California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
AOL Inc. is an American multinational mass media corporation based in New York, a subsidiary of Verizon Communications. AOL was one of the pioneers of the Internet in the mid-1990s. It originally provided a service to millions of Americans, as well as providing a web portal, e-mail, instant messaging. At the height of its popularity, it purchased the media conglomerate Time Warner in the largest merger in U. S. history, AOL rapidly declined thereafter, partly due to the decline of dial-up to broadband. AOL was eventually spun off from Time Warner in 2009, with Tim Armstrong appointed the new CEO, under his leadership, the company invested in media brands and advertising technologies. On June 23,2015, AOL was acquired by Verizon Communications for $4.4 billion, in the following months, AOL made a deal with Microsoft and acquired several tech properties, including Millennial Media and Kanvas to bolster their mobile ad-tech capabilities. AOL began in 1983, as a venture called Control Video Corporation.
Its sole product was a service called GameLine for the Atari 2600 video game console. Subscribers bought a modem from the company for US$49.95, GameLine permitted subscribers to temporarily download games and keep track of high scores, at a cost of US$1 per game. The telephone disconnected and the game would remain in GameLines Master Module and playable until the user turned off the console or downloaded another game. In January 1983, Steve Case was hired as a consultant for Control Video on the recommendation of his brother. In May 1983, Jim Kimsey became a consultant for Control Video. Kimsey was brought in by his West Point friend Frank Caufield, in early 1985, von Meister left the company. The technical team consisted of Marc Seriff, Tom Ralston, Ray Heinrich, Steve Trus, Ken Huntsman, Janet Hunter, Dave Brown, Craig Dykstra, Doug Coward, in 1987, Case was promoted again to executive vice-president. Kimsey soon began to groom Case to take over the role of CEO, Kimsey changed the companys strategy, and in 1985, launched a dedicated online service for Commodore 64 and 128 computers, originally called Quantum Link.
The Quantum Link software was based on software licensed from PlayNet, the service was different from other online services as it used the computing power of the Commodore 64 and the Apple II rather than just a dumb terminal. It passed tokens back and forth and provided a fixed price service tailored for home users, in May 1988, Quantum and Apple launched AppleLink Personal Edition for Apple II and Macintosh computers. In August 1988, Quantum launched PC Link, a service for IBM-compatible PCs developed in a joint venture with the Tandy Corporation, after the company parted ways with Apple in October 1989, Quantum changed the services name to America Online
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Internet Hall of Fame
Inductees include Vint Cerf, Tim Berners-Lee, Richard Stallman, Aaron Swartz and Linus Torvalds. The Internet Hall of Fame was established in 2012, on the 20th anniversary of ISOC, nominations may be made by anyone through an applications process. The Internet Hall of Fame Advisory Board is responsible for the selection of inductees. The advisory board is made up of well known professionals in the Internet industry, in 2012, there were 33 inaugural inductees into the Hall of Fame, announced on April 23,2012 at the Internet Society’s Global INET conference in Geneva, Switzerland. There were 32 inductees in 2013 and they were announced on June 26,2013 and the induction ceremony was held on August 3,2013, in Berlin, Germany. The ceremony was originally to be held in Istanbul, but the venue was changed due to the ongoing government protests in Turkey, the class of 2014 inducted 24 people. They were announced at an event in Hong Kong, inductees are considered in three categories, Individuals who were instrumental in the early design and development of the Internet.
Global Connectors, Individuals from around the world who have significant contributions to the global growth. Innovators, Individuals who made outstanding technological, commercial, or policy advances, an asterisk indicates a posthumous recipient. Official website Q&As with the inductees, from Wired,2012
Google is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, cloud computing, Google was founded in 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University, in California. Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares, and they incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4,1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19,2004, in August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google, Alphabets leading subsidiary, will continue to be the company for Alphabets Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Googles core search engine. The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, the new hardware chief, Rick Osterloh, stated, a lot of the innovation that we want to do now ends up requiring controlling the end-to-end user experience.
Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier, alexa, a company that monitors commercial web traffic, lists Google. com as the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube, Googles mission statement, from the outset, was to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful, and its unofficial slogan was Dont be evil. In October 2015, the motto was replaced in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase Do the right thing, Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. They called this new technology PageRank, it determined a websites relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine BackRub, because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Originally, Google ran under Stanford Universitys website, with the domains google. stanford.
edu, the domain name for Google was registered on September 15,1997, and the company was incorporated on September 4,1998. It was based in the garage of a friend in Menlo Park, craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was incorporated. At least three other investors invested in 1998, Amazon. com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton. Author Ken Auletta claims that each invested $250,000, early in 1999, Brin and Page decided they wanted to sell Google to Excite. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million, vinod Khosla, one of Excites venture capitalists, talked the duo down to $750,000, but Bell still rejected it. Googles initial public offering took place five years later, on August 19,2004, at that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium, thereby transferring the ink. The printing press was invented in the Holy Roman Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg around 1440, the printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. By 1500, printing presses in operation throughout Western Europe had already produced more than twenty million volumes, in the 16th century, with presses spreading further afield, their output rose tenfold to an estimated 150 to 200 million copies. The operation of a press became so synonymous with the enterprise of printing that it lent its name to a new branch of media. The sharp rise of learning and literacy amongst the middle class led to an increased demand for books which the time-consuming hand-copying method fell far short of accommodating. Technologies preceding the press led to the presss invention included, manufacturing of paper, development of ink, woodblock printing.
At the same time, a number of products and technological processes had reached a level of maturity which allowed their potential use for printing purposes. The device was used from very early on in urban contexts as a cloth press for printing patterns. Gutenberg may have inspired by the paper presses which had spread through the German lands since the late 14th century. Gutenberg adopted the design, thereby mechanizing the printing process. Printing, put a demand on the quite different from pressing. Gutenberg adapted the construction so that the power exerted by the platen on the paper was now applied both evenly and with the required sudden elasticity. To speed up the process, he introduced a movable undertable with a plane surface on which the sheets could be swiftly changed. The known examples range from Germany to England to Italy, the various techniques employed did not have the refinement and efficiency needed to become widely accepted. Gutenberg greatly improved the process by treating typesetting and printing as two separate work steps, a goldsmith by profession, he created his type pieces from a lead-based alloy which suited printing purposes so well that it is still used today.
The mass production of metal letters was achieved by his key invention of a hand mould. Another factor conducive to printing arose from the existing in the format of the codex. Considered the most important advance in the history of the prior to printing itself
Microforms are any forms, either films or paper, containing microreproductions of documents for transmission, storage and printing. Microform images are commonly reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size, for special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used. All microform images may be provided as positives or negatives, more often the latter, three formats are common, aperture cards and microfiche. Microcards, a no longer produced, were similar to microfiche. Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce microphotographs and he achieved a reduction ratio of 160,1. The idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, microphotography was first suggested as a document preservation method in 1851 by James Glaisher, an astronomer, and in 1853 by John Herschel. Both men attended the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, where the exhibit on photography greatly influenced Glaisher and he called it the most remarkable discovery of modern times, and argued in his official report for using microphotography to preserve documents.
The developments in microphotography continued through the decades, but it was not until the turn of the century that its potential for practical usage was seized by a wider audience. In 1896, Canadian engineer Reginald A. Fessenden suggested microforms were a solution to engineers unwieldy. He proposed that up to 150,000,000 words could be made to fit in an inch. In 1906, Paul Otlet and Robert Goldschmidt proposed the livre microphotographique as a way to alleviate the cost, in 1925, the team spoke of a massive library where each volume existed as master negatives and positives, and where items were printed on demand for interested patrons. In the 1920s microfilm began to be used in a commercial setting, New York City banker George McCarthy was issued a patent in 1925 for his Checkograph machine, designed to make micrographic copies of cancelled checks for permanent storage by financial institutions. In 1928, the Eastman Kodak Company bought McCarthys invention and began marketing check microfilming devices under its Recordak division, which looked closely at microform’s potential to serve small print runs of academic or technical materials.
In 1935, Kodaks Recordak division began filming and publishing The New York Times on reels of 35 millimeter microfilm and this method of information storage received the sanction of the American Library Association at its annual meeting in 1936, when it officially endorsed microforms. Roll microfilm proved far more satisfactory as a medium than earlier methods of film information storage, such as the Photoscope, the Film-O-Graph, the Fiske-O-Scope. The year 1938 saw another major event in the history of microfilm when University Microfilms International was established by Eugene Power, for the next half century, UMI would dominate the field and distributing microfilm editions of current and past publications and academic dissertations. After another short-lived name change, UMI was made a part of ProQuest Information, systems that mount microfilm images in punched cards have been widely used for archival storage of engineering information. This permits automated reproduction, as well as permitting mechanical card-sorting equipment to sort, aperture card mounted microfilm is roughly 3% of the size and space of conventional paper or vellum engineering drawings
A CD-ROM /ˌsiːˌdiːˈrɒm/ is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data. The name is an acronym which stands for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory, computers can read CD-ROMs, but cannot write to CD-ROMs which are not writable or erasable. From the mid-1990s until the mid-2000s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software for computers, some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data is only usable on a computer. An early CD-ROM format was developed by Sony and Denon, introduced at a Japanese computer show in 1984 and it was an extension of Compact Disc Digital Audio, and adapted the format to hold any form of digital data, with a capacity of 540 MiB. The Yellow Book is the standard that defines the format of CD-ROMs. One of a set of books that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats. CD-ROMs are identical in appearance to audio CDs, and data are stored and retrieved in a similar manner.
Discs are made from a 1.2 mm thick disc of polycarbonate plastic, data is stored on the disc as a series of microscopic indentations. A laser is shone onto the surface of the disc to read the pattern of pits. This pattern of changing intensity of the beam is converted into binary data. Several formats are used for data stored on discs, known as the Rainbow Books. The Yellow Book, published in 1988, defines the specifications for CD-ROMs, the CD-ROM standard builds on top of the original Red Book CD-DA standard for CD audio. Other standards, such as the White Book for Video CDs, the Yellow Book itself is not freely available, but the standards with the corresponding content can be downloaded for free from ISO or ECMA. There are several standards that define how to structure data files on a CD-ROM, ISO9660 defines the standard file system for a CD-ROM. ISO13490 is an improvement on this standard which adds support for non-sequential write-once and re-writeable discs such as CD-R and CD-RW, as well as multiple sessions.
The ISO13346 standard was designed to address most of the shortcomings of ISO9660, and a subset of it evolved into the UDF format, which was adopted for DVDs. The bootable CD specification was issued in January 1995, to make a CD emulate a hard disk or floppy disk, is called El Torito, data stored on CD-ROMs follows the standard CD data encoding techniques described in the Red Book specification. This includes cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, eight-to-fourteen modulation, and the use of pits, the structures used to group data on a CD-ROM are derived from the Red Book
Scarsdale, New York
Scarsdale is a town and village in Westchester County, New York. It is an suburb of New York City. As of the 2010 census, Scarsdales population was 17,166, according to a 2016 Fundera study, Scarsdale ranked as the 2nd best city in New York for small business. Caleb Heathcote purchased the land that would become Scarsdale at the end of the 17th century and and he named the lands after his ancestral home in Derbyshire, England. The first local census of 1712 counted twelve inhabitants, including seven African slaves, when Caleb died in 1721, his daughters inherited the property. The estate was broken up in 1774, and the town was founded on March 7,1788. The town saw fighting during the American Revolution when the Continental and British armies clashed briefly at what is now the junction of Garden Road, the British commander, Sir William Howe, lodged at a farmhouse on Garden Road that remains standing. Scarsdales wartime history formed the basis for James Fenimore Coopers novel, The Spy, according to the first federal census in 1790, the towns population was 281.
By 1840, that number had declined to 255—the vast majority farmers, in 1846, the New York and Harlem Railroad connected Scarsdale to New York City, leading to an influx of commuters. The Arthur Suburban Home Company purchased a 150-acre farm in 1891 and converted it into a subdevelopment of one-family dwellings, civil institutions soon appeared, the Heathcote Association, the Town Club, the Scarsdale Womans Club and the Scarsdale League of Women Voters. Scarsdale High School and Greenacres Elementary School were built in 1912, the first store in Scarsdale opened on the corner of Popham Road and Garth Road in 1912. By 1915, the population approached 3000, by 1930, that number approached 10,000. He was subsequently deported for pursuing activities unfriendly to the United States, Scarsdale became the subject of national controversy in the 1950s when a Committee of Ten led by Otto Dohrenwend alleged Communist infiltration in the public schools. A thorough investigation by the town rejected these claims and it was the clubs policy, at the time, to prohibit Jews from the premises.
In response, the Rev. George French Kempsell of the Church of Saint James the Less announced that he would ban any supporters of the decision from receiving holy communion. The event marked a point toward the decline of anti-Semitism in the town. Scarsdales public library, which had been housed in historic Wayside Cottage since 1928, the driving force behind the library was New York City publisher S. Spencer Scott, who raised $100,000 for the project after the village rejected a bond issue to fund the building in 1938, the new library opened with 27,000 books and Sylvia C
Thinking Machines Corporation
The company moved in 1984 from Waltham to Kendall Square in Cambridge, close to the MIT AI Lab and Thinking Machines competitor Kendall Square Research. Other competitors included MasPar, which made a similar to the CM-2. The company filed for bankruptcy in 1994, its hardware and parallel computing software divisions were acquired by Sun Microsystems. Thinking Machines produced a number of Connection Machine models, the CM-1, CM-2, CM-200, CM-5, the CM-1 and 2 came first in models with 64K bit-serial processors and later, the smaller 16K and 4K configurations. The Connection Machine was programmed in a variety of specialized languages, including *Lisp and CM Lisp, C* and these languages used proprietary compilers to translate code into the parallel instruction set of the Connection Machine. The CM-1 through CM-200 were examples of SIMD architecture, while the CM-5 and CM-5E were MIMD that combined commodity SPARC processors, Thinking Machines introduced an early commercial RAID2 disk array, the DataVault, circa 1988.
In May 1985, Thinking Machines became the company to register a. com domain name. It became profitable in 1989, thanks to its DARPA contracts, the following year, they sold $65 million worth of hardware and software, making them the market leader in parallel supercomputers. In 1991, DARPA reduced its purchases amid criticism it was unfairly subsidizing Thinking Machines at the expense of Cray, IBM, by 1992, the company was losing money, and CEO Sheryl Handler was forced out. Thinking Machines filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in August 1994, in December 1996, the parallel software development section was acquired by Sun Microsystems. Thinking Machines continued as a data mining company until it was acquired in 1999 by Oracle Corporation. Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems, thus re-uniting much of Thinking Machines intellectual property, architect Greg Papadopoulos became Sun Microsystemss chief technology officer. Many of the people left for Sun Microsystems and went on to design the Sun Enterprise series of parallel computers.
The Darwin datamining toolkit, developed by Thinking Machines Business Supercomputer Group, was purchased by Oracle, most of the team that built Darwin had already left for Dun & Bradstreet soon after Thinking Machines Corporation entered bankruptcy in 1994. Besides Hillis, other noted people who worked for or with the company included Greg Papadopoulos, David Waltz, Guy L Steele, dARPAs Connection Machines were decommissioned by 1996. In the 1996 film Mission Impossible, Luther Stickell asks Franz Kreiger for Thinking Machine laptops to help hack into the CIAs Langley supercomputer. Tom Clancys novel Rainbow Six speaks of the NSAs star machine from a company gone bankrupt, the Super-Connector from Thinking Machines, Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts in the NSAs basement. In the 2008 video game Fallout 3, it is mentioned that the pre war company that made the systems for Vaults is called Think Machine
Highland Park, New Jersey
Highland Park is a borough in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. Highland Park was formed as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 15,1905, the borough was named for its location above the Raritan River. The Native American Lenape people hunted on the land along the Raritan River. In 1685, John Inian bought land on both shores of the Raritan River and built two new landings downstream from the Assunpink Trails fording place, which was developed as Raritan Landing. He established a service and the main road was redirected to lead straight to the ferry landing. This river crossing was run by generations of different owners and a ferry house tavern operated for years in the 18th century. A toll bridge replaced the ferry in 1795, the wood plank Albany Street Bridge was dismantled in 1848 and reconstructed in 1853. The present day stone arch bridge was built in 1892. It became the Lincoln Highway Bridge in 1914 and was widened in 1925, one of the earliest European settlers was Henry Greenland, who owned 384 acres of land and operated an inn along the Mill Brook section of the Assunpink Trail during the late 17th century.
Others early settlers included George Drake, Reverend John Drake, and Captain Francis Drake, the Reverend John Henry Livingston, newly chosen head of Queens College, purchased a 150-acre plot of land in 1809, which would hereafter be known as the Livingston Manor. A gracious Greek Revival house built around 1843 by Robert and Louisa Livingston stands on this property, the Livingston Homestead, which is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, was owned by the Waldron family throughout most of the 20th century. In the early 19th century, both the Delaware & Raritan Canal and a railroad were constructed largely to serve the center of New Brunswick across the river. In 1836, the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company built a line that terminated on the Highland Park side of the Raritan River. The Camden and Amboy Railroad built a wood, double-deck bridge which eliminated the stop in 1838. It was destroyed by a fire in 1878. An iron truss bridge was built upon enlarged stone piers.
Despite the canal and the railroad, Highland Parks land continued to be used for agriculture,1870 was the year in which Highland Park was annexed to the newly formed township now called Edison, but at the time called Raritan Township. Highland Park had its own district and on March 15,1905