Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
Elizabethtown is a home rule-class city and the county seat of Hardin County, United States. The population was 28,531 at the 2010 census, was estimated at 29,906 by the U. S. Census Bureau in 2016, making it the 11th-largest city in the state, it is included in the Elizabethtown–Fort Knox, Kentucky Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Louisville/Jefferson County–Elizabethtown–Madison, Kentucky-Indiana Combined Statistical Area. Elizabethtown is in east-central Hardin County, about 15 miles south of Fort Knox. Interstate 65 passes through the southeast side of the city, leading north-northeast 45 miles to Louisville and southwest 71 miles to Bowling Green; the Western Kentucky Parkway leads west 138 miles to Eddyville. To the east, the Bluegrass Parkway leads 105 miles to Lexington. According to the United States Census Bureau, Elizabethtown has a total area of 25.8 square miles, of which 25.4 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. The Elizabethtown–Fort Knox metropolitan area consists of Hardin and Larue counties, includes Radcliff, a city about three-fourths the size of Elizabethtown.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Elizabethtown has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Established in 1793, the Hardin County was named for Colonel John Hardin, an Indian fighter who worked with tribes in the local area. In a few years, professional men and tradesmen came to live in the area. In 1793, Colonel Andrew Hynes had 30 acres surveyed and laid off into lots and streets to establish Elizabethtown. Named in honor of his wife, Elizabethtown was established in 1797. Thomas Lincoln helped Samuel Haycraft build a millrace at Haycraft's mill on Valley Creek. After Lincoln married Nancy Hanks in 1806, they lived in a log cabin built in Elizabethtown, their daughter, was born there in 1807. Soon after, they moved to the Sinking Spring Farm, where Abraham Lincoln was born in 1809. Thomas Lincoln took his family to Indiana in 1816. After his wife died in 1818, he returned to Elizabethtown and married Sarah Bush Johnston, widowed since 1816.
She and her three children accompanied Thomas back to Indiana, where Sarah was stepmother to Thomas' two children. On March 5, 1850, the Commonwealth of Kentucky granted a charter to the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company authorizing it to raise funds and built a railroad from Louisville to the Tennessee state line in the direction of Nashville. John L. Helm, the grandson of Capt. Thomas Helm, became the president of the railroad in October 1854; the rail line was completed to Elizabethtown in 1858, with the first train arriving on June 15, 1858. The opening of the railroad brought economic growth to Elizabethtown, which became an important trade center along the railroad and a strategic point during the Civil War. On December 27, 1862, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan and his 3,000-man cavalry attacked Elizabethtown. During the battle, more than 100 cannonballs were fired into the town. Although he captured Elizabethtown, Morgan's chief goal was to disrupt the railroad and northern transportation.
He proceeded north along the railroad, destroying sections of the track. After the battle, one cannonball was found lodged in the side of a building on the public square. After the building burned in 1887 and was rebuilt, the cannonball was replaced in the side wall, as close to its original site as possible, where it remains in the present day, it is located in the Joey Lee building, located on the historic town square. The building is owned and houses the office of attorney Roger T. Rigney, it features a plaquard noting the cannonball and the history behind it out front. From 1871 to 1873 during the Reconstruction Era, the Seventh Cavalry and a battalion of the Fourth Infantry, led by General George Armstrong Custer, were stationed in Elizabethtown; the military were assigned to suppress the local Ku Klux Klan under the Enforcement Acts, as their members had been attacking freedmen and other Republicans. They broke up illegal distilleries, which began to flourish in the South after the Civil War.
General Custer and his wife Elizabeth lived in a small cottage behind Aunt Beck Hill's boarding house, now known as the Brown-Pusey House. The town is regionally referred to as "E-town", it is notable as one of two larger towns along I-65 between Nashville. The movie Elizabethtown was named after the town. Elizabethtown is classified by the Kentucky Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control as being in a "moist county". Under ABC terminology, "moist" indicates that at least one city within a county has approved packaged alcohol sales. In popular usage, the term "moist" more refers to the city's former status as allowing by-the-drink sales in restaurants, but not package sales. Despite the county being a dry county, alcoholic drink sales have long been allowed in restaurants seating at least 100 diners and deriving at least 70% of their t
United States Attorney General
The United States Attorney General is the chief lawyer of the federal government of the United States, head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U. S. C. § 503, oversees all governmental legal affairs. Under the Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution, the officeholder is nominated by the President of the United States and appointed with the advice and consent of the United States Senate; the U. S. Constitution provides that civil officers of the United States, which would include the U. S. Attorney General, may be impeached by Congress for treason, bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors; the United States Attorney General may be removed at will by the President of the United States under the Supreme Court decision Myers v. United States, which found that executive branch officials may be removed without the consent of any entity. In cases of the federal death penalty, the power to seek the death penalty rests with the U. S. Attorney General; the current Attorney General is William Barr.
Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 which, among other things, established the Office of the Attorney General. The original duties of this officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be concerned, to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law when required by the President of the United States, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments"; the Department of Justice was established in 1870 to support the Attorney General in the discharge of their responsibilities. The Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense are regarded as the four most important Cabinet officials in the United States because of the significance and age of their respective departments, it is the practice for the Attorney General, along with many other public officials, to give resignation with effect on the Inauguration Day of a new President. The Deputy Attorney General, required to tender their resignation, is requested to stay on and act as Attorney General pending the confirmation by the Senate of the new Attorney General.
For example, on the inauguration of President Donald Trump on January 20, 2017, the tenure of the Attorney General Loretta Lynch was brought to an end, the Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates, who had tendered her resignation, was asked to stay on and be Acting Attorney General until the confirmation of the new Attorney General Jeff Sessions, nominated for the office in November 2016 by then-President-elect Donald Trump. Parties Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status As of April 2019, there are ten, living former US Attorneys General, the oldest being Ramsey Clark; the most recent Attorney General to die was Janet Reno on November 7, 2016. William Barr, who served from 1991-1993, returned to the post and is serving, excluding him from this list. U. S. C. Title 28, §508 establishes the first two positions in the line of succession, while allowing the Attorney General to designate other high-ranking officers of the Department of Justice as subsequent successors. Furthermore, an Executive Order defines subsequent positions, the most recent from March 31, 2017, signed by President Donald Trump.
The current line of succession is: United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General Other Officers designated by the Attorney General: Solicitor General of the United States Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division Assistant Attorney General, National Security Division Assistant Attorney General and Natural Resources Division Assistant Attorney General, Justice Management Division Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Counsel Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Policy Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legislative Affairs United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia United States Attorney for the Eastern District of North Carolina United States Attorney for the Northern District of Texas United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General United States Assistant Attorney General United States Solicitor General List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Executive Order 13787 for "Providing an Order of Succession Within the Department of Justice" Official website
Hardinsburg is a home rule-class city in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county; the population was 2,343 at the 2010 census. Hardinsburg was named after Captain William Hardin. In August 1779, Sinclair Hardin, William's cousin, was the first man killed west of the Alleghenies Mountains at Big Springs during an early excursion into the Kentucky wilderness. Capt. William Hardin, brother of the Col. John Hardin for whom Hardin County was named, established a frontier fort at the site in 1780; the settlement was known variously as Hardin's Station in the 18th century. William Hardin received 400 acres as assignee of Benjamin Hardin, Warrant# 2586, dated February 14, 1780, the tract was surveyed June 8, 1784. According to the description, the land was on Hardin's Creek, a branch of the Ohio River, it was formally granted on June 21, 1786; this area would become Hardinsburg. Hardinsburg was laid out in 1782 by William Hardin, it is small and its growth has been slow, having failed to number a thousand inhabitants in its first hundred years.
Among its early and prominent citizens were Joseph Allen, Captain Thomas Kincheloe, Reverend James Taylor, Philip Lightfoot, Morris Hensly, Charles Hambleton, William Feaman, B and RM Wathen, John McClarty, William Morton, Stanley Singleton and Williamson Cox, William Seaton, Francis Peyton, Joseph Thomas, Thornton Smith, Jefferson Jennings and Dr. S. B. Abel; when Judge Kincheloe, Colonel Alf. Allen, Mr. Vivian Daniel, Rev. RG Gardner and Squire Eskridge die, the "old guard" will have become extinct. William Hardin received grants from the state of Virginia in 1785 for 3800 acres of land, all near the present site of Hardinsburg, Kentucky; the murder and scalping of young James Jolly was the second colonizer to be murdered by native Kentuckians at Hardin's Fort. James was the son of Nelson Jolly, Jr. the progenitor of the Jolly family of present-day Breckinridge County. At seventeen years of age, newly arrived at the fort, James went alone to bring in the horses which were grazing along Clover Creek, a few hundred yards from its palisaded walls.
When he did not return, a scouting party found his mutilated body. James Jolly was the first person to die at Hardin's Station and the first to be buried under a hickory tree near the banks of Clover Creek, both his father and William Hardin were buried when they died. Hardinsburg was established in 1800 as the seat of government for the newly established Breckinridge County; the first courthouse was a log house built in 1801. Jack Hardin's family book states family members laid out the town without compass or chain in the Fall of 1781, its post office was established on January 1803, as Breckinridge Court House or Hardinburg. The city was formally incorporated by the state assembly on May 3, 1890. Hardinsburg is located at 37°46′35″N 86°27′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.6 square miles, of which 3.4 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 2.34%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,343 people, 964 households, 583 families residing in the city.
The population density was 651.4 people per square mile. There were 1,078 housing units at an average density of 302.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.06% White, 8.61% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.41% of the population. There were 964 households out of which 25.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.83. The age distribution was 20.3% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 20.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,447, the median income for a family was $36,214. Males had a median income of $29,375 versus $20,331 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,307. About 14.6% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.5% of those under age 18 and 18.9% of those age 65 or over. Butch Beard, former NBA All-Star Percy Beard, silver medalist hurdler in National Track and Field Hall of Fame Ralph Beard, member of "Fabulous Five" University of Kentucky men's basketball team Jenks "Tex" Carman, guitarist Donnie Gedling, former member of the Kentucky House of Representatives Bobbi Jordan, actress raised in Hardinsburg Lisa Thornhill, actress born and raised in Hardinsburg. City of Hardinsburg official website
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe