Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant. The name refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa; as a fortified city, it was of political significance. Although a direct Fiefdom of the Holy Roman Emperor, the city obtained a municipal charter. Breda had a population of 183,873 in 2019, it is part of the Brabantse Stedenrij. In the 11th century, Breda was a direct fief of the Holy Roman Emperor, its earliest known lord being Henry of Brunesheim; the city of Breda obtained a municipal charter in 1252. After that Breda had the rights to build fortifications; the city constructed Roman-style gates. In 1327, Adelheid of Gaveren sold Breda to Duke Johannes III of Brabant. In 1350, the fief was resold to Johannes II of Wassenaar. In 1403, the heiress of his line, Johanna of Polanen, married Engelbert I of Nassau. Through her, the city came into the possession of the House of Nassau, where it remained until 1795, passing to William I of Orange, stadtholder of Holland and Utrecht and leader of the Dutch revolt.

Thus, the baron of Breda was Count of Nassau in the Holy Roman Empire, Prince of Orange, stadtholder in the Dutch Republic. Breda remained part of the barony of Breda until it was captured by French revolutionary forces in 1795; the acquisition of the city by the House of Orange-Nassau marked its emergence as a residentiestad. The presence of the Orange-Nassau family attracted other nobles, who built palatial residences in the old quarters of the city; the most impressive one, built by the Italian architect Thomas Vincidor de Bologna for the first Dutch prince, was the first renaissance-style palace built north of the Alps. In the 15th century the city's physical and strategic importance expanded rapidly. A great church was built in Brabantine Gothic style with a gallant 97-metre-high tower, called Grote Kerk or Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk. In 1534 Henry III of Nassau-Breda rebuilt the modest medieval fortifications in impressive style. In 1534 a fire destroyed over nine tenths of the city, close to 1300 houses and chapels, the town hall.

Only 150 houses and the main church remained. In July 1581, during the Eighty Years' War, Breda was captured in a surprise attack and siege by Spanish troops under the command of Claudius van Barlaymont, whose sobriquet was Haultpenne. Although the city had surrendered upon the condition that it would not be plundered, the troops vented their fury upon the inhabitants. In the resulting mayhem, known as Haultpenne's Fury, over 500 citizens were killed. In March 1590, Breda fell back into the hands of the Dutch and Maurice of Nassau, when a 68 men hand-picked force, concealed under the turf of a peat-boat, had contrived to enter the city in a daring plan devised by Adriaen van Bergen. Around 1610 the construction of the Spanish Gate or "Spandjaardsgat" was started as a remembrance to that successful action. After a ten-month siege in 1624–25, the city again surrendered to the Spaniards, now led by Spinola. In the Siege of Breda of 1637 the city was recaptured by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, after a four-month siege, in 1648 it was ceded to the Dutch Republic by the Treaty of Westphalia.

In 1646, Frederick Henry founded the Orange College of Breda, modelled on Saumur and Oxford, intending it to train young men of good family for the army and the civil service. The exiled Stuart Charles II of England resided in Breda for a little over a month of his time in exile during the Cromwellian Commonwealth and Protectorate, thanks to the proximity of Charles's sister Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, the widow of Prince William II of Orange. Based on suggestions by the Parliamentarian General George Monck, Charles II's Declaration of Breda announced his conditions for accepting the crown of England, which he was to regain a few months in the year; the Treaty of Breda was signed in the city on 31 July 1667, bringing to an end the Second Anglo-Dutch War in which the Dutch faced the same Charles II, their guest. Between 1746 and 1748 it was the site of the Congress of Breda, a series of talks between Britain and France aimed at bringing an end to the War of the Austrian Succession, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

During the Second World War, the city was under German occupation for over four years. During Operation Pheasant Breda was liberated following a successful outflanking manoeuvre planned and performed by forces of 1st Polish Armoured Division of General Maczek on 28 October 1944; each year during Liberation Day festivities, Breda is visited by a large Polish contingent and the city of Breda reserves a special portion of the festivities for the fallen Polish soldiers. A museum and a monument honoring Maczek and the Polish 1st Armoured Division stands in the city center. General Maczek and many soldiers of his division are buried in the nearby Polish military cemetery. Breda was the site of one of Koepelgevangenis; this prison housed the only German war criminals to be imprisoned in the Netherlands for their war crimes during the Second World War. Known as the Bred

Steve Gatting

Stephen Paul Gatting is an English former footballer, best known for playing for Brighton & Hove Albion in the 1983 FA Cup Final. He is a youth team coach at Arsenal. Gatting started his career at Arsenal, joining as an apprentice in July 1975, he turned professional in 1977, rose up the ranks, making his first-team debut as a substitute against Lokomotiv Leipzig in a UEFA Cup match on 13 September 1978. He held down a first-team place, making 30 appearances in the 1978-79 season, he was not part of the squad that won the 1979 FA Cup Final, where they beat Manchester United 3-2 with a late Alan Sunderland goal. However he did contribute six appearances en route to the final. Gatting was a competent cricketer, who made several appearances for Middlesex's second eleven g. Gatting's brother is the former England cricketer Mike Gatting, his son Joe Gatting was a cricketer for Hampshire. Harris, Jeff. Hogg, Tony. Arsenal Who's Who. Independent UK Sports. ISBN 1-899429-03-4. "Steve Gatting". Archived from the original on 16 October 2007.

Retrieved 4 December 2007

Polatlı–Konya high-speed railway

The Polatlı–Konya high-speed railway is a 211 km long high-speed railway running from the town of Polatlı to the central Anatolian city of Konya. The railway is used by the Turkish State Railways' premier high-speed passenger service, Yüksek Hızlı Tren, which operates two routes on the line; the railway was opened on 23 August 2011. Construction of the railway started on 8 July 2006 and was finished in mid-2011 at a cost of TL1 billion. On 3 June 2011, TCDD HT65001 Piri Reis made the inaugural test run with Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Minister of Transport Binali Yıldırım. Test runs continued for two and a half months until the line was opened to commercial traffic on 23 August. High-speed rail in Turkey