs. The word for "money" descends from it in Italian, Slovene and Spanish, its name survives in the dinar currency. Its symbol is represented in Unicode as, however it can be represented as X̶. A predecessor of the denarius was first struck in 267 BC, five years before the First Punic War, with an average weight of 6.81 grams, or 1⁄48 of a Roman pound. Contact with the Greeks prompted a need for silver coinage in addition to the bronze currency that the Romans were using at that time; the predecessor of the denarius was a Greek-styled silver coin called the didrachm, struck in Neapolis and other Greek cities in southern Italy. These coins were inscribed for Rome but resemble their Greek counterparts.
They were most used for trade purposes and were used in Rome. The first distinctively Roman silver coin appeared around 226 BC. Classic historians sometimes called these coins denarii, but they are classified by modern numismatists as quadrigati, derived from the quadriga, or four-horse chariot, on the reverse, which with a two-horse chariot or biga was the prototype for the most common designs used on Roman silver coins for the next 150 years. Rome overhauled its coinage around 211 BC and introduced the denarius alongside a short-lived denomination called the victoriatus; this denarius contained 1⁄72 of a Roman pound, of silver. It formed the backbone of Roman currency throughout the Roman republic; the denarius began to undergo slow debasement toward the end of the republican period. Under the rule of Augustus its silver content fell to 3.9 grams. It remained at nearly this weight until the time of Nero, when it was reduced to 1⁄96 of a pound, or 3.4 grams. Debasement of the coin's silver content continued after Nero.
Roman emperors reduced its content to 3 grams around the late 3rd century. The value at its introduction was 10 asses, giving the denarius its name, which translates as "containing ten". In about 141 BC, it was re-tariffed at 16 asses; the denarius continued to be the main coin of the Roman Empire until it was replaced by the antoninianus in the middle of the 3rd century. The coin was last issued, in bronze, under Aurelian between AD 270 and 275, in the first years of the reign of Diocletian.. It is difficult to give rough comparative values for money from before the 20th century, as the range of products and services available for purchase was so different. Classical historians say that in the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire the daily wage for an unskilled laborer and common soldier was 1 denarius or about US$2.80 in bread. During the republic, legionary pay was 112.5 denarii per year doubled by Julius Caesar to 225 denarii, with soldiers having to pay for their own food and arms.
Centurions received higher pay: under Augustus, the lowest rank of centurion was paid 3,750 denarii per year, the highest rank, 15,000 denarii. The silver content of the denarius under the Roman Empire was about 50 grains, 3.24 grams, or 1⁄10 troy ounce. On June 6, 2011, this was about US$3.62 in value. The fineness of the silver content varied with economic circumstances. From a purity of greater than 90% silver in the 1st century AD, the denarius fell to under 60% purity by the year 200, plummeted to 5% purity by the year 300. By the reign of Gallienus, the antoninianus was a copper coin with a thin silver wash. By comparison, a laborer earning the minimum wage in the United States in January 2014 made US$58 for an 8-hour day, before taxes and an employee earning the minimum wage in the United Kingdom in 2014 made £52 for an 8-hour day, before taxes. In the final years of the 1st century BC Tincomarus, a local ruler in southern Britain, started issuing coins that appear to have been made from melted down denarii.
The coins of Eppillus, issued around Calleva Atrebatum around the same time, appear to have derived design elements from various denarii such as those of Augustus and M. Volteius. After the denarius was no longer issued, it continued to be used as a unit of account, the name was applied to Roman coins in a way, not understood; the Arabs who conquered large parts of the land that once belonged to the Eastern Roman Empire issued their own gold dinar. The lasting legacy of the denarius can be seen in the use of "d" as the abbreviation for the British penny until 1971, it survived in France as the name of a coin, the denier. The denarius survives in the common Arabic name for a currency unit, the dinar used from pre-Islamic times, still used in several modern Arab nations; the major currency unit in former Principality of Serbia, Kingdom of Serbia and former Yugoslavia was dinar, it is still used in present-day Serbia. The Macedonian currency denar is derived from the Roman denarius; the Italian word
In structural geology, an anticline is a type of fold, an arch-like shape and has its oldest beds at its core. A typical anticline is convex up in which the hinge or crest is the location where the curvature is greatest, the limbs are the sides of the fold that dip away from the hinge. Anticlines can be recognized and differentiated from antiforms by a sequence of rock layers that become progressively older toward the center of the fold. Therefore, if age relationships between various rock strata are unknown, the term antiform should be used; the progressing age of the rock strata towards the core and uplifted center, are the trademark indications for evidence of anticlines on a geologic map. These formations occur because anticlinal ridges develop above thrust faults during crustal deformations; the uplifted core of the fold causes compression of strata that preferentially erodes to a deeper stratigraphic level relative to the topographically lower flanks. Motion along the fault including both shortening and extension of tectonic plates also deforms strata near the fault.
This overturned fold. An antiform can be used to describe any fold, convex up, it is the relative ages of the rock strata. The hinge of an anticline refers to the location where the curvature is greatest called the crest; the hinge is the highest point on a stratum along the top of the fold. The culmination refers to the highest point along any geologic structure; the limbs are the sides of the fold. The inflection point is the area on the limbs; the axial surface is an imaginary plane connecting the hinge of each layer of rock stratum through the cross section of an anticline. If the axial surface is vertical and the angles on each side of the fold are equivalent the anticline is symmetrical. If the axial plane is tilted or offset the anticline is asymmetrical. An anticline, cylindrical has a well-defined axial surface, whereas non-cylindrical anticlines are too complex to have a single axial plane. An overturned anticline is an asymmetrical anticline with a limb, tilted beyond perpendicular, so that the beds in that limb have flipped over and may dip in the same direction on both sides of the axial plane.
If the angle between the limbs is large the fold is an "open" fold, but if the angle between the limbs is small the fold is a "tight" fold. If an anticline plunges, it will form Vs on a geologic map view that point in the direction of plunge. A plunging anticline has a hinge, not parallel to the earth's surface. All anticlines and synclines have some degree of plunge. Periclinal folds are a type of anticlines that have a well-defined, but curved hinge line and are doubly plunging and thus elongate domes. Folds in which the limbs dip toward the hinge and display a more U-like shape are called synclines, they flank the sides of anticlines and display opposite characteristics. A syncline's oldest rock strata are in its outer limbs. A monocline is a bend in the strata resulting in a local steepening in only one direction of dip. Monoclines have the shape of a carpet draped over a stairstep. An anticline, more eroded in the center is called a breached or scalped anticline. Breached anticlines can become incised by stream erosion.
A structure that plunges in all directions to form a circular or elongate structure is a dome. Domes may be created via diapirism from underlying magmatic intrusions or upwardly mobile, mechanically ductile material such as rock salt and shale that cause deformations and uplift in the surface rock; the Richat Structure of the Sahara is considered a dome, laid bare by erosion. An anticline which plunges at both ends is termed a doubly plunging anticline, may be formed from multiple deformations, or superposition of two sets of folds, it may be related to the geometry of the underlying detachment fault and the varying amount of displacement along the surface of that detachment fault. An anticlinorium is a large anticline. Examples include the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Purcell Anticlinorium in British Columbia and the Blue Ridge anticlinorium of northern Virginia and Maryland in the Appalachians, or the Nittany Valley in central Pennsylvania. Anticlines are developed above thrust faults, so any small compression and motion within the inner crust can have large effects on the upper rock stratum.
Stresses developed during mountain building or during other tectonic processes can warp or bend bedding and foliation. The more the underlying fault is tectonically uplifted, the more the strata will be deformed and must adapt to new shapes; the shape formed will be dependent on the properties and cohesion of the different types of rock within each layer. During the formation of flexural-slip folds, the different rock layers form parallel-slip folds to accommodate for buckling. A good way to visualize how the multiple layers are manipulated, is to bend a deck of cards and to imagine each card as a layer of rock stratum; the amount of slip on each side of the anticline increases from the hinge to the inflection point. Passive-flow folds form when the rock is so soft that it behaves like weak plastic and flows. In this process different parts of the rock body move at different rates causing shear stress to shift from layer to layer. There is no mec
Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom
The Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom was a committee formed in 1859 to enquire into the ability of the United Kingdom to defend itself against an attempted invasion by a foreign power, to advise the British Government on the remedial action required. The appointment of the Commission had been prompted by public concern about the growing military and naval power of the French Empire and was instigated by the Prime Minister, Henry Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, who came to be associated with the project. In the following year, the Commission's report recommended a huge programme of fortification to defend the country's arsenals and naval bases. Many of the recommendations were acted upon. In the late 1850s, there were serious concerns that France might attempt to invade the United Kingdom; the recent period had seen great improvements in gunnery. These factors convinced him that Britain's coastal defences were inadequate to prevent invasion by Napoleon III if the Royal Navy was lured elsewhere.
The Commission consisted of six eminent naval and military officers, plus a civilian architect: Major-General Sir Henry David Jones CB Major-General Duncan Alexander Cameron Rear Admiral George Augustus Eliot Major-General Sir Frederick Abbott, Indian Army Captain Astley Cooper Key, Royal Navy Lieutenant-Colonel John Henry Lefroy, Royal Artillery James Fergusson EsquireThe Secretary of the Commission was Major William Jervois of the Royal Engineers, a progressive military engineer who held the post of Assistant Inspector-General of Fortifications. Although not appointed as a Commissioner, Jervois seems to have had considerable influence on the conduct of the Commission. Amongst the Commissioners themselves, Cooper Key was an expert in the latest advances in naval gunnery, while Lefroy was an experienced and knowledgeable artillery officer, one of the founders of the Royal Artillery Institution. Fergusson was an expert in the history of eastern architecture, but had published books entitled.
Formulated by Lord Palmerston and the Secretary of State for War, Sidney Herbert, the Commission's brief was as follows: Inquiries may be made by Our Commissioners into the condition and sufficiency of the Fortifications existing for the Defence of Our United Kingdom, examination had into all Works at present in progress for the improvement thereof, consideration given to the most effective means of rendering the same complete to all such Works of Defence as are intended for the protection of Our Royal Dockyards, in case of any hostile attack being made by foreign enemies, both by sea and land. An attached memorandum directed the attention of the Commissioners to the works under construction at Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight, Portland and Chatham. Starting on 3 November 1859, the first phase of the Commission's work was a series of interviews with technical experts and senior military and naval officers. One specialist was Captain Cowper Phipps Coles, the hero of the Siege of Taganrog and an expert in the bombardment of fortifications from the sea.
He was so enraged by the numerous questions posed by the Commissioners that he was twice asked to leave the room so that he could recover his composure. Because of this, the Commission failed to enquire about Coles's pioneering design for a revolving gun turret, which he had patented in that year. Another interviewee was General John Fox Burgoyne, who had conducted the Siege of Sevastopol and was the current Inspector-General of Fortifications. Burgoyne's opinion was that the defence of the dockyard at Portsmouth was of primary importance and it could be protected from bombardment by the fortification and garrisoning of the Isle of Wight and Portsdown Hill, the ridge which overlooks Portsmouth from the north. Burgoyne believed that the coast between Portsmouth and the Thames was vulnerable to invasion and that every small harbour there needed to be fortified. Sir William Armstrong, the artillery designer and manufacturer, was questioned at length about the current capabilities of modern rifled artillery and future developments.
Armstrong's opinion was that his latest guns would be able to defeat some features of current fortification, such as the Carnot wall, but that the maximum range of artillery would be unlikely to exceed 5 miles in the future. The Commission conducted a series of visits to the sites in question, before convening to produce a report of their findings; because the Commissioners were all respected experts in their own fields, they were able to work together amicably. The Report of the Commissioners was published on 7 February 1860; the Commissioners concluded that the fleet, standing army and volunteer forces combined, did not provide sufficient defence against invasion. Further, that the coastline which they considered to be at risk, the 700 miles from the Humber to Penzance, could not feasibly be fortified and therefore recommended that "the fortifications of t
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
Flat Holm is a limestone island lying in the Bristol Channel 6 km from Lavernock Point in the Vale of Glamorgan. It includes the most southerly point of Wales; the island has a long history of occupation, dating at least from Viking age. Religious uses include visits by disciples of Saint Cadoc in the 6th century, in 1835 it was the site of the foundation of the Bristol Channel Mission, which became the Mission to Seafarers. A sanatorium for cholera patients was built in 1896 as the isolation hospital for the port of Cardiff. Guglielmo Marconi transmitted the first wireless signals over open sea from Flat Holm to Lavernock; because of frequent shipwrecks a lighthouse was built on the island, replaced by a Trinity House lighthouse in 1737. Because of its strategic position on the approaches to Bristol and Cardiff a series of gun emplacements, known as Flat Holm Battery, were built in the 1860s as part of a line of defences, known as Palmerston Forts. On the outbreak of World War II, the island was rearmed.
It forms part of the City and County of Cardiff and is now managed by Cardiff Council's Flat Holm Project Team and designated as a Local Nature Reserve, Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area, because of the maritime grassland and rare plants such as rock sea-lavender and wild leek. The island has significant breeding colonies of lesser black-backed gulls, herring gulls and great black-backed gulls, it is home to slowworms with larger than usual blue markings. The first traces of human habitation of the island are from the late Bronze Age, 900 to 700 BC, known as the Ewart Park Phase. A bronze axe head was discovered on the island in 1988, between the island's modern lone farmhouse and West Beach, at grid reference ST21986498. In the sub-Roman period of the 6th century AD, it became a retreat for Saint Cadoc, who lived on the island as a hermit for seven years, his friend, Saint Gildas lived at the same time on nearby Steep Holm, the two sometimes met up for prayers.
Gildas left the island to become Abbot of Glastonbury. In June 1815, a Dr Thomas Turner visited Flat Holm in a small boat and was stranded for a week due to high winds, he discovered two Christian graves located close together in a field 23 m northeast of the island's present farmhouse. The open grave's headstone was made of purbeck marble and engraved with a Celtic cross, but had since broken in two. A second disturbed grave marked with a headstone, was found to the southeast and contained a coffin constructed with iron bolts. Inside the coffin were two skeletons, doused in lime, indicating that the occupants had died from a contagious disease. Anglo-Saxons called the island Bradanreolice. Reolice derives from an Irish word meaning churchyard or graveyard, alluding to the belief that the island had religious significance as a place of burial to people at the time. However, the island's current name of "Holm" comes from the Old Norse meaning "island in an estuary". Records indicate that a Viking fleet from the south of Brittany led by two earls and Hroald, took refuge on the island following their defeat by the Saxons at Watchet.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 1067, Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, mother of Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England, stayed on the island before travelling to St Omer in France after the Norman conquest of England. After the invasion, Lord Robert Fitzhamon, a cousin of William the Conqueror, formed the Shire of Glamorgan in Wales proper, with Cardiff Castle at the centre of his new domain. Flat Holm came within the parish boundary of St Mary's, one of Cardiff's two parish churches, was kept as a hereditary property of the Norman Lords of Glamorgan. A survey by archaeologist Howard Thomas in 1979 unearthed a number of medieval potsherds in the vicinity of the farmhouse and found evidence of continuous occupation of the island including middens containing numerous animal bones along with oyster and cockle shells. Fragments of green glazed jugs and flagons from the late 12th to 13th century and shards of pottery from the 14th century were found on the island; the presence of Pennant sandstone roofing tiles and a fragment of a 14th-century glazed ridge tile indicate the existence of a substantial medieval building a chapel, demolished when the present farmhouse was constructed.
Property records from 1542 show that King Henry VIII granted a lease to farm the island to a gentleman by the name of Edmund Tournor. His family remained on Flat Holm until the end of the 17th century when the lease passed to Joseph Robins. During the 18th century, the island's location made it an ideal base for smuggling, it has been alleged that an old mine shaft on the north side of the island connects with a series of natural tunnels, a concealed exit to the sea. Although Flat Holm was in full view of both the Welsh and English coasts, customs authorities were powerless to act as they had no boat to take them to the island. According to tradition, a small cave in the east cliff at Flat Holm was used for the storage of contraband tea and brandy. In 1835, clergyman John Ashley from Clevedon, England voluntarily ministered to the population of the island. Ashley created the Bristol Channel Mission in order to serve seafarers on the 400 sailing vessels which used the Bristol Channel; the mission would become the Mission to Seafarers, which still provides ministerial services to sailors in over 300 ports.
A service is held annually to bless the island. On 13 May 1897, a 22-year-old Italian inventor named Guglielmo Ma
The Bristol Channel is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from Devon and Somerset in South West England. It extends from the lower estuary of the River Severn to the North Atlantic Ocean, it takes its name from the English city of Bristol, is over 30 miles wide at its western limit. Long stretches of both sides of the coastline are designated as Heritage Coast; these include Exmoor, Bideford Bay, the Hartland Point peninsula, Lundy Island, Gower Peninsula, south Pembrokeshire, Caldey Island. Until Tudor times the Bristol Channel was known as the Severn Sea, it is still known as this in both Welsh: Môr Hafren and Cornish: Mor Havren; the International Hydrographic Organisation now defines the western limit of the Bristol Channel as "a line joining Hartland Point in Devon to St. Govan's Head in Pembrokeshire"; the IHO put the western limit at a line from Trevose Head in Cornwall to Skomer Island in Pembrokeshire, in an area now considered part of the Celtic Sea.
The upper limit of the Channel is between Sand Point and Lavernock Point. East of this line is the Severn Estuary. Western and northern Pembrokeshire, north Cornwall are outside the defined limits of the Bristol Channel, are considered part of the seaboard of the Atlantic Ocean, more the Celtic Sea. Within its defined limits, the Bristol Channel extends for some 75 miles from west to east, but taken as a single entity the Bristol Channel - Severn Estuary system extends eastward to the limit of tidal influence near Gloucester; the channel shoreline alternates between resistant and erosional cliff features, interspersed with depositional beaches backed by coastal sand dunes. The Severn Estuary and most of the embayments around the channel are less than 10 m in depth. Within the channel, there is an E-W trending valley 20 to 30 m in depth, considered to have been formed by fluvial run-off during Pleistocene phases of lower sea level. Along the margins of the Bristol Channel are extensive linear tidal sandbanks that are dredged as a source of aggregates and in the Outer Bristol Channel off the Welsh coast are the OBel Sands, an extensive area of sand waves up to 19 m high, covering an area of over 1,000 km².
The Bristol Channel is an important area for wildlife, in particular waders, has protected areas, including national nature reserves such as Bridgwater Bay at the mouth of the River Parrett. At low tide large parts of the channel become mud flats due to the tidal range of 43 feet, second only to the Bay of Fundy in Eastern Canada. Development schemes have been proposed along the channel, including an airport and a tidal barrier for electricity generation, but conservation issues have so far managed to block such schemes; the largest islands in the Bristol Channel are Lundy, Steep Holm and Flat Holm, which are uninhabited and protected as nature reserves, are home to some unique wild flower species. In 1971 a proposal was made by the Lundy Field Society to establish a marine reserve. Provision for the establishment of statutory Marine Nature Reserves was included in the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, on 21 November 1986 the Secretary of State for the Environment announced the designation of a statutory reserve at Lundy.
There is an outstanding variety of marine habitats and wildlife, a large number of rare and unusual species in the waters around Lundy, including some species of seaweed, branching sponges, sea fans and cup corals. The Bristol Channel has some extensive and popular beaches and spectacular scenery on the coasts of Exmoor and Bideford Bay in North Devon and the Vale of Glamorgan and Gower Peninsula on the Glamorgan coast; the western stretch of Exmoor boasts Hangman cliffs, the highest cliffs in mainland Britain, culminating near Combe Martin in the "Great Hangman", a 1,043 ft'hog-backed' hill with a cliff-face of 820 ft. On the Gower Peninsula, at its western extremity is the Worms Head, a headland of carboniferous limestone, approachable on foot at low tide only; the beaches of Gower and North Devon, such as Croyde and Woolacombe, win awards for their water quality and setting, as well as being renowned for surfing. In 2004, The Times "Travel" magazine selected Barafundle Bay in Pembrokeshire as one of the twelve best beaches in the world.
In 2007, Oxwich Bay made the same magazine's Top 12 best beaches in the world list, was selected as Britain's best beach for 2007. The city of Swansea is the largest settlement on the Welsh coast of the Bristol Channel. Other major built-up areas include Port Talbot and Llanelli. Smaller resort towns include Porthcawl, Mumbles and Tenby; the cities of Cardiff and Newport adjoin the Severn estuary, but lie upstream of the Bristol Channel itself. On the English side, the resort towns of Weston-super-Mare, Burnham-on-Sea, Watchet and Ilfracombe are located on the Bristol Channel. Barnstaple and Bideford are sited on estuaries opening onto Bideford Bay, at the westernmost end of the Bristol Channel. Just upstream of the official eastern limit of the Channel, adjoining the Severn estuary, is the city of Bristol established on the River Avon but now with docks on the Severn estuary, one of the most important ports in Britain, it gives its name to the Channel. There are no road or
The Bell Beaker culture or short Beaker culture, is an archaeological culture named after the inverted-bell beaker drinking vessel used at the beginning of the European Bronze Age. Arising from around 2800 BC, lasting in continental Europe until 2300 BC, succeeded by the Unetice culture, in Britain until as late as 1800 BC; the culture was scattered throughout Western Europe, from various regions in Iberia and spots facing northern Africa to the Danubian plains, the British Isles, the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. The Bell Beaker culture follows the Corded Ware culture and for north-central Europe the Funnelbeaker culture; the name Glockenbecher was coined for its distinctive style of beakers by Paul Reinecke in 1900. The term's English translation Bell Beaker was introduced by John Abercromby in 1904. In its early phase, the Bell Beaker culture can be seen as the western contemporary of the Corded Ware culture of Central Europe. From about 2400 BC, the "Beaker folk" expanded eastwards, into the Corded Ware horizon.
In parts of Central and Eastern Europe – as far east as Poland – a sequence occurs from Corded Ware to Bell Beaker. This period marks a period of cultural contact in Atlantic and Western Europe following a prolonged period of relative isolation during the Neolithic. In its mature phase, the Bell Beaker culture is understood as not only a collection of characteristic artefact types, but a complex cultural phenomenon involving metalwork in copper and gold, specific types of ornamentation, shared ideological and religious ideas. A wide range of regional diversity persists within the widespread late Beaker culture in local burial styles, housing styles, economic profile, local ceramic wares. While Bell Beaker was introduced as a term for the artefact type at the beginning of the 20th century, recognition of an archaeological Bell Beaker culture has long been controversial, its spread has been one of the central questions of the migrationism vs. diffusionism debate in 20th-century archaeology, variously described as due to migration of small groups of warriors, craftsmen or traders, or due to the diffusion of ideas and object exchange.
Gordon Childe interpreted the presence of its characteristic artefact as the intrusion of "missionaries" expanding from Iberia along the Atlantic coast, spreading knowledge of copper metallurgy. Stephen Shennan interpreted the artefacts as belonging to a mobile cultural elite imposing itself over the indigenous substrate populations. Sangmeister interpreted the "Beaker folk" as small groups of mobile traders and artisans. Christian Strahm used the term "Bell Beaker phenomenon" as a compromise in order to avoid the term "culture"; the Bell Beaker artefacts at least in their early phase are not distributed across a contiguous areal as is usual for archaeological cultures, but are found in insular concentrations scattered across Europe. Their presence is not associated of burial customs. However, the Bell Beaker culture does appear to coalesce into a coherent archaeological culture in its phase. More recent analyses of the "Beaker phenomenon", published since the 2000s, have persisted in describing the origin of the "Beaker phenomenon" as arising from a synthesis of elements, representing "an idea and style uniting different regions with different cultural traditions and background."Archaeogenetics studies of the 2010s have been able to resolve the "migrationist vs. diffusionist" question to some extent.
The study by Olalde et al. found only "limited genetic affinity" between individuals associated with the Beaker complex in Iberia and in Central Europe, suggesting that migration played a limited role in its early spread. However, the same study found that the further dissemination of the mature Beaker complex was strongly linked to migration; this is true for Britain, where the spread of the Beaker culture introduced high levels of steppe-related ancestry, resulting in a near-complete transformation of the local gene pool within a few centuries, to the point of replacement of about 90% of the local Mesolithic-derived lineages. The origin of the "Bell Beaker" artefact itself has been traced to the early 3rd millennium, early examples of the "maritime" Bell Beaker design have been found at the Tagus estuary in Portugal, radiocarbon dated to c. the 28th century BC. The inspiration for the Maritime Bell Beaker is argued to have been the small and earlier Copoz beakers that have impressed decoration and which are found around the Tagus estuary in Portugal.
Turek sees late Neolithic precursors in northern Africa, arguing the Maritime style emerged as a result of seaborne contacts between Iberia and Morocco in the first half of the third millennium BCE. AOO and AOC Beakers appear to have evolved continually from a pre-Beaker period in the lower Rhine and North Sea regions, at least for Northern and Central Europe. Heyd concluded that the Bell Beaker culture was intrusive to southern Germany which existed contemporarily with the local Corded Ware culture. Conversely, the burial ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites appears to be intrusive to Western Europe, from Central Europe. Individual inhumations under tumuli with the inclusion of weapons contrast markedly to the preceding Neolithic traditions of collective, weaponless burials in Atlantic/Western Europe; such an arrangement is rather derivative of Corded Ware traditions. The initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime. A southern move led to the Mediterranean where'enclaves' were established in south-western Spain and southe