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Bretons

The Bretons are a Celtic ethnic group and people native to historical region Brittany. They trace much of their heritage to groups of Brittonic speakers who emigrated from southwestern Great Britain Cornwall and Devon during the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, they migrated in waves from the 3rd to 9th century into Armorica, subsequently named Brittany after them. The main traditional language of Brittany is Breton, spoken in Lower Brittany. Breton is spoken by around 206,000 people as of 2013; the other principal minority language of Brittany is Gallo. As one of the Brittonic languages, Breton is related to Cornish and more distantly to Welsh, while the Gallo language is one of the Romance langues d'oïl. Most Bretons' native language is standard French. Brittany and its people are counted as one of the six Celtic nations. Ethnically, along with the Cornish and Welsh, the Bretons are Celtic Britons; the actual number of ethnic Bretons in Brittany and France as a whole is difficult to assess as the government of France does not collect statistics on ethnicity.

The population of Brittany, based on a January 2007 estimate, was 4,365,500. It is said that, in 1914, over 1 million people spoke Breton west of the boundary between Breton and Gallo-speaking region—roughly 90% of the population of the western half of Brittany. In 1945, it was about 75%, today, in all of Brittany, at most 20% of Bretons can speak Breton. Brittany has a population of four million, including the department of Loire-Atlantique, which the Vichy government separated from historical Brittany in 1941. Seventy-five percent of the estimated 200,000 to 250,000 Breton speakers using Breton as an everyday language today are over the age of 65. A strong historical emigration has created a Breton diaspora within the French borders and in the overseas departments and territories of France. Many Breton families have emigrated to the Americas, predominantly to Canada and the United States. People from the region of Brittany were among the first European settlers to permanently settle the French West Indies, i.e. Dominica and Martinique, where remnants of their culture can still be seen to this day.

The only places outside Brittany that still retain significant Breton customs are in Île-de-France, Le Havre and in Îles des Saintes, where a group of Breton families settled in the mid-17th century. In the late 4th century, large numbers of British auxiliary troops in the Roman army may have been stationed in Armorica; the 9th-century Historia Brittonum states that the emperor Magnus Maximus, who withdrew Roman forces from Britain, settled his troops in the province. Nennius and Gildas mention a second wave of Britons settling in Armorica in the following century to escape the invading Anglo-Saxons and Scoti. Modern archaeology supports a two-wave migration, it is accepted that the Brittonic speakers who arrived gave the region its current name as well as the Breton language, Brezhoneg, a sister language to Welsh and Cornish. There are numerous records of Celtic Christian missionaries migrating from Britain during the second wave of Breton colonisation the legendary seven founder-saints of Brittany as well as Gildas.

As in Cornwall, many Breton towns are named after these early saints. The Irish saint Columbanus was active in Brittany and is commemorated accordingly at Saint-Columban in Carnac. In the Early Middle Ages, Brittany was divided into three kingdoms—Domnonée, Bro Waroc'h —which were incorporated into the Duchy of Brittany; the first two kingdoms seem to derive their names from the homelands of the migrating tribes in Britain and Devon. Bro Waroc'h derives from the name of one of the first known Breton rulers, who dominated the region of Vannes; the rulers of Domnonée, such as Conomor, sought to expand their territory, claiming overlordship over all Bretons, though there was constant tension between local lords. Bretons were the most prominent of the non-Norman forces in the Norman conquest of England. A number of Breton families were of the highest rank in the new society and were tied to the Normans by marriage; the Scottish Clan Stewart and the royal House of Stuart have Breton origins. Alan Rufus known as Alan the Red, was both a cousin and knight in the retinue of William the Conqueror.

Following his service at Hastings, he was rewarded with large estates in Yorkshire. At the time of his death, he was by far the richest noble in England, his manorial holding at Richmond ensured a Breton presence in northern England. The Earldom of Richmond became an appanage of the Dukes of Brittany. Many people throughout France claim Breton ethnicity, including a few French celebrities such as Marion Cotillard, Suliane Brahim, Malik Zidi, Patrick Poivre d'Arvor, Yoann Gourcuff, Nolwenn Leroy and Yann Tiersen. After 15 years of disputes in the French courts, the European Court of Justice recognized Breton Nationality for the six children of Jean-Jacques and Mireille Manrot-Le Goarnig. In 2015, Jonathan Le Bris started a legal battle against the French administration to claim this status; the Breton diaspora includes Breton immigrants in some cities of France like Paris, Le Havre and Toulon, Breton Canadians and Breton Americans, along with other French immigr

Jehiel Cochran House

The Jehiel Cochran House is a historic house at 65 Burnham Road in Andover, Massachusetts. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and Massachusetts cultural inventory records at 63 Burnham Road, but by the Andover Historical Society at 65 Burnham Road; the house, built in the 1830s, is locally distinctive for its use of brick, for its association with the Jehiel Cochran, the brickyard owner who built it. It was listed on the National Register in 1982; the Cochran House is set back from the north side of Burnham Road, just east of its crossing of some railroad tracks. It is a rectangular brick structure, 2-1/2 stories high, with a side gable roof and twin interior chimneys. A large modern addition has been built to the right of the original structure that rivals it in size; the windows are six-over-six sash, with granite lintels, the center entry is flanked by sidelight windows. The property includes a small vintage barn; the house, built in the 1830s, is uncommon because most houses in the area of that period were built of wood.

Jehiel Cochran, the builder and owner, was an Andover native. Cochran was associated with the brickyard for some time, but was listed as a farmer when he died in 1860; the house he built is a well-executed conservative vernacular rendition of a transitional Federal-Greek Revival style. National Register of Historic Places listings in Andover, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts

John Luther Adams

John Luther Adams is an American composer whose music is inspired by nature the landscapes of Alaska, where he lived from 1978 to 2014. His orchestral work Become. Born in Meridian, Adams began playing music as a teenager as a drummer in rock bands, he attended the California Institute of the Arts as an undergraduate in the early 1970s, studying with James Tenney and Leonard Stein, graduated in 1973. After graduating, Adams began work in environmental protection, through this work Adams first travelled to Alaska in 1975. Adams moved to Alaska in 1978 and lived there until 2014, he now splits his time between New York and the Sonoran desert in Mexico, though his time in Alaska continues to be a prominent influence in his music. From 1982 to 1989, he performed as timpanist and principal percussionist with the Fairbanks Symphony Orchestra and the Arctic Chamber Orchestra Adams's composition work spans many genres and media, he has composed for television, children's theater, acoustic instruments and electronics.

From 1998 to 2002, Adams served as Associate Professor of Composition at Oberlin Conservatory of Music. Adams has described his music as, " profoundly influenced by the natural world and a strong sense of place. Through sustained listening to the subtle resonances of the northern soundscape, I hope to explore the territory of sonic geography—that region between place and culture...between environment and imagination". His love of nature, concern for the environment and interest in the resonance of specific places led him to pursue the concept of sonic geography. Early examples of this idea include two works written during Adams’s sojourn in rural Georgia: Songbirdsongs, a collection of indeterminate miniature pieces for piccolos and percussion based on free translations of bird songs, Night Peace, a vocal work capturing the nocturnal soundscape of the Okefenokee Swamp through slow-changing and sparse sonic textures, his work, Sila: The Breath of the World, represents the "air element," following the representation of water in Become Ocean and the "earth element" in Inuksuit, an outdoor percussion piece.

His music, he says, is "our awareness of the world in which we live and the world's awareness of us". His more recent works include, Across the Distance, for a large number of horns, was premiered on the 5th of July, 2015 at the Cambo estate in Fife, Scotland as part of the East Neuk Festival, his recording of Ilimaq, a solo work for percussion, played by art-music percussionist and Wilco drummer Glenn Kotche, was released in October 2015. A combination of contemporary classical music, Alaskan field recordings, found sounds from the natural world, it evokes the travels of a shaman riding the sound of a drum to and from the spirit world. In 2014 Adams won the Pulitzer Prize for Music for his orchestral piece Become Ocean, which Alex Ross of The New Yorker called "the loveliest apocalypse in musical history", it was premiered in 2013 by Ludovic Morlot and the Seattle Symphony and performed by the same conductor and orchestra at the 2014 Spring For Music music festival at Carnegie Hall. Adams had never been to Carnegie Hall before hearing his work played there to a sold-out house.

The surround-sound recording of Become Ocean on Cantaloupe Music debuted at #1 on the Billboard Traditional Classical Chart, stayed there for two straight weeks, went on to win the Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Classical Composition. All his works are published by Taiga Press and available from Theodore Front Musical Literature In October 2015, Adams received the William Schuman Award from Columbia University; the events surrounding the award included a series of concerts of his music at the Miller Theater, including Clouds of Forgetting, Clouds of Unknowing, For Lou Harrison, In the White Silence. On February 8, 2015, Adams was awarded a GRAMMY in the category Best Contemporary Classical Composition for his Become Ocean In November 2014, Adams was named the Musical America 2015 Composer of the Year. Adams was the recipient of the 2010 Nemmers Prize in Music Composition, he was cited by the selection committee for melding the physical and musical worlds into a unique artistic vision that transcends stylistic boundaries The Callithumpian Consort's recording of Adams' Four Thousand Holes was noted as one of The New Yorker's Best Classical Recordings of 2011.

In 2012, he received the 17th Annual Heinz Award with a special focus on the environment. In 2006, Adams was named one of the first United States Artists Fellows, he has received awards and fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Rasmuson Foundation, the Foundation for Contemporary Arts. Adams received a 1993 Foundation for Contemporary Arts Grants to Artists Award Green Corn Dance for percussion ensemble Night Peace for antiphonal choirs, solo soprano and percussion songbirdsongs for 2 piccolos and 3 percussion Strange Birds Passing for flute choir up into the silence for voice and piano How the Sun Came to the Forest for chorus and alto flute, English horn, percussion and strings The Far Country of Sleep for orchestra Giving Birth to Thunder, Sleeping With His Daughter, Coyote Builds North America for theater ma