An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, regional character. Most architecture can be classified within a chronology of styles which changes over time reflecting changing fashions and religions, or the emergence of new ideas, technology, or materials which make new styles possible. Styles therefore emerge from the history of a society, they are documented in the subject of architectural history. At any time several styles may be fashionable, when a style changes it does so as architects learn and adapt to new ideas; the new style is sometimes only a rebellion against an existing style, such as post-modernism, which has in recent years found its own language and split into a number of styles which have acquired other names. Styles spread to other places, so that the style at its source continues to develop in new ways while other countries follow with their own twist.
For instance, Renaissance ideas emerged in Italy around 1425 and spread to all of Europe over the next 200 years, with the French, German and Spanish Renaissances showing recognisably the same style, but with unique characteristics. A style may spread through colonialism, either by foreign colonies learning from their home country, or by settlers moving to a new land. One example is the Spanish missions in California, brought by Spanish priests in the late 18th century and built in a unique style. After a style has gone out of fashion, revivals and re-interpretations may occur. For instance, classicism found new life as neoclassicism; each time it is revived, it is different. The Spanish mission style was revived 100 years as the Mission Revival, that soon evolved into the Spanish Colonial Revival. Vernacular architecture is listed separately; as vernacular architecture is better understood as suggestive of culture, writ broadly, it technically can encompass every architectural style--or none at all.
In and of itself, vernacular architecture is not a style. Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and mostly German-speaking field of art history. Important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continued the debate into the 20th century. Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and space; this type of art history is known as formalism, or the study of forms or shapes in art. Semper, Wölfflin, Frankl, Ackerman, had backgrounds in the history of architecture, like many other terms for period styles, "Romanesque" and "Gothic" were coined to describe architectural styles, where major changes between styles can be clearer and more easy to define, not least because style in architecture is easier to replicate by following a set of rules than style in figurative art such as painting.
Terms originated to describe architectural periods were subsequently applied to other areas of the visual arts, more still to music and the general culture. In architecture stylistic change follows, is made possible by, the discovery of new techniques or materials, from the Gothic rib vault to modern metal and reinforced concrete construction. A major area of debate in both art history and archaeology has been the extent to which stylistic change in other fields like painting or pottery is a response to new technical possibilities, or has its own impetus to develop, or changes in response to social and economic factors affecting patronage and the conditions of the artist, as current thinking tends to emphasize, using less rigid versions of Marxist art history. Although style was well-established as a central component of art historical analysis, seeing it as the over-riding factor in art history had fallen out of fashion by World War II, as other ways of looking at art were developing, a reaction against the emphasis on style developing.
According to James Elkins "In the 20th century criticisms of style were aimed at further reducing the Hegelian elements of the concept while retaining it in a form that could be more controlled". While many architectural styles explore harmonious ideals, Mannerism wants to take style a step further and explores the aesthetics of hyperbole and exaggeration. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial qualities. Mannerism favours compositional instability rather than balance and clarity; the definition of Mannerism, the phases within it, continues to be the subject of debate among art historians. An example of mannerist architecture is the Villa Farnese at Caprarola in the rugged country side outside of Rome; the proliferation of engravers during the 16th century spread Mannerist styles more than any previous styles. A center of Mannerist design was Antwerp during its 16th-century boom. Through Antwerp and Mannerist styles were introduced in England and northern and eastern Europe in general.
Dense with ornament of "Roman" detailing, the display doorway at Colditz Castle exemplifies this northern style, characteristically applie
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was an American political figure and activist. She served as the First Lady of the United States from March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945 during her husband President Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office, making her the longest serving First Lady of the United States. Roosevelt served as United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952. President Harry S. Truman called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements. Roosevelt was a member of the prominent American Roosevelt and Livingston families and a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, she had an unhappy childhood, having suffered the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. At 15, she attended Allenwood Academy in London and was influenced by its headmistress Marie Souvestre. Returning to the U. S. she married her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in 1905. The Roosevelts' marriage was complicated from the beginning by Franklin's controlling mother and after Eleanor discovered her husband's affair with Lucy Mercer in 1918, she resolved to seek fulfillment in leading a public life of her own.
She persuaded Franklin to stay in politics after he was stricken with a paralytic illness in 1921, which cost him the normal use of his legs, began giving speeches and appearing at campaign events in his place. Following Franklin's election as Governor of New York in 1928, throughout the remainder of Franklin's public career in government, Roosevelt made public appearances on his behalf, as First Lady, while her husband served as President, she reshaped and redefined the role of First Lady. Though respected in her years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady at the time for her outspokenness on civil rights for African-Americans, she was the first presidential spouse to hold regular press conferences, write a daily newspaper column, write a monthly magazine column, host a weekly radio show, speak at a national party convention. On a few occasions, she publicly disagreed with her husband's policies, she launched an experimental community at Arthurdale, West Virginia, for the families of unemployed miners widely regarded as a failure.
She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the civil rights of African Americans and Asian Americans, the rights of World War II refugees. Following her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt remained active in politics for the remaining 17 years of her life, she became its first delegate. She served as the first chair of the UN Commission on Human Rights and oversaw the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, she chaired the John F. Kennedy administration's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. By the time of her death, Roosevelt was regarded as "one of the most esteemed women in the world". In 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in 1884 at 56 West 37th Street in Manhattan, New York City, to socialites Anna Rebecca Hall and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt. From an early age she preferred to be called by Eleanor. Through her father, she was a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt.
Through her mother, she was a niece of tennis champions Valentine Gill "Vallie" Hall III and Edward Ludlow Hall. Her mother nicknamed her "Granny". Anna was somewhat ashamed of her daughter's plainness. Roosevelt had two younger brothers: Hall, she had a half brother, Elliott Roosevelt Mann, through her father's affair with Katy Mann, a servant employed by the family. Roosevelt was born into a world of immense wealth and privilege, as her family was part of New York high society called the "swells", her mother died from diphtheria on December 7, 1892, Elliott Jr. died of the same disease the following May. Her father, an alcoholic confined to a sanitarium, died on August 14, 1894, after jumping from a window during a fit of delirium tremens, he died from a seizure. Roosevelt's childhood losses left her prone to depression throughout her life, her brother Hall suffered from alcoholism. Before her father died, he implored her to act as a mother towards Hall, it was a request she made good upon for the rest of Hall's life.
Roosevelt doted on Hall, when he enrolled at Groton School in 1907, she accompanied him as a chaperone. While he was attending Groton, she wrote him daily, but always felt a touch of guilt that Hall had not had a fuller childhood, she took pleasure in Hall's brilliant performance at school, was proud of his many academic accomplishments, which included a master's degree in engineering from Harvard. After the deaths of her parents, Roosevelt was raised in the household of her maternal grandmother, Mary Livingston Ludlow of the Livingston family in Tivoli, New York; as a child, she was insecure and starved for affection, considered herself the "ugly duckling". However, Roosevelt wrote at 14 that one's prospects in life were not dependent on physical beauty: "no matter how plain a woman may be if truth and loyalty are stamped upon her face all will be attracted to her."Roosevelt was tutored and with the encouragement of her aunt Anna "Bamie" Roosevelt, she was sent to Allenswood Academy at the age of 15, a private finishing school in Wimbledon, outside London, where she was educated from 1899 to 1902.
The headmistress, Marie Souvestre, was a noted educator who sought to cultivate in
Florence Glenda Chapman was an American singer. Ballard was the founding member of the popular Motown vocal female group the Supremes. Ballard sang including ten number-one hits. After being removed from the Supremes in 1967, Ballard tried an unsuccessful solo career with ABC Records before she was dropped from the label at the end of the decade. Ballard struggled with alcoholism and poverty for three years, she was making an attempt for a musical comeback when she died of a heart attack in February 1976 at the age of 32. Ballard's death was considered by one critic as "one of rock's greatest tragedies". Ballard was posthumously inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Supremes in 1988. Florence Glenda Ballard was born in Detroit, Michigan on June 30, 1943 to Lurlee and Jesse Ballard, as the ninth of fifteen children, her siblings were Bertie, Jesse, Jr. Gilbert, Barbara, Billy, Pat and Roy, her mother was a resident of Mississippi. Her father was born Jesse Lambert in Alabama.
Jesse Ballard left his adoptive parents at 13, soon engaged in an affair with Ballard's mother, only 14, in Rosetta. The Ballards moved to Detroit in 1929. Jesse soon worked at General Motors. Jesse, an amateur musician, helped instigate Florence's interest in singing. Financial difficulties forced the Ballard family to move to different Detroit neighborhoods. Named "Blondie" and "Flo" by family and friends, Ballard attended Northeastern High School and was coached vocally by Abraham Silver. Ballard met future singing partner Mary Wilson during a middle-school talent show and they became friends while attending Northeastern High. From an early age, Ballard aspired to be a singer and agreed to audition for a spot on a sister group of the local Detroit attraction, the Primes, who were managed by Milton Jenkins. After she was accepted, Ballard recruited Mary Wilson to join Jenkins' group. Wilson, in turn, enlisted another neighbor, Diana Ross going by "Diane". Betty McGlown completed the original lineup and Jenkins named them as "The Primettes".
The group performed at talent showcases and at school parties before auditioning for Motown Records in 1960. Berry Gordy, head of Motown, advised the group to graduate from high school before auditioning again. Ballard dropped out of high school though her groupmates graduated. In 1960, Ballard was raped at knifepoint by local high-school basketball player Reggie Harding after leaving a sock hop at Detroit's Graystone Ballroom; the rape occurred in an empty parking lot off Woodward Avenue. Ballard responded by secluding herself in her house refusing to come outside, which worried her groupmates. Weeks Ballard told Wilson and Ross what had happened. Though Ross and Wilson were sympathetic, they were confused because Ballard was considered to be strong-willed and unflappable. Both Wilson and Jesse Green, an early boyfriend of Florence's, had described her as a "generally happy if somewhat mischievous and sassy teenager." Wilson believes that the incident contributed to the more self-destructive aspects of Ballard's adult personality, like cynicism and fear or distrust of others, but the rape was never mentioned again.
In 1960, the Primettes signed a contract with Lu Pine Records, issuing two songs that failed to perform well. During that year, they kept pursuing a Motown contract and agreed to do anything, required, including adding handclaps and vocal backgrounds. By the end of the year, Berry Gordy agreed to have the group record songs in the studio. In January 1961, Gordy agreed to sign them on the condition they change their name. Janie Bradford approached Ballard with a list of names to choose from before Ballard chose "Supremes"; when the other members heard of the new name, they were not pleased. Diana Ross feared. Gordy agreed to sign them under that name on January 15, 1961; the group struggled in their early years with the label, releasing eight singles that failed to crack the Billboard Hot 100, giving them the nickname "no-hit Supremes". One track, "Buttered Popcorn", led by Ballard, was a regional hit in the Midwest, but still failed to chart. During a 1962 Motortown Revue tour, Ballard replaced the Marvelettes' Wanda Young while she was on maternity leave.
Before the release of their 1962 debut album, Meet the Supremes, Barbara Martin, who had replaced Betty McGlown a year before they signed to Motown, left the group. Ballard and Wilson remained a trio. After the hit success of 1963's "When the Love Light Starts Shining Through His Eyes", Diana Ross became the group's lead singer. In the spring of 1964, the group released "Where Did Our Love Go", which became their first number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100, paving the way for ten number-one hits recorded by Ross and Wilson between 1964 and 1967. After many rehearsals with Cholly Atkins and Maurice King, the Supremes' live shows improved as well. During this time, Ballard sang lead on several songs on Supremes' albums, including a cover of Sam Cooke's " Good News". During live shows, Ballard performed the Barbra Streisand standard, "People". According to Mary Wilson, Ballard's vocals were so loud she was made to stand 17 feet away from her microphone during recording
Harley Ellis Devereaux
Harley Ellis Devereaux is an architecture and engineering firm based in Southfield, Michigan with offices in Southfield, Illinois, Los Angeles, California San Diego and San Francisco, California. The firm was founded in 1908 by architects Alvin E. Harley and Norman S. Atcheson; as of 2016, Harley Ellis Devereaux is one of the 200 largest design firms in the United States, employing more than 350 professionals including programmers. The firm specializes in multiple practices including health care, life enhancement and technology, corporate and commercial, mixed use and residential, K-12 schools, higher education and cultural and industrial and automotive. Horace Rackham Education Memorial Building, Detroit, 1941. City-County Building Coleman A. Young Municipal Center, Detroit, 1950 U. S. State Department Building, Washington, D. C. 1960 Union Bank Office Tower, San Jose, California, 1976 Wharton Center for Performing Arts, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 1982 University of Michigan Chemical Sciences Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1988 General Motors Truck Product Center, Michigan, 1996 VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1998 Wentworth Commons, Chicago, 2005 Millennium Park Program Management, Chicago, 2006 Hertzberg-Davis Forensic Science Center, Los Angeles, 2007 USC Village, Los Angeles, 2017Harley Ellis Devereaux has designed most of the Archdiocese of Detroit buildings that have been built since 1970.
Southfield, Michigan Chicago, Illinois Los Angeles, California Sacramento, California San Diego, California San Francisco, California Since its inception in 1908, the firm has existed as: Harley and Atcheson Alvin E. Harley, Architect Harley and Ellington Harley and Day Harley, Ellington and Stirton Harley Ellington Associates Harley Ellington Pierce Yee Associates Harley Ellington Design HarleyEllis Harley Ellis Devereaux Chicago’s 101 Best and Brightest Companies To Work For, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 ZweigWhite, Hot Firm List, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Top Ten Green Projects, AIA COTE, West Branch of the Berkeley Public Library, 2016 Top Ten Green Projects, AIA COTE, Lake View Terrace Library, 2004 Metropolitan Detroit 101 Best and Brightest Companies To Work For, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 AIA Michigan Firm of the Year, 2000 2012 The Engineering Society of Detroit - Construction & Design Award for Wayne State University Chemistry Building Addition and Renovation - Detroit, Michigan 2012 Design-Build Institute of America Western Pacific Region Excellence Award - Miramar College Public Safety Building - San Diego, California 2012 American Public Works Association Project of the Year - Miramar College Public Safety Building - San Diego, California 2011 Association of Licensed Architects Design Award of Merit - Chrysler Corporation Phoenix Engine Plant Manufacturing and Office Building - Trenton, Michigan 2011 Council of Educational Facility Planners International Project of Distinction Award - David Saperstein Middle School - Los Angeles, California 2011 Michigan American Society of Landscape Architects Merit Award Chapter Awards Program - A. Alfred Taubman Student Services Center Quadrangle Harley Ellis Devereaux Corporate Site Harley Ellis Devereaux Centennial Site Duggan, Daniel.. "", Crain's Detroit Business, February 18, 2008
Diana Ross is an American singer and record producer. Born and raised in Detroit, Ross rose to fame as the lead singer of the vocal group the Supremes, during the 1960s, became Motown's most successful act, are the best charting girl group in US history, as well as one of the world's best-selling girl groups of all time; the group released a record-setting twelve number-one hit singles on the US Billboard Hot 100, including "Where Did Our Love Go", "Baby Love", "Come See About Me", "Stop! In the Name of Love", "You Can't Hurry Love", "You Keep Me Hangin' On", "Love Child", "Someday We'll Be Together". Following her departure from the Supremes in 1970, Ross released her eponymous debut solo album that same year, featuring the number-one Pop hit "Ain't No Mountain High Enough", she released the album Touch Me in the Morning in 1973. She continued a successful solo career through the 1970s, which included hit albums like Mahogany and Diana Ross and their number-one hit singles, "Theme from Mahogany" and "Love Hangover", respectively.
Her 1980 album Diana produced another number-one single, "Upside Down", as well as the international hit "I'm Coming Out". Ross' final single with Motown during her initial run with the company achieved her sixth and final US number-one Pop hit, the duet "Endless Love" featuring Lionel Richie, whose solo career was launched with its success. Ross has ventured into acting, with a Golden Globe Award and Academy Award-nominated performance for her performance in the film Lady Sings the Blues, she starred in two other feature films and The Wiz acting in the television films Out of Darkness, for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award, Double Platinum. Ross was named the "Female Entertainer of the Century" by Billboard magazine. In 1993, the Guinness Book of World Records declared Ross the most successful female music artist in history, due to her success in the United States and United Kingdom for having more hits than any female artist in the charts, with a career total of 70 hit singles with her work with the Supremes and as a solo artist.
In 1988, Ross was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as member of the Supremes, alongside Mary Wilson and Florence Ballard. She was the recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2007, the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016, she is a 12-time Grammy nominee, never earning a competitive honor, but became the recipient of the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2012. In December 2016, Billboard magazine named her the 50th most successful dance artist of all time. In Billboard magazine's Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Artists chart, she ranked 16th as the lead singer of the Supremes and 26th as a solo artist. In December 2018, Diana Ross consolidated her status as a dance diva by ranking #3 in the Billboard Dance Club Songs Artists year-end chart. Diana Ross was born at the Hutzel Women's Hospital in Detroit on March 26, 1944, she was the second eldest child for Ernestine and Fred Ross, Sr.. Ross's older sister is American physician Barbara Ross-Lee. According to Ross, her mother named her "Diane", but, a clerical error resulted in her name being recorded as "Diana" on her birth certificate.
She was listed as "Diane" during the first Supremes records, she introduced herself as "Diane" until early in the group's heyday. Her friends and family still call her "Diane". Ross's grandfather John E. Ross, a native of Gloucester County, was born to Washington Ross and Virginia Baytop. Virginia Baytop's mother Francis "Frankey" Baytop was a former slave who had become a midwife after the Civil War. Ross and her family lived on Belmont Road in the North End section of Detroit, near Highland Park, where her neighbor was Smokey Robinson; when Ross was seven, her mother contracted tuberculosis, causing her to become ill. Ross's father moved with his children to live with relatives in Alabama. After her mother recovered, her family moved back to Detroit. On her 14th birthday in 1958, her family relocated to the working-class Brewster-Douglass Housing Projects settling at St. Antoine Street. Attending Cass Technical High School, a four-year college and preparatory magnet school, in downtown Detroit, Ross began taking classes including clothing design, pattern making, tailoring, as she had aspired to become a fashion designer.
She took modeling and cosmetology classes at the school and participated in three or four other extracurricular activities while there. Ross worked at Hudson's Department Store where it has been claimed in biographies, she was the first black employee "allowed outside the kitchen". For extra income, she provided hairdressing services for her neighbors. Ross graduated from Cass Tech in January 1962. At fifteen, Ross joined the Primettes, a sister group of a male vocal group called the Primes, after being brought to the attention of music manager Milton Jenkins by Primes member Paul Williams. Along with Ross, the other members included Florence Ballard, the first group member hired by Jenkins, Mary Wilson, Betty McGlown. Following a talent competition win in Windsor, Ontario, in 1960, the Primettes were invited to audition for Motown records. Ballard declined the offer, due to unsavory rumors of the unscrupulous business practices of Motown's founder, Berry Gordy. Following local success via live performances at sock hops, etc. Ross approached former neighbor, William "Smokey" Robinson, who insisted that the group a
Detroit Free Press
The Detroit Free Press is the largest daily newspaper in Detroit, Michigan, US. The Sunday edition is titled the Sunday Free Press, it is sometimes referred to as the "Freep". It serves Wayne, Macomb, Livingston and Monroe counties; the Free Press is the largest city newspaper owned by Gannett, which publishes USA Today. The Free Press has received four Emmy Awards, its motto is "On Guard for 188 Years". In 2018, the Detroit Free Press received two Salute to Excellence awards from the National Association of Black Journalists; the newspaper was launched by John R. Williams and his uncle, Joseph Campau, was first published as the Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer on May 5, 1831, it was renamed to Detroit Daily Free Press in 1835. Williams printed the first issues on a Washington press he purchased from the discontinued Oakland Chronicle of Pontiac, it was hauled from Pontiac in a wagon over rough roads to a building at Bates and Woodbridge streets in Detroit. The hand-operated press could produce 250 pages per hour.
The first issues were 14 with five columns of type. Sheldon McKnight became the first publisher with John Pitts Sheldon as editor. In the 1850s, the paper was developed into a leading Democratic publication under the ownership of Wilbur F. Storey. Storey left for the Chicago Times in 1861. In the 1870s ownership passed to William E. Quinby, who continued its Democratic leanings and established a London, England edition. In 1940, the Knight Newspapers purchased the Free Press. During the following 47 years the Free Press competed with The Detroit News in the southeastern Michigan market; the Free Press was delivered and sold as a morning paper while the News was sold and delivered as an evening newspaper. In 1987, the paper entered into a one hundred-year joint operating agreement with its rival, combining business operations while maintaining separate editorial staffs; the combined company is called the Detroit Media Partnership. The two papers began to publish joint Saturday and Sunday editions, though the editorial content of each remained separate.
At the time, the Detroit Free Press was the tenth highest circulation paper in the United States, the combined Detroit News and Free Press was the country's fourth largest Sunday paper. On July 13, 1995, Newspaper Guild-represented employees of the Free Press and News and the pressmen and Teamsters working for the "Detroit Newspapers" distribution arm went on strike. By October, about 40% of the editorial staffers had crossed the picket line, many trickled back over the next months while others stayed out for the two and a half years of the strike; the strike was resolved in court three years and the unions remain active at the paper, representing a majority of the employees under their jurisdiction. In 1998, the Free Press vacated its former headquarters in downtown Detroit and moved to offices into the News building. On August 3, 2005, Knight Ridder sold the Free Press to the Gannett Company, which had owned and operated The Detroit News. Gannett, in turn sold The News, to MediaNews Group.
The Free Press resumed publication of its own Sunday edition, May 7, 2006, without any content from The News. A quirk in the operating agreement, allows The News to continue printing its editorial page in the Sunday Free Press. On December 16, 2008, Detroit Media Partnership announced a plan to limit weekday home delivery for both dailies to Thursday and Friday only. On other weekdays the paper sold at newsstands would be smaller, about 32 pages, redesigned; this arrangement went into effect March 30, 2009. The Free Press entered a news partnership with CBS owned-and-operated station WWJ-TV channel 62 in March 2009 to produce a morning news show called First Forecast Mornings. Prior to the partnership, WWJ aired no local newscast at all. In February 2014, the DMP announced its offices along with those of the Free Press and The Detroit News would occupy six floors in both the old and new sections of the former Federal Reserve building at 160 West Fort Street; the partnership expected to place signs on the exterior similar to those on the former offices.
The move took place October 24–27, 2014. The Detroit Almanac: 300 Years of Life in the Motor City. Peter Gavrilovich and Bill McGraw, editors. ISBN 0-937247-34-0 Media in Detroit Official website Official mobile website Gannett subsidiary profile of the Detroit Free Press The Detroit Free Press Building Detroit Newspaper Partnership