The Bren gun called the Bren, is a series of light machine guns made by Britain in the 1930s and used in various roles until 1992. While best known for its role as the British and Commonwealth forces' primary infantry LMG in World War II, it was used in the Korean War and saw service throughout the latter half of the 20th century, including the 1982 Falklands War. Although fitted with a bipod, it could be mounted on a tripod or vehicle-mounted; the Bren was a licensed version of the Czechoslovak ZGB 33 light machine gun which, in turn, was a modified version of the ZB vz. 26, which British Army officials had tested during a firearms service competition in the 1930s. The Bren featured a distinctive top-mounted curved box magazine, conical flash hider, quick change barrel; the name Bren was derived from Brno, the Czechoslovak city in Moravia, where the Zb vz. 26 was designed and Enfield, site of the British Royal Small Arms Factory. The designer was a gun inventor and design engineer. In the 1950s, many Brens were re-barrelled to accept the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge and modified to feed from the magazine for the L1 rifle as the L4 light machine gun.
It was replaced in the British Army as the section LMG by the L7 general-purpose machine gun, a heavier belt-fed weapon. This was supplemented in the 1980s by the L86 Light Support Weapon firing the 5.56×45mm NATO round, leaving the Bren in use only as a pintle mount on some vehicles. The Bren was manufactured by Indian Ordnance Factories as the "Gun Machine 7.62mm 1B" before it was discontinued in 2012. At the close of the First World War in 1918, the British Army was equipped with two main automatic weapons; the Vickers was heavy and required a supply of water to keep it in operation, which tended to relegate it to static defence and indirect fire support. The Lewis, although lighter, was prone to frequent stoppages. In 1922, to find a replacement for the Lewis, the Small Arms Committee of the British Army ran competitive trials between the Madsen, the Browning Automatic Rifle, the Hotchkiss, the Beardmore-Farquhar, the Lewis itself. Although the BAR was recommended, the sheer number of Lewis guns available and the difficult financial conditions meant that nothing was done.
Various new models of light machine gun were tested as they became available, in 1930, a further set of extensive trials commenced, overseen by Frederick Hubert Vinden. This time the weapons tested included the SIG Neuhausen KE7, the Vickers-Berthier and the Czechoslovak ZB vz.26. The Vickers-Berthier was adopted by the Indian Army because it could be manufactured at once, rather than wait for the British Lewis production run to finish. Following these trials, the British Army adopted the Czechoslovak ZB vz.26 light machine gun manufactured in Brno in 1935, although a modified model, the ZB vz. 27, rather than the ZB vz. 26, submitted for the trials. The design was modified to British requirements under new designation ZGB 33, licensed for British manufacture under the Bren name; the major changes were in the magazine and barrel and the lower pistol grip assembly which went from a swiveling grip frame pivoted on the front of the trigger guard to a sliding grip frame which included the forward tripod mount and sliding ejection port cover.
The magazine was curved in order to feed the rimmed.303 SAA cartridge, a change from the various rimless Mauser-design cartridges such as the 8mm Mauser round used by Czech designs. These modifications were categorised in ZB vz. 27, ZB vz. 30, ZB vz. 32, the ZGB 33, licensed for manufacture under the Bren name. The Bren was a gas-operated weapon, which used the same.303 ammunition as the standard British bolt-action rifle, the Lee–Enfield, firing at a rate of between 480 and 540 rounds per minute, depending on the model. Propellant gases vented from a port towards the muzzle end of the barrel through a regulator with four quick-adjustment apertures of different sizes, intended to tailor the gas volume to different ambient temperatures; the vented gas drove a piston. Each gun came with a spare barrel that could be changed when the barrel became hot during sustained fire, though guns featured a chrome-lined barrel, which reduced the need for a spare. To change barrels, the release catch in front of the magazine was rotated to unlock the barrel.
The carrying handle above the barrel was used to grip and remove the hot barrel without burning the hands. The Bren was magazine-fed, which slowed its rate of fire and required more frequent reloading than British belt-fed machine guns such as the larger.303 Vickers machine gun. The slower rate of fire prevented more rapid overheating of the Bren's air-cooled barrel, the Bren was much lighter than belt-fed machine guns, which had cooling jackets liquid filled; the magazines prevented the ammunition from getting dirty, more of a problem with the Vickers with its 250-round canvas belts. The sights were offset to the left; the position of the sights meant. In the British and Commonwealth armies, the Bren was
Réda Tamni better known as Reda Taliani is an Algerian raï singer and musician. He is a longtime resident of Aubagne, France, his music blends chaabi, raï and traditional musical styles of the Maghreb, many of his songs depict the realities and aspirations of the Algerian youth. Born in El Biar, in the Algerian capital Algiers from a family originating from Constantine, Reda Taliani grew in Koléa, a town in Tipaza Province, in northern Algeria, his musical career started at 5 when he joined the Koléa Conservatory of Arab and Andalusian Music where he studied playing a number of instruments and excelled in playing the mandolin. He was captivated by raï music early on and opted for leaving the more classical Andalusian music devoting himself to raï; the name Taliani is a nickname given to him. Reda Taliani's first album entitled Ache Dani Elwahd Tayra was released in 2000 with producer Issame and Eleulma Phone, he stayed with the label until 2004 when he moved to Dounia Production label where he released his successful album Joséphine the same year.
Since he has found popularity and success in Algeria with Les Algériens des Kamikazes and Khobz Dar. His music is influenced by Cheb Khaled and Sahraoui styles, but by Bob Marley and Santana, he has collaborated with many French artists, most notably the rap formation 113 on their album 113 Degrés. The single emanating from the collaboration entitled "Partir loin" was successful, he was featured in Raï N B Fever 2 with the song "Cholé Cholé" with Rappeurs d'Instinct. He sang "Ca passe où ça casse" with French rapper of Tunisian origin Tunisiano. In 2011, he collaborated with Grand Corps Malade on the track "Inch'allah" Ache dani elwahd tayra Joséphine " Bahr el Ghadar. Dis moi Loumina Khobz dar Les algériens des kamikhazes Suis-le, il te fuit, fuis-le, il te suit Les algériens rassa Mon cœur n'aie pas peur Taaya Tebghini "Ca passe ou ca casse" "Cholé Cholé" "Famille nombreuse" "Raï Kaï" "Inch'Allah"
Denis Robert is a French investigative journalist and filmmaker. He worked for 12 years for the newspaper Libération. In 2008, he was involved in a polemic with Philippe Val, former director of the magazine Charlie Hebdo, journalist Edwy Plenel. Robert's books and press interviews, denouncing the opaque workings of the Clearstream clearing house, got him into more than 60 lawsuits in France and Luxembourg by banks, such as Menatep and BGL, as well as the Clearstream company. On 3 February 2011, after ten years of litigation, Robert was cleared by the Court of Cassation of his conviction for both of his books Révélation$ and La Boite Noire, for his documentary film Les Dissimulateurs. Robert is a painter, whose work is displayed in Paris art galleries. Robert obtained a Master of Advanced Studies in psycholinguistics. After starting a fanzine Santiag in Lorraine in 1982, he joined the editorial staff of the monthly magazine Actuel, where he worked for a year. At the end of 1983, he joined Libération as a journalist for twelve years, first as a correspondent in eastern France he was transferred to the financial and political affairs in the “Society” department.
He resigned in 1995. By this time he had published two novels, Chair Mathilde in 1991 and Je ferai un malheur in 1994, but the general public only got acquainted with him in early 1996 with his essay Pendant les affaires, les affaires continuent. In 1996, Robert gathered seven anti-corruption magistrates to start the Appel de Genève, to create a European judicial area to fight financial crime more effectively; the Appel de Genève is the subject of a book La justice ou le chaos, published the same year. It was followed by a dozen novels and by as many essays on investigations of the multinational finance company Clearstream. In late 1997, Robert planned to denounce the consequences of what he calls “the machine” for the poorest. In Portrait de groupe avant démolition, Robert presented and illustrated a collection of street photographs of homeless persons taken by one of their own, René Taesch. In addition to his books, Robert has directed and co-directed five documentary films, one for cinema with the cineast Philippe Harel, Journal intime des affaires en cours and four others for television: Le cahier, Les Dissimulateurs, Histoire clandestine, L’affaire Clearstream racontée à un ouvrier de chez Daewoo.
He was the writer of successful novels: Happiness, an erotic book written in 2000 and translated into 14 languages. The same year, he published a novel on football Le milieu du terrain which resulted in several lawsuits, an investigative book, Clearstream, l’enquête. In late 2006, in collaboration with a painter friend, Robert published an art book, Dominations:'étrange objet de peinture et de littérature, in parallel with a contemporary art exhibition in Paris. In 2009 he published a social science fiction novel, he is the author of a successful four-volume comic strip, L’affaire des affaires. Just after the Appel de Genève, Robert investigated the multinational Clearstream, which at that time was unknown to the general public, he met one of the founding managers of this international clearing house. Robert led the investigation for two years. Régis Hempel, the firm's vice-president and a former IT manager, explained that one of his tasks was to delete any trace of sensitive transactions. Three months before the publication of his book Révélation$, Robert sent a series of registered letters in which he sought explanations from Clearstream's management and from the banks under investigation.
In February 2001, the book Révélation $ had an explosive effect. Robert held Cedel International responsible for being one of the major platforms for concealing financial transactions on a worldwide scale, he continued to condemn them by co-producing a movie Les Dissimulateurs with Pascal Lorent, as part of Canal+’s investigation show 90 minutes. Business journalists were either in disbelief or hostile to it, while some others were just unsure because Clearstream was threatening them with endless lawsuits; the movie gained success among the alter-globalization movement. The parliamentary commission on money laundering, chaired by Vincent Peillon and Arnaud Montebourg, took up the revelations and summoned witnesses, all of whom confirmed what the author had written. Under pressure, a judicial inquiry was opened in Luxembourg; the CEO of Clearstream, André Lussi, a Swiss banker, was laid off and Clearstream was purchased, for a large sum, by the Deutsche Börse Group. Deutsche Börse had been waiting a long time to acquire this clearing house, which allowed it to control the European markets from start to finish.
Deutsche Börse still maintained the lawsuits against Robert. In light of those developments, Robert wrote a second novel, La Boite Noire, a second movie, broadcast by Canal+, l'Affaire Clearstream racontée à un ouvrier chez Daewoo. After publishing his book Révélation$; the complaints were raining in France, Belgium and Canada, all filed by Clearstream, as well as by the Russian bank Menatep of Mikhail Khodorkovsky and by the
Cape Rodney-Okakari Point Marine Reserve is a 5.5 km2 protected area in the North Island of New Zealand. Goat Island lies within the reserve and Leigh is the closest town. Auckland University operates Leigh Marine Laboratory at the reserve, it was created in 1975 as the first marine reserve in New Zealand. With more than 200,000 visitors per year, it is a popular spot for snorkellers and scuba-divers, due to the abundance and diversity of fish now living within the reserve, after over 35 years of protection. Species that can be found in the reserve include New Zealand sea urchin. Leigh Marine Laboratory List of marine reserves of New Zealand Cape Rodney-Okakari Point Marine Reserve at the Department of Conservation
Lieutenant Thomas Henry Barkell was an Australian flying ace of the First World War, credited with seven aerial victories. Barkell worked as a motor mechanic in Sydney before enlisting into the Australian Flying Corps on 16 October 1916, he was posted to "B" Flight, No. 2 Squadron, as a private, but was regraded as an air mechanic 2nd class when the squadron arrived in England on 29 December aboard HMAT A38 Ulysses. His squadron was based at South Carlton, engaged in flying training with Avro 504 and B. E.2e two-seater aircraft. In February 1917 flying duty was file. Six men were selected, of whom Barkell was one, he was promoted to sergeant and posted to the No. 1 School of Aerial Gunnery in Hythe, for training. In mid-August the squadron began to move to France, the first Australian flying squadron to see service on the Western Front, based at Savy, to support the Canadian and XIII Corps front near Arras. In late September Barkell, began flying reconnaissance patrols in the R. E.8 aircraft with which the squadron was equipped.
Poor weather at the beginning of October kept his squadron grounded, but in the month Barkell was flying again, reporting the positions of enemy artillery. In mid-November the squadron moved to a new base at Bailleul to support the Australian Corps carrying out photographic reconnaissance, but offensive patrols. On 14 November Barkell was one of four Observer NCO's graded as Qualified Aerial Gunners. However, around dawn on 24 November he was flying with Lieutenant K. A. Roberts on a reconnaissance mission when their aircraft was hit by anti-aircraft fire. Barkell was shot in the left ankle, their aircraft overturned on landing. Both men were sent to No. 2 Casualty Clearing Station for treatment. Having recovered from his injuries, Barkell trained to become a pilot, being posted to the No. 2 School of Military Aeronautics as a cadet on 10 February 1918. He completed his flight training on 19 July and on 22 August, commissioned as a second lieutenant, was posted to "A" Flight, No. 4 Squadron AFC, based at Reclinghem under the command of Major Edgar McCloughry.
After several days of practice flights in the Sopwith Camel single-seat fighter, he flew his first operational mission on 26 August, dropping two 25 lb bombs on an enemy ammunition dump at Bac St. Maur. Barkell gained his first aerial victory on 7 September while on patrol over Hénin-Beaumont. On observing an LVG aircraft below him, he manoeuvred to the east dived down to attack, followed by two other aircraft from his squadron. All three fired at the LVG from above Barkell attacked from below at close range causing the aircraft go into a vertical dive and crash. On 16 September Barkell was leading a patrol over Frelinghien when they were attacked by about twelve enemy aircraft. During the ensuing dogfight Barkell was attacked by three aircraft, but managed to get onto the tail of one, a Fokker D. VII, after firing from about 50 yards saw it spin down and crash. On 22 September he was again leading a patrol of three aircraft over Armentières when they were attacked by about fourteen enemy aircraft, this time Barkell shot at another Fokker D.
VII, which went down in a flat spin. He was attacked by two more D. VIIs from behind, but made a tight turn and was able to fire at one from a close range, causing it to turn over and dive steeply away, his aircraft had been hit in the engine and he had to make a forced landing at Neuve Église. On 29 September No. 4 Squadron moved to Serny, on 3 October received its first six Sopwith Snipes replacing all their Camels by the 19th. On 5 October 1918 a recommendation for the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross was submitted by Brigadier General Edgar Ludlow-Hewitt, General Officer Commanding, 10th Brigade, Royal Air Force, it lists all the operations carried out by Barkell in just four days, from 29 September to 3 October, which included bombing attacks on five railway stations, on motorized, horse-drawn and canal transports, an observation balloon. It noted that all but one were made from altitudes of less than 1,500 feet; the award was approved on 10 October, was gazetted on 3 December 1918.
His citation read: Second Lieutenant Thomas Harry Barkell, Australian Flying Corps. "Although this officer only joined his squadron some two months ago, his outstanding ability soon qualified him for the leadership of a patrol. His conduct of these patrols, the results he has achieved, testify to his exceptional enterprise, justifies his early appointment to the responsible position of leader."On 9 October Barkell attacked an observation balloon west of Douai, seeing the crew parachute to safety while the balloon was set on fire. On 26 October he was a member of a patrol that attacked a formation of enemy biplanes east of Tournai, was credited with shooting down two. However, he was wounded in the leg, sent to No. 5 Casualty Clearing Station, on 27 October was written off the strength of No. 4 Squadron. Barkell returned to Australia on 7 February 1919, where he continued to fly as a commercial pilot, he gained the dubious distinction of being the first pilot prosecuted under the terms of the Air Navigation Act of 1920 when he was fined £5 in July 1922 for flying while his license was suspended.
He was involved in two accidents.
Marius Plamondon was a Canadian sculptor and stained glass artist who made a significant contribution to the revival of the art of stained glass in Quebec during his lifetime. His most famous work is the set of ten stained glass windows he made for Saint Joseph's Oratory, Montreal. Marius Plamondon was born in 1914 in Quebec, he studied at the Quebec City École des beaux-arts. He spent time in Italy. In October 1938 he went to work with the sculptor Henri Charlier in France, he was interested in the work of the sculptor Jean Lambert-Rucki and his use of the expressive distortions of African art. Plamondon was part of the remarkable revival of the arts in Quebec in 1940–42, with Louis Guay and the painter Jean Paul Lemieux, he insisted that stained glass artists had to evolve new ways of expression to complement the new, simplified architecture of the time. Plamondon became director of the Quebec School of Fine Arts. Plamondon made twenty windows for the chapel of the novitiate of the Clerics of Saint Viator, described in a 1947 study by Maximilien Boucher.
The novitiate had been built in 1939 following a design by architect René Charbonneau. Plamondon's magnificent windows help create an atmosphere of mystery and contemplation in the chapel, called a modern version of the German church in Frielingsdorff. Plamondon created statues for the chapel. In 1951–52 Plamondon sculpted three niches to hold Marial images in the facade of the chapel of Notre-Dame de Lourdes at Lac Bouchette. In 1954 Plamondon's stained glass windows were installed in the 1920s Église du Très-Saint-Sacrement in Quebec, adding color to a rather austere neo-Romanesque nave, he received a research grant from the Royal Society of Canada that let him visit Europe in 1955–56 to document ancient and modern stained glass. Plamondon was among the artists selected to decorate the interior of the Queen Elizabeth Hotel, owned by the Canadian National Railway, which opened in 1958, he contributed a stained glass mural. Others were Claude Vermette, Julien Hébert and Albert Edward Cloutier.
In April 1957 Plamondon was invited to make the windows for the basilica of Saint Joseph's Oratory, Montreal. Between 1958 and 1978 Plamondon created ten windows in the aisles of the Oratory; these illustrate extraordinary actions of Saint Joseph, the patron saint of Quebec, in the life of the people of Canada. He made fourteen stained glass windows for the clerestory representing the virtues and qualities of St. Joseph, as well as two semicircles and a rosette; the windows are educational and contribute to the calm atmosphere of the basilica. The altar and crucifix in the basilica were made by Henri Charlier. Plamondon married Muriel Hall on 17 August 1944, she was a popular soprano who performed on radio and in concerts between 1930 and 1950. His wife continued to perform under her maiden name for some years, he died in 1976. A street in the Des Châtels quarter of Quebec City was named after him in 1985. Sites in Quebec that have stained glass windows made by Plamondon include: Basilica of Saint Joseph's Oratory, Montreal Novitiate of the Clerics of Saint Viator, Joliette Church of St. Charles Garnier College, Quebec Queen Elizabeth Hotel, Montreal Church of Très-Saint-Sacrement, Quebec Jesuit Chapel, QuebecThe ten windows in Saint Joseph's Oratory represent: Delivery of Fort Sainte-Marie Miracle of "St. Joseph" Victory of Frontenac over Phipps Congregation of men of Ville-Marie Vision of Marie-Catherine of Saint-Augustin Vision of Marie de l'Incarnation Pilgrimage to St-Joseph-de-la-Pointe-Lévy Sinking of Walker Flight of the Bostonians Typhus in Bytown, Ottawa