Soviet occupation zone
The Soviet Occupation Zone was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II. On 7 October 1949 the German Democratic Republic, which became referred to as East Germany, was established in the Soviet Occupation Zone; the SBZ was one of the four Allied occupation zones of Germany created at the end of World War II. According to the Potsdam Agreement, the Soviet Military Administration in Germany was assigned responsibility for the eastern portion of Germany. By the time forces of the United States and Britain began to meet Soviet forces, forming a Line of contact, significant areas of what would become the Soviet zone of Germany were outside Soviet control. After several months of occupation these gains by the British and Americans were ceded to the Soviets, by July 1945, according to the agreed upon occupation zone boundaries; the SMAD allowed four political parties to develop, though they were all required to work together under an alliance known as the "Democratic Bloc".
In April 1946, the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Communist Party of Germany merged to form the Socialist Unity Party. The SMAD set up ten "special camps" for the detention of Germans, making use of some former Nazi concentration camps. In 1945, the Soviet occupation zone consisted of the central portions of Prussia. After Prussia was dissolved by the Allied powers in 1947, the area was divided between the German states of Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. On 7 October 1949, the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic referred to in English as East Germany. In 1952, the Länder were dissolved and realigned into 14 districts, plus the district of East Berlin. In 1952, with the Cold War political confrontation well underway, Joseph Stalin sounded out the Western Powers about the prospect of a united Germany which would be non-aligned; the West's disinterest in this proposal helped to cement the Soviet Zone's identity as the GDR for the next four decades. "Soviet zone" and derivatives remained official and common names for East Germany in West Germany, which refused to acknowledge the existence of a state in East Germany until 1972, when the government of Willy Brandt extended a qualified recognition under its Ostpolitik initiative.
History of East Germany Bizone Trizone Group of Soviet Forces in Germany Stunde Null Brennan, Sean,'Land Reform Propaganda in Soviet Occupied Germany', University of Kent Lewkowicz, NicolasThe German Question and the International Order, 1943-48 Lewkowicz, The German Question and the Origins of the Cold War
Opel is a German automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017. From 1929 until 2017, Opel was owned by American automaker General Motors. Opel vehicles are sold in the United Kingdom under the Vauxhall brand; some Opel vehicles are badge-engineered in Australasia under the Holden brand, in North America and China under the Buick brand. Opel traces its roots to a sewing machine manufacturer founded by Adam Opel in 1862 in Rüsselsheim am Main; the company began manufacturing bicycles in 1886 and produced its first automobile in 1899. After listing on the stock market in 1929, General Motors took a majority stake in Opel and full control in 1931, establishing the American reign over the German automaker for nearly 90 years. In March 2017, Groupe PSA agreed to acquire Opel from General Motors for €2.2 billion, making the French automaker the second biggest in Europe, after Volkswagen. Opel is headquartered in Rüsselsheim am Main, Germany; the company designs, engineers and distributes Opel-branded passenger vehicles, light commercial vehicles, vehicle parts and together with its British sister brand Vauxhall they are present in over 50 countries around the world.
The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Germany, on 21 January 1862, by Adam Opel. In the beginning, Opel produced sewing machines. In 1888, production was relocated from a cowshed to a more spacious building in Rüsselsheim. Opel launched a new product in 1886: he began to sell high-wheel bicycles known as penny-farthings. Opel's two sons participated in high-wheel bicycle races, thus promoting this means of transportation; the production of high-wheel bicycles soon exceeded the production of sewing machines. At the time of Opel's death in 1895, he was the leader in both markets; the first cars were produced in 1899 after Opel's wife Sophie and their two eldest sons entered into a partnership with Friedrich Lutzmann, a locksmith at the court in Dessau in Saxony-Anhalt, working on automobile designs for some time. These cars were not successful and the partnership was dissolved after two years, following which Opel signed a licensing agreement in 1901 with the French Automobiles Darracq France to manufacture vehicles under the brand name Opel Darracq.
These cars consisted of Opel bodies mounted on Darracq chassis, powered by two-cylinder engines. The company first showed cars of its own design at the 1902 Hamburg Motor Show, started manufacturing them in 1906, with Opel Darracq production being discontinued in 1907. In 1909, the Opel 4/8 PS model, known as the Doktorwagen was produced, its reliability and robustness were appreciated by physicians, who drove long distances to see their patients back when hard-surfaced roads were still rare. The Doktorwagen sold about half as much as the luxury models of its day. In 1911, the company's factory was destroyed by fire and a new one was built with more up-to-date machinery. In the early 1920s, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to incorporate a mass-production assembly line in the building of their automobiles. In 1924, they used their assembly line to produce a new open two-seater called the Laubfrosch; the Laubfrosch was finished in green lacquer. The car sold for an expensive 4,500 marks, but by the 1930s, this type of vehicle would cost a mere 1,990 marks – due in part to the assembly line, but due to the skyrocketing demand for cars.
Adam Opel led the way for motorised transportation to become not just a means for the rich, but a reliable way for people of all classes to travel. Opel had a 37.5% market share in Germany and was the country's largest automobile exporter in 1928. The "Regent" – Opel's first eight-cylinder car – was offered; the RAK 1 and RAK 2 rocket-propelled cars made sensational record-breaking runs. In March 1929, General Motors, impressed by Opel's modern production facilities, bought 80% of the company, increasing this to 100% in 1931; the Opel family gained $33.3 million from the transaction. Subsequently, during 1935, a second factory was built at Brandenburg for the production of "Blitz" light trucks. In 1935, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to produce over 100,000 vehicles a year; this was based on the popular Opel "P4" model. The selling price was a mere 1,650 marks and the car had a 23 hp 1.1 L four-cylinder engine and a top speed of 85 km/h. Opel produced the first mass-production vehicle in Germany with a self-supporting all-steel body following the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant.
This was one of the most important innovations in automotive history. They called the car, launched in 1935, the Olympia. With its small weight and aerodynamics came an improvement in both performance and fuel consumption. Opel received a patent on this technology; the 1930s was a decade of growth, by 1937, with 130,267 cars produced, Opel's Rüsselsheim plant was Europe's top car plant in terms of output, while ranking seventh worldwide.1939 saw the presentation of the successful Kapitän. With a 2.5 L six-cylinder engine, all-steel body, front independent suspension, hydraulic shock absorbers, hot-water heating, central speedometer. 25,374 Kapitäns left the factory before the intensification of World War II brought automotive manufacturing to a temporary stop in the Autumn of 1940, by order of the government. World War II brought to Rüsselsheim the only year in the history of Opel – 1945 – in which it produced fewer vehicles since that first Lutzmann-authored Opel was made in 1899. Before the conflict broke out, the Adam Opel AG had established itself as the largest motor vehicle manufa
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
Various methods of transporting children have been used in different cultures and times. These methods include baby carriages, infant car seats, portable bassinets, slings, backpacks and bicycle carriers; the large, heavy prams, which had become popular during the Victorian era, were replaced by lighter designs during the latter half of the 1900s. Infant carrying emerged early in human evolution as the emergence of bipedalism would have necessitated some means of carrying babies who could no longer cling to their mothers and/or sit on top of their mother's back. On-the-body carriers are designed in various forms such as baby sling, backpack carriers, soft front or hip carriers, with varying materials and degrees of rigidity, decoration and confinement of the child. Slings, soft front carriers, "baby carriages" are used for infants who lack the ability to sit or to hold their head up. Frame backpack carriers, hip carriers, mei tais and a variety of other soft carriers are used for older children.
Images of children being carried in slings can be seen in Egyptian artwork dating back to the time of the Pharaohs, have been used in many indigenous cultures. One of the earliest European artworks showing baby wearing is a fresco by Giotto painted in around 1306 AD, which depicts Mary carrying Jesus in a sling. Baby wearing in a sling was well known in Europe in medieval times, but was seen as a practice of marginalised groups such as beggers and gypsies. A cradleboard is a Native American baby carrier used to keep babies secure and comfortable and at the same time allowing the mothers freedom to work and travel; the cradleboards were attached to the mother's back straps from the head. For travel, cradleboards could be hung on travois. Ethnographic tradition indicates that it was common practice to cradleboard newborn children until they were able to walk, although many mothers continued to swaddle their children well past the first birthday. Bound and wrapped on a cradleboard, a baby can feel secure.
Soft materials such as lichens and shredded bark were used for cushioning and diapers. Cradleboards were either cut from flat pieces of wood or woven from flexible twigs like willow and hazel, cushioned with soft, absorbent materials; the design of most cradleboards is a flat surface with the child wrapped to it. It is only able to move its head. On-the-body baby carrying started being known in western countries in the 1960s, with the advent of the structured soft pack in the mid-1960s. Around the same time, the frame backpack became a popular way to carry older babies and toddlers. In the early 1970s, the wrap was reintroduced in Germany; the two ringed sling was invented by Rayner and Fonda Garner in 1981 and popularized by Dr William Sears starting in around 1985. In the early 1990s, the modern pouch carrier was created in Hawaii. While the Chinese mei tai has been around in one form or another for centuries, it did not become popular in the west until it was modernized with padding and other adjustments.
It first became popular and well known in mid-2003. Portable cradles, including cradleboards and bassinets, have been used by many cultures to carry young infants. Wheeled devices are divided into prams, used for newborn babies in which the infant lies down facing the pusher, the strollers, which are used for the small child up to about three years old in a sitting position facing forward. William Kent developed an early stroller in 1733. In 1733, the Duke of Devonshire asked Kent to build a means of transport that would carry his children. Kent obliged by constructing a shell shaped basket on wheels; this was richly meant to be pulled by a goat or small pony. Benjamin Potter Crandall sold baby carriages in the US in the 1830s which have been described as the "first baby carriages manufactured in the US" However, it has been argued that F. A. Whitney Carriage Company was the first, his son, Jesse Armour Crandall was issued a number of patents for improvements and additions to the standard models.
These included adding a brake to carriages, a model which folded, designs for parasols and an umbrella hanger. By 1840, the baby carriage became popular. Queen Victoria bought three carriages from Hitchings Baby Store; the carriages of those days were built of wood or wicker and held together by expensive brass joints. These sometimes became ornamented works of art. Models were named after royalty and Duchess being popular names, as well as Balmoral and Windsor. In June 1889, William H. Richardson patented his idea of the first reversible stroller; the bassinet was designed so it could face in towards the parent. He made structural changes to the carriage; until the axis did not allow each wheel to move separately, Richardson's design allowed this, which increased maneuverability of the carriages. As the 1920s began, prams were now available to all families and were becoming safer, with larger wheels, deeper prams, lower, sturdier frames. In 1965, Owen Maclaren, an aeronautical engineer, worked on complaints his daughter made about travelling from England to America with her heavy pram.
Using his knowledge of aeroplanes, Maclaren designed a stroller with an aluminium frame and created the first true umbrella stroller. He went on to found Maclaren, which manufactured and sold his new design; the design took soon "strollers" were easier to transport and used everywhere. In the 1970s, the trend was more towards a more basic version, not sprung, with a detachable body know
Brennabor Typ C
The 1 Litre Brennabor Typ C is a small car introduced by Brennabor in 1931. In the wake of a sustained period of economic difficulties it represented a belated extension of the company’s range into the "small car" sector which hitherto Brennabor had ignored. In 1933 the car was upgraded and became the short-lived Brennabor Typ D The Typ C was powered by a newly developed 4-cylinder 1 litre side-valve engine of 3.4 litres, mounted ahead of the driver and delivering 20 hp at 2,800 rpm. Power was delivered to the rear wheels through a single plate dry clutch and a three-speed gear box controlled using a centrally positioned floor-mounted gear stick; the car sat on a U-profile pressed steel chassis with rigid axles and semi-elliptical leaf springing. It was offered as a two-door sedan/saloon, a two-door cabriolet or a two-day roadster, in every case with a 2+2 seating configuration; the mechanically linked foot brake operated directly on all four wheels, while the handbrake operated on the rear wheels.
In the two years before the appearance of an upgraded model only about 1,000 Typ Cs were sold. The concept was reworked and the car appeared as the Brennabor Typ D in 1933, now longer than before and with a higher compression ratio which correlated with a 2 hp power increase; the Typ D shared its predecessor’s fate in the market place and was not a commercial success. A further 1,000 of Brennabor’s 1 litre cars were sold as Typ Ds before the company’s decision, towards the end of 1933, to abandon automobile production. Oswald, Werner: Deutsche Autos 1920–1945, Motorbuch Verlag Stuttgart, 10. Auflage, ISBN 3-87943-519-7
ZF Friedrichshafen AG known as ZF Group Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen, abbreviated to ZF, is a German car parts maker headquartered in Friedrichshafen, in the south-west German region of Baden-Württemberg. Specialising in engineering, it is known for its design and development, manufacturing activities in the automotive industry, it is a worldwide supplier of driveline and chassis technology for cars and commercial vehicles, along with specialist plant equipment such as construction equipment. It is involved in rail, marine and aviation industries, as well as general industrial applications. ZF has 230 production locations in 40 countries with 146,000 employees. ZF Friedrichshafen is more than 90% owned by the Zeppelin Foundation, controlled by the town of Friedrichshafen; the company was founded in 1915 in Zepernick, Germany by Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH, to produce gears for Zeppelins and other airships. Zeppelin was unable to otherwise obtain gears for his airships; the German Zahnradfabrik translates to'gear factory' in English.
Literally'tooth-wheel factory'. By 1919, ZF had moved into the automobile market, a move consolidated by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles; some of the most important milestones that followed: 1920: Patent application submitted for the Soden pre-selector transmission. 1921: Under a rampant inflation and investor fears, the company goes public as the Zepernicker Zahnradfabrik, with the Zeppelin Luftschiffbau GmbH holding 80% of the stock options, valued at 4 million Marks. 1927: Moved to Friedrichshafen and changed the name to ZF Friedrichshafen 1929: A thriving auto industry warrants the series production of the innovative helical ZF Aphon transmission for cars and commercial vehicles. 1932: Launch of steering systems production under license. Today: ZF Lenksysteme GmbH. 1944: On 3 August, the Zahnradfabrik was bombed by the Fifteenth Air Force as a secondary target. As early as 20 September 1942, Albert Speer had warned Hitler of how important the Friedrichshafen tank engine production and the Schweinfurt ball-bearing facilities were.
After the bombing, the company was relocated to Zepernick until the 1970s. 1953: Market launch of the first synchronised transmission for commercial vehicles worldwide. 1961: Development of a automatic transmission for passenger cars. With series production beginning in 1969, proving popular, the 3HP20 is built to be swappable with the company's manual transmissions; the 1960s sees ZF supplying transmissions to major German automakers as well as Peugeot and Alfa Romeo. 1977: Start of volume production for automatic transmissions for commercial vehicles. Worldwide subsidiaries and factories were opened in the 1970s, the company moved into India and South Korea. 1980s: ZF started operating in Asia in the mid 80s 1984: Majority shareholding gained in Lemförder Metallwaren AG, today ZF Lemförder GmbH. 1986: Start of USA transmission production in Gainesville, for pickup trucks. ZF became a major supplier to Ford in the 1980s. 1991: The 5HP18 was the first 5-speed automatic transmission for passenger cars.
Introduced in 1991 on the BMW E36 320i/325i and E34 5 Series 1994: Development of an automatic transmission system for heavy commercial vehicles. The company expanded into China in the 1990s. 1999: World premiere for the first automatic 6-speed transmission. Series production begins with the BMW 7 Series as the first client. Today, ZF produces around one million six-speed automatic transmissions annually. 2001: Acquisition of Mannesmann Sachs AG. Today: ZF Sachs AG. 2001: Active Roll Stabilization premiere on BMW 7 Series 2002: Presentation of the world's first 4-point link – a newly developed chassis module for trucks and buses. 2003: First deliveries of the Active Steering systems for passenger cars. 2004: Ford starts volume production of the continuously variable transmissions for passenger cars developed by ZF. 2005: The 10-millionth airbag casing, the 5-millionth passenger car axle system and the 2-millionth'Servolectric' electric power steering system are delivered. 2006: ZF produces the 10-millionth passenger car automatic transmission.
2007: One of the world's first 8-speed automatic transmissions, the 8HP boasted to achieve an 11% improvement in fuel economy in comparison with standard 6-speed automatic transmissions. Production began in 2009. 2008: Acquisition of keyboard manufacturers Cherry Corporation. Incorporated into the ZF Electronics GmbH Corporate Division. 2011: World premiere for the first automatic 9-speed transmission. 2011: Production of 8-speed automatic transmission begins in Chrysler-owned plant in Kokomo, Indiana, USA, to supply Chrysler with RWD transmissions. Land Rover will demonstrate the world's first nine-speed automatic transmission for a passenger car at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show; the ZF 9HP transmission is designed for transverse applications, is one of the most efficient and technically advanced transmissions used in a production vehicle. Land Rover is the lead partner with ZF on this project. 2013: Jeep announces that ZF has developed a nine-speed automatic transmission for use in its all-new 2014 Jeep Cherokee midsized crossover utility vehicle.
2013: ZF Opens Passenger Car Transmission Plant in the U. S. 2014: Acquires American auto parts manufacturer TRW Automotive for $13.5 billion. 2015: Acquires industrial gears and wind turbine gearbox segment from Bosch Rexroth. ZF Friedrichshafen products include automatic and manual transmissions for cars, trucks and construction equipment.