Mass production known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods; the term mass production was popularized by a 1926 article in the Encyclopædia Britannica supplement, written based on correspondence with Ford Motor Company. The New York Times used the term in the title of an article that appeared before publication of the Britannica article; the concepts of mass production are applied to various kinds of products, from fluids and particulates handled in bulk to discrete solid parts to assemblies of such parts. Mass production is a diverse field, but it can be contrasted with craft production or distributed manufacturing; some mass production techniques, such as standardized sizes and production lines, predate the Industrial Revolution by many centuries. Mass production involves making many copies of products quickly, using assembly line techniques to send complete products to workers who each work on an individual step, rather than having a worker work on a whole product from start to finish.
Mass production of fluid matter involves pipes with centrifugal pumps or screw conveyors to transfer raw materials or complete products between vessels. Fluid flow processes such as oil refining and bulk materials such as wood chips and pulp are automated using a system of process control which uses various instruments to measure variables such as temperature, pressure and level, providing feedback man Bulk materials such as coal, ores and wood chips are handled by belt, slat, pneumatic or screw conveyors, bucket elevators and mobile equipment such as front-end loaders. Materials on pallets are handled with forklifts. Used for handling heavy items like reels of paper, steel or machinery are electric overhead cranes, sometimes called bridge cranes because they span large factory bays. Mass production is capital intensive and energy intensive, as it uses a high proportion of machinery and energy in relation to workers, it is usually automated while total expenditure per unit of product is decreased.
However, the machinery, needed to set up a mass production line is so expensive that there must be some assurance that the product is to be successful to attain profits. One of the descriptions of mass production is that "the skill is built into the tool", which means that the worker using the tool may not need the skill. For example, in the 19th or early 20th century, this could be expressed as "the craftsmanship is in the workbench itself". Rather than having a skilled worker measure every dimension of each part of the product against the plans or the other parts as it is being formed, there were jigs ready at hand to ensure that the part was made to fit this set-up, it had been checked that the finished part would be to specifications to fit all the other finished parts—and it would be made more with no time spent on finishing the parts to fit one another. Once computerized control came about, jigs were obviated, but it remained true that the skill was built into the tool rather than residing in the worker's head.
This is the specialized capital required for mass production. Standardized parts and sizes and factory production techniques were developed in pre-industrial times. Crossbows made with bronze parts were produced in China during the Warring States period; the Qin Emperor unified China at least in part by equipping large armies with these weapons, which were equipped with a sophisticated trigger mechanism made of interchangeable parts. Ships of war were produced on a large scale at a moderate cost by the Carthaginians in their excellent harbors, allowing them to efficiently maintain their control of the Mediterranean; the Venetians themselves produced ships using prefabricated parts and assembly lines many centuries later. The Venetian Arsenal produced nearly one ship every day, in what was the world's first factory which, at its height, employed 16,000 people. Mass production in the publishing industry has been commonplace since the Gutenberg Bible was published using a printing press in the mid-15th century.
In the Industrial Revolution simple mass production techniques were used at the Portsmouth Block Mills in England to make ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars. It was achieved in 1803 by Marc Isambard Brunel in cooperation with Henry Maudslaym under the management of Sir Samuel Bentham; the first unmistakable examples of manufacturing operations designed to reduce production costs by specialized labour and the use of machines appeared in the 18th century in England. The Navy was in a state of expansion. Bentham had achieved remarkable efficiency at the docks by introducing power-driven machinery and reorganising the dockyard system. Brunel, a pioneering engineer, Maudslay, a pioneer of machine tool technology who had developed the f
The term swivel gun refers to a small cannon, mounted on a swiveling stand or fork which allows a wide arc of movement. Another type of firearm referred to as a swivel gun was an early flintlock combination gun with two barrels that rotated along their axes to allow the shooter to switch between rifled and smoothbore barrels. Swivel guns should not be confused with pivot guns, which were far larger weapons mounted on a horizontal pivot, or screw guns, which are a mountain gun with a segmented barrel. An older term for the type is peterero; the name was taken from the Spanish name for the gun, pedrero, a combination of the word piedra and the suffix -ero, because stone was the first type of ammunition fired. Swivel guns are among the smallest types of cannon measuring less than 1 m in length and with a bore diameter of up to 3.5 cm. They can fire a variety of ammunition but were used to fire grapeshot and small caliber round shot, they were aimed through the use of a wooden handle, somewhat similar in shape to a baseball bat, attached to the breech of the weapon.
Most swivel guns were muzzleloaders, but there were some breech-loading swivel guns as early as the 14th century, making them among the first such examples of this type of weapon. Breech-loading swivel guns had a breech shaped like a beer mug, which the gunner would take by the handle and insert into the body of the swivel gun with the breech's opening facing forwards; the gunpowder and projectiles were loaded into the breech. If a number of breeches were prepared beforehand, the gunner could maintain a high rate of fire for a brief period by swapping out the used breech and replacing it with a freshly loaded one. Swivel guns were used principally aboard sailing ships, serving as short-range anti-personnel ordnance, they were not ship-sinking weapons, due to their small caliber and short range, but could do considerable damage to anyone caught in their line of fire. They were useful against deck-to-deck boarders, against approaching longboats bearing boarding parties, against deck gun crews when ships were hull-to-hull.
Due to their small size, swivel guns were portable and could be moved around the deck of a ship quite easily. They could be mounted on vertical timbers which were either part of the ship's structure or were bolted to that structure along either side, which provided the gunner with a reasonably steady platform from which to fire, their portability enabled them to be installed. The small size of swivel guns enabled them to be used by a wide variety of vessels, including those too small to accommodate larger cannons, permitted their use on land. Swivel guns had peaceful uses, they were used for signalling purposes and for firing salutes, found uses in whaling, where bow-mounted swivel guns were used to fire harpoons, fowling, where swivel guns mounted on punts were used to shoot flocks of waterfowl. Swivel guns were extensively used by the kingdoms and empires of Asia China and kingdoms in Nusantara. Majapahit conquest is fought using breech-loading swivel guns called cetbang by Majapahit navy, against more traditional boarding style warfare of other kingdoms in Nusantara.
The first Chinese swivel guns were cast as early as 1520 after being introduced from Europe, Korea followed suit by the 1560s. During the Japanese invasions of Korea, Korean naval forces used swivel guns and larger cannon to great effect in interdicting the invading Japanese forces. Wall piece Zamburak McLaughlin, Ian; the Sloop of War 1650-1763. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321878. Swivel Guns and Swivel Gun Harpoons Lewis and Clark's swivel cannon Swivel Guns or Paterero
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Casimir Lefaucheux was a French gunsmith. He was died in Paris. Casimir Lefaucheux obtained his first patent in 1827. In 1832, he completed a drop-barrel sporting gun with paper-cased cartridges. Casimir Lefaucheux is credited with the invention of one of the first efficient self-contained cartridge system in 1836, featuring a pin-fire mechanism; this followed the pioneering work of Jean Samuel Pauly in 1808-1812. The Lefaucheux cartridge had a conical bullet, a cardboard powder tube, a copper base that incorporated a primer pellet. Lefaucheux thus proposed one of the first practical breech-loading weapons. In 1846, the Lefaucheux system was improved upon by Benjamin Houllier, who introduced an metallic cartridge of copper brass. In 1858, the Lefaucheux pistolet-revolver became the first metallic-cartridge revolver to be adopted by a national government, it is thought that the revolver with which Vincent van Gogh fatally shot himself in a field in 1890 was a 7mm Lefaucheux à broche. A 7mm Lefaucheux revolver used by Paul Verlaine to shoot and wound Arthur Rimbaud in 1873 sold with a price of €435,000 at a Paris auction.
Henrotin, Gerard Lefaucheux 7mm pinfire revolver explained, HLebooks.com, 2013 Henrotin, Gerard European percussion & pinfire shotguns explained, HLebooks.com, 2011
Battle of Brandywine
The Battle of Brandywine known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American Continental Army of General George Washington and the British Army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. The "Redcoats" of the British Army defeated the American rebels in the Patriots' forces and forced them to withdraw northeast toward the American capital and largest city of Philadelphia where the Second Continental Congress had been meeting since 1775; the engagement occurred near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania during Howe's campaign to take Philadelphia, part of the American Revolutionary War. More troops fought at Brandywine than any other battle of the American Revolution, it was the longest single-day battle of the war, with continuous fighting for 11 hours. Howe's army departed from Sandy Hook, New Jersey across New York Bay from the occupied town of New York City on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, on July 23, 1777, landed near present-day Elkton, Maryland, at the point of the "Head of Elk" by the Elk River at the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay, at the southern mouth of the Susquehanna River.
Marching north, the British Army brushed aside American light forces in a few skirmishes. General Washington offered battle with his army posted behind Brandywine Creek - off the Christina River. While part of his army demonstrated in front of Chadds Ford, Howe took the bulk of his troops on a long march that crossed the Brandywine far beyond Washington's right flank. Due to poor scouting, the Americans did not detect Howe's column until it reached a position in rear of their right flank. Belatedly, three divisions were shifted to block the British flanking force at Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse and School, a Quaker meeting house. After a stiff fight, Howe's wing broke through the newly formed American right wing, deployed on several hills. At this point Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen attacked Chadds Ford and crumpled the American left wing; as Washington's army streamed away in retreat, he brought up elements of General Nathanael Greene's division which held off Howe's column long enough for his army to escape to the northeast.
Polish General Casimir Pulaski defended Washington's rear assisting in his escape. The defeat and subsequent maneuvers left Philadelphia vulnerable; the British captured the city two weeks on September 26, beginning an occupation that would last nine months until June 1778. In late August 1777, after a distressing 34-day journey from Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey, a Royal Navy fleet of more than 260 ships carrying some 17,000 British troops under the command of British General Sir William Howe landed at the head of the Elk River, on the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay near present-day Elkton, Maryland 40–50 miles southwest of Philadelphia. Unloading the ships proved to be a logistical problem because the narrow river neck was shallow and muddy. General George Washington had situated the American forces, about 20,300-strong, between Head of Elk and Philadelphia, his forces were able to reconnoiter the British landing from Iron Hill near Newark, about 9 miles to the northeast. Because of the delay disembarking from the ships, Howe did not set up a typical camp but moved forward with the troops.
As a result, Washington was not able to gauge the strength of the opposing forces. After a skirmish at Cooch's Bridge south of Newark, the British troops moved north and Washington abandoned a defensive encampment along the Red Clay Creek near Newport, Delaware to deploy against the British at Chadds Ford; this site was important as it was the most direct passage across the Brandywine River on the road from Baltimore to Philadelphia. On September 9, Washington positioned detachments to guard other fords above and below Chadds Ford, hoping to force the battle there. Washington employed General John Armstrong, commanding about 1,000 Pennsylvania militia, to cover Pyle's Ford, 5.8 miles south of Chadds Ford, covered by Major Generals Anthony Wayne's and Nathanael Greene's divisions. Major General John Sullivan's division extended northward along the Brandywine's east banks, covering the high ground north of Chadds Ford along with Major General Adam Stephen's division and Major General Lord Stirling's divisions.
Further upstream was a brigade under Colonel Moses Hazen covering Buffington's Ford and Wistar's Ford. Washington was confident; the British grouped forces at nearby Kennett Square. Howe, who had better information about the area than Washington, had no intention of mounting a full-scale frontal attack against the prepared American defenses, he instead employed a flanking maneuver. About 6,800 men under the command of Wilhelm von Knyphausen advanced to meet Washington's troops at Chadds Ford; the remainder of Howe's troops, about 9,000 men, under the command of Charles, Lord Cornwallis, marched north to Trimble's Ford across the West Branch of the Brandywine Creek east to Jefferies Ford across the East Branch, south to flank the American forces. September 11 began with a heavy fog. Washington received contradictory reports about the British troop movements and continued to believe that the main force was moving to attack at Chadds Ford. Knyphausen's Column At 5:30 a.m. the British and Hessian troops began marching east along the "Great Road" from Kennett Square, advancing on the American troops positioned where the road crossed Brandywine Creek.
The first shots of the battle took place about 4 miles west of Chadds Ford, at Welch's Tavern. Elements of Maxwell's continental light infantry skirmished with
122 mm howitzer M1910
122 mm howitzer M1910 was a Russian Empire 121.92 mm field howitzer used throughout World War I in large numbers. Following the defeats of the Russo-Japanese War, Russia sought to modernize some of its equipment, which included the purchase of foreign designed artillery. Seeking new systems from both France and Germany, the 122 mm howitzer M1910 was developed by the French arms manufacturer Schneider et Cie. Russia bought a similar system from the German arms manufacturer Krupp, the 122 mm howitzer M1909. Up to 5,900 pieces were converted by the Soviet Union into the 122 mm howitzer M1910/30, the most numerous divisional howitzer of the RKKA at the outbreak of Great Patriotic War, it saw service throughout the war. Obusier de 120 mm mle 15TR - The original French gun the M1910 was based on 122 mm howitzer M1909 - similar piece in Russian service designed by Krupp QF 4.5-inch howitzer - British equivalent in Russian service 10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 - early German equivalent 10.5 cm leFH 16 - German equivalent
Dreyse needle gun
The Dreyse needle-gun was a military breechloading rifle, famous as the main infantry weapon of the Prussians, who accepted it for service in 1841 as the "leichtes Perkussionsgewehr Model 1841", with the name chosen to hide the revolutionary nature of the new weapon. The name "Zündnadelgewehr"/"needle-gun" comes from its needle-like firing pin, which passed through the paper cartridge case to strike a percussion cap at the bullet base; the Dreyse rifle was the first breech-loading rifle to use the bolt action to open and close the chamber, executed by turning and pulling a bolt handle. It has a rate of fire of about 10–12 rounds per minute; the rifle was the invention of the gunsmith Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse who, beginning in 1824, had conducted multiple experiments and in 1836 produced the complete needle-gun. Dreyse was ennobled in 1864; the first types of needle-gun made by Johann Nikolaus von Dreyse were muzzle-loading, the novelty lying in the long needle driven by a coiled conchoidal spring which fired the internal percussion cap on the base of the sabot.
It was his adoption of the bolt-action breechloading principle combined with this igniter system which gave the rifle its military potential, allowing a much faster rate of fire. Accepted for service in 1841, it was used in combat for the first time during the German revolutions of 1848–49. Many German states subsequently adopted the weapon; the gun proved its combat superiority in street fighting during the May Uprising in Dresden in 1849, but the Prussian Army's low level of funding resulted in only 90 battalions being equipped with the weapon in 1855. The Dreyse-Zündnadel factory produced only 30,000 rifles a year and most of the Prussian infantry in the 1850s was still equipped with the obsolete 1839 Model caplock Potsdam musket, whose ballistic performance was inferior to the French Minié rifle; the British Army evaluated the Dreyse needle gun in 1849–51. In the British trials, the Dreyse was shown to be capable of six rounds per minute, to maintain accuracy to 800–1,200 yards; the trials suggested that the Dreyse was "too delicate" for service use.
The French carabine à tige muzzle-loading rifle was judged to be a better weapon, an improved version was adopted as the Pattern 1851 Minié-type muzzle-loading rifle. As the Prussian army received a massive increase in funding and was reformed by Wilhelm I, Albrecht von Roon and Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, the Dreyse needle gun played an important role in the Austro-Prussian victory in the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864; the introduction of cast steel barrels made industrial mass production of the weapon a reality in the early 1860s. The new 1862 model and an enhanced ammunition type expedited the use and widespread adoption of the weapon in the 1860s; the success of German private industry in delivering the necessary amount of armaments for the army marked the definite end of government-owned army workshops. The Prussian Army infantry was equipped with and could boast of 270,000 Dreyse needle guns by the outbreak of the decisive Austro-Prussian War in 1866; the employment of the needle-gun radically changed military tactics in the 19th century, as a Prussian soldier could fire five shots while lying on the ground, in the time that it took his Austrian muzzle-loading counterpart to reload while standing.
Production was ramped up after the war against Austria and when the Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870, the Prussian Army had 1,150,000 needle guns in its inventory. The success of the design spurred subsequent developments in firearms technology and, before the start of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, the French introduced the Chassepot rifle; the Prussians won the war but the Chassepot proved superior to the needle-gun in every way. In 1877, Romania purchased 11,000 carbines from the Prussian government; these were used to great effect in the Romanian War of Independence. Sometime in the late 1860s, Japan bayonets; these were marked with the imperial chrysanthemum stamp. China acquired Dreyse rifles for the modernisation of their armed forces; the cartridge used with this rifle consisted of the paper case, the bullet, the percussion cap and the black powder charge. The 15.4 mm bullet was shaped like an acorn, with the broader end forming a point, the primer attached to its base. The bullet was held in a paper case known as a sabot – which separated from the bullet as it exited the muzzle.
Between this inner lining and the outer case was the powder charge, consisting of 4.8 g of black powder. The upper end of the paper case is tied. Upon release of the trigger, the point of the needle pierces the rear of the cartridge, passes through the powder and hits the primer fixed to the base of the sabot, thus the burn-front in the black powder charge passes from the front to the rear. This front-to-rear burn pattern minimizes the effect seen in rear-igniting cartridges where a portion of the powder at the front of the charge is forced down and out of the barrel to burn wastefully in the air as muzzle flash, it ensures that the whole charge burns under the highest possible pressure, theoretically minimising unburnt residues. A smaller charge can be used to obtain the same velocity as a rear-ignited charge of the same bullet calibre and weight, it increases the handling security of the cartridge, since it is impossible to set the primer off accidentally. There was a blank cartridge developed for the needle-gun.
It was shorter and lighter than the live round, since it lacked the projectile, but was otherwise similar i