The City Municipality of Bremen is the capital of the German federal state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a two-city-state consisting of the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. With around 570,000 inhabitants, the Hanseatic city is the 11th largest city of Germany as well as the second largest city in Northern Germany after Hamburg. Bremen is the largest city on the River Weser, the longest river flowing in Germany, lying some 60 km upstream from its mouth into the North Sea, is surrounded by the state of Lower Saxony. A commercial and industrial city, Bremen is, together with Oldenburg and Bremerhaven, part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, with 2.5 million people. Bremen is contiguous with the Lower Saxon towns of Delmenhorst, Achim, Weyhe and Lilienthal. There is an exclave of Bremen in Bremerhaven, the "Citybremian Overseas Port Area Bremerhaven". Bremen is the fourth largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg and Essen. Bremen's port, together with the port of Bremerhaven at the mouth of the Weser, is the second largest port in Germany after the Port of Hamburg.
The airport of Bremen lies in the southern borough of Neustadt-Neuenland and is Germany's 12th busiest airport. Bremen is a major economic hub of Northern Germany; the city is home to dozens of historical galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums, such as the Bremen Overseas Museum. The Bremen City Hall and the Bremen Roland are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Bremen is well known through the Brothers Grimm's fairy tale "Town Musicians of Bremen", there is a statue dedicated to it in front of the city hall. Bremen has a reputation as a working-class city; the city is home to manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen include Vector Foiltec. Bremen's best known football club is Bundesliga club SV Werder Bremen, who play in the Weser Stadium, that sits directly on the bank of the Weser; the marshes and moraines near Bremen have been settled since about 12,000 BC. Burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD.
Since the Renaissance, some scientists have believed that the entry Fabiranum or Phabiranon in Ptolemy's Fourth Map of Europe, written in AD 150, refers to Bremen. But Ptolemy gives geographic coordinates, these refer to a site northeast of the mouth of the river Visurgis. In Ptolemy's time the Chauci lived in the area now called Lower Saxony. By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons. During the Saxon Wars the Saxons, led by Widukind, fought against the West Germanic Franks, the founders of the Carolingian Empire, lost the war. Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, made a new law, the Lex Saxonum, which forbade the Saxons from worshipping Odin. In 787 Willehad of Bremen became the first Bishop of Bremen. In 848 the archdiocese of Hamburg merged with the diocese of Bremen to become Hamburg-Bremen Archdiocese, with its seat in Bremen, in the following centuries the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen were the driving force behind the Christianisation of Northern Germany. In 888, at the behest of Archbishop Rimbert, Kaiser Arnulf of Carinthia, the Carolingian King of East Francia, granted Bremen the rights to hold its own markets, mint its own coins and make its own customs laws.
The city's first stone walls were built in 1032. Around that time trade with Norway and the northern Netherlands began to grow, thus increasing the importance of the city. In 1186 the Bremian Prince-Archbishop Hartwig of Uthlede and his bailiff in Bremen confirmed – without waiving the prince-archbishop's overlordship over the city – the Gelnhausen Privilege, by which Frederick I Barbarossa granted the city considerable privileges; the city was recognised as a political entity with its own laws. Property within the municipal boundaries could not be subjected to feudal overlordship. Property was to be inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner; this privilege laid the foundation for Bremen's status of imperial immediacy. The tax obligations of city to the prince-archbishopric were both a lever of influence; the city participated in the Diets of the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen as part of the Bremian Estates. Since the city was the principal taxpayer, its consent for taxes was sought.
In this way the city wielded fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, while not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city against its consent. In 1260 Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. In 1350, the number of inhabitants reached 20,000. Around this time the Hansekogge became a unique product of Bremen. In 1362, representatives of Bremen rendered homage to Albert II, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen in Langwedel. In return, Albert confirmed the city's privileges and brokered a peace between the city and Gerhard III, Count of Hoya, who since 1358 had held some burghers of Bremen in captivity; the city had to
The Rebound is a 2009 American romantic comedy film directed by Bart Freundlich, starring Catherine Zeta-Jones and Justin Bartha. It was released in theaters in several countries in late 2009, it was scheduled to be released in the United States on 25 December 2010, but was cancelled due to the film's distributor shutting down. It ended up going direct-to-DVD in the United States on 7 February 2012. A housewife and mother of two, discovers that her husband has been unfaithful. After a hasty divorce, she moves to New York City with her young daughter. There, they begin a new life. Sandy befriends one of the baristas, Aram Finklestein. At age 25, Aram is not sure. Despite having a college degree, he gets a job at a women's center. During a self-defense class at the women's center where Aram plays the perpetrator, Sandy unleashes an "ocean of anger" on him; the next day, she asks him to babysit her kids. He becomes a full-time nanny for the family and develops a close-knit relationship with the children.
Notwithstanding, they start to date. One day, Sandy suspects she is pregnant. Aram looks forward to raising a child with her. A doctor confirms that Sandy is pregnant, but it is an ectopic pregnancy and will result in a miscarriage; as they leave the doctor, a fight breaks out between Aram and Sandy, with the latter confirming that she thinks it's ludicrous that the two of them, with an age difference of 15 years, would be happy together. After the break up, Aram decides to experience new things. Sandy is promoted at her sports news job to anchor. After five years, the two meet again in a chance encounter at a Chinese restaurant. Aram reveals he is still single. Sandy, celebrating another promotion with her children and a colleague, invites Aram and his family to join them; the film ends as the two hold hands underneath the table whilst their children start to bond implying that they went on to rekindle their relationship. This was Alice Playten's last role before her death in 2011; the Rebound received negative reviews from film critics.
Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 42% based on reviews from 24 critics, with 10 positive reviews and 14 negative. Jon Frosch, said: "Saddling two game actors with a tone-deaf, charmless script, the film makes recent J. Lo vehicle The Back-up Plan look like Billy Wilder in comparison." Alex Zane said: "These are characters who seem real. It's their imperfections, not contrived plot points, that drive the story." The film grossed $21,790,414 worldwide. The Rebound on IMDb
The Full Moon Party is an all-night beach party that originated in Hat Rin on the island of Ko Pha-ngan, Thailand in 1985. The party takes place on the night of, before, or after every full moon, it is attended by tourists. The first Full Moon Party is said to have been improvised at a Paradise Bungalows on the beach in 1983 as a token of thanks to about 20–30 travelers, though the accuracy of this is disputed, as is the date of the original event; the parties gained fame through word of mouth, the event now draws a crowd of about 5,000–30,000 every full moon evening. The party carries on; the bars on Sunrise Beach of Hat Rin stay open and play music such as psychedelic trance, R&B, drum and bass, house and reggae. The modern event has become a part of the itinerary of many travelers to Southeast Asia; the success of the Full Moon Party prompted the creation of "Half Moon", "Black Moon", Oxa Beach, other parties. The ruling military government in late 2014 banned all but the Full Moon Party, but the edict may not have been observed by local authorities given that, as of 5 April 2015, all parties except the Full Moon Party were again banned on Ko Pha-ngan.
This was done to stop the noise pollution which has become a constant source of irritation for the islanders. The ban was ordered by Pha-ngan district chief officer Krirkkrai Songthani after a meeting with local leaders on 3 April to discuss complaints from many residents about the various parties which are held up to 25 times a month at one coconut plantation or another on the island. However, these bans are only short-lived, lapse once they have served their unstated purpose, allowing the re-proliferation of parties. Given the junta's stated goal of attracting higher-class tourists, it is unclear how much longer the Full Moon Party will be permitted to continue; the Tourist Authority of Thailand webpage for Ko Pha-ngan makes mention of the Full Moon Party. A police colonel summed up the attitude of the new government when he said, "The sort of tourist that comes here to drink too much and take drugs are not the type that Thailand wants." The Full Moon Party takes place every month throughout the year.
Its attractions include fire skipping ropes, alcohol "buckets", drugs. There is a wide spectrum of music ranging from trance, to drum and bass, to reggae; the party takes place in many clubs along the Hat Rin beach. The Full Moon Party in October 2017, all other parties and music activities on Koh Pha-ngan, was canceled in respect for the cremation ceremony for the late king Bhumibol Adulyadej, October 25 to 29. Full Moon Party schedule for 2020 Jan 9 Feb 9 Mar 8 Apr 7 May 7 Jun 5 Jul 6 or 7 Aug 3 or 4 Sep 1 or 2 Oct 2, 1 or 3 Oct 30 or 31 Nov 29 or 30 Dec 25, 28 and 31 or only 29 Although drugs are consumed by many partygoers, drug laws are strict and police enforcement is stepped up during the parties. There are undercover police on patrol and the drug dealers themselves may report drug users to police. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of assaults and robberies at the party and in bars in the surrounding area, leading the British government to warn tourists to exercise caution at Full Moon Parties.
Break-ins at hotel bungalows while partygoers are away from their rooms sometimes occur as well. The Full Moon Party has been featured in films such as The Beach, Last Stop for Paul, the Thai film Hormones, it was featured in the first episode of the Comedy Central TV show Gerhard Reinke's Wanderlust. In 2011, the island's parties featured on Tourism and the Truth: Stacey Dooley Investigates, a documentary investigating the negative impacts of tourism on local people and the economy, it was featured in episode 4 of E4's comedy-drama series Gap Year. List of electronic music festivals Ko Pha Ngan travel guide from Wikivoyage