Brexit is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. Following a referendum held on 23 June 2016 in which 51.9 per cent of those voting supported leaving the EU, the invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union started a two-year process, due to conclude with the UK's exit on 29 March 2019, a deadline, extended to 31 October 2019. Withdrawal has been advocated by Eurosceptics, both left-wing and right-wing, while pro-Europeanists, who span the political spectrum, have advocated continued membership; the UK joined the European Communities in 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath, with continued membership endorsed by a referendum in 1975. In the 1970s and 1980s, withdrawal from the EC was advocated by the political left, with the Labour Party's 1983 election manifesto advocating full withdrawal. From the 1990s, opposition to further European integration came from the right, divisions within the Conservative Party led to rebellion over the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.
The growth of the UK Independence Party in the early 2010s and the influence of the cross-party People's Pledge campaign have been described as influential in bringing about a referendum. The Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron pledged during the campaign for the 2015 UK General Election to hold a new referendum—a promise which he fulfilled in 2016 following pressure from the Eurosceptic wing of his party. Cameron, who had campaigned to remain, resigned after the result and was succeeded by Theresa May, his former Home Secretary, she called a snap general election less than a year but lost her overall majority. Her minority government is supported in key votes by the Democratic Unionist Party. On 29 March 2017, the Government of the United Kingdom invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. May announced the government's intention not to seek permanent membership of the European single market or the EU customs union after leaving the EU and promised to repeal the European Communities Act of 1972 and incorporate existing European Union law into UK domestic law.
Negotiations with the EU started in June 2017. In November 2018, the Draft Withdrawal Agreement and Outline Political Declaration, agreed between the UK Government and the EU, was published; the House of Commons voted against the deal by a margin of 432 to 202 on 15 January 2019, again on 12 March with a margin of 391 to 242 against the deal. On 14 March 2019, the House of Commons voted for the Prime Minister, Theresa May, to ask the EU for such an extension of the period allowed for the negotiation; the broad consensus among economists is that Brexit will reduce the UK's real per capita income in the medium term and long term, that the Brexit referendum itself had damaged the economy. Studies on effects since the referendum show a reduction in GDP, trade and investment, as well as household losses from increased inflation. Brexit is to reduce immigration from European Economic Area countries to the UK, poses challenges for UK higher education and academic research; as of March 2019, the size of the "divorce bill"—the UK's inheritance of existing EU trade agreements—and relations with Ireland and other EU member states remains uncertain.
The precise impact on the UK depends on. In the wake of the referendum of 23 June 2016, many new pieces of Brexit-related jargon have entered popular use. Article 50 Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union is a procedure in treaty that sets out how member states can leave the Union, with a two-year timetable for leaving. Article 50 was triggered by Prime Minister Theresa May at the end of March 2017. Backstop A term referring to the government's proposal to keep Northern Ireland in some aspects of the European Union Customs Union and of the European Single Market to prevent a hard border in Ireland, so as not to compromise the Good Friday Agreement. In principle, it is a temporary measure while the United Kingdom identifies and develops a technology that operates customs and other controls as between the UK and the EU, without any evident border infrastructure, there must be compliance with section 10 of the European Union Act 2018, on "Continuation of North-South co-operation and the prevention of new border arrangements."Blind/ Blindfold Brexit Coined in September 2018 to describe a scenario where the UK leaves the EU without clarity on the terms of a future trade deal.
EU and British negotiators would have until 31 December 2020 to sign off on a future trade deal, during which time the UK will remain a member of the EU, but with no voting rights. Brexit Brexit is a portmanteau of "British" and "exit". Grammatically, it has been called a complex nominal; the first attestation in the Oxford English Dictionary is a Euractiv blog post by Peter Wilding on 15 May 2012. It was coined by analogy with "Grexit", attested on 6 February 2012 to refer to a hypothetical withdrawal of Greece from the eurozone. At present, Brexit is impending under the EU Treaties and the UK Acts of Parliament, the current negotiations pursuant thereto. Canada plus/ Canada model This is shorthand for a model where the United Kingdom leaves the European Union and signs a free trade agreement; this would allow the UK to control its own trade policy as opposed to jointly negotiating alongside the European Union, but would require rules of origin agreements to be reached for UK–EU trade. It is this would lead to trade be
BBC News Online
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production. The website contains international news coverage, as well as British, entertainment and political news. Many reports are accompanied by audio and video from the BBC's television and radio news services, while the latest TV and radio bulletins are available to view or listen to on the site together with other current affairs programmes. BBC News Online is linked to its sister department website, that of BBC Sport. Both sites follow similar layout and content options and respective journalists work alongside each other. Location information provided by users is shared with the website of BBC Weather to provide local content. From 1998 to 2001 the site was named best news website at the BAFTA Interactive Entertainment Awards when the award category was withdrawn, it has won both the Judges' award and the People's Voice award for best news site at the annual Webby Awards. The website was launched on 4 November 1997, headed by founding editor Mike Smartt and Project Director Bob Eggington.
The broader editorial team was brought together from within the BBC, from print journalism and from some online sites. The BBC had created special websites marking the 1995 Budget, the 1996 Olympic Games, 1997 general election, the death of Princess Diana in 1997, but nothing on the scale of the launch of the main site itself, which required the development of a new production system, for which a team, led by Matthew Karas was specially hired; the original design was created by a team, including Matt Jones, based on designs commissioned from consultancy Lambie-Nairn, has been redesigned several times to match the visual style of BBC News television bulletins and to exploit increases in readers' typical screen resolutions. A major overhaul in 2003 by Paul Sissons and Maire Flynn, coincided with a relaunch of the BBC News Channel and featured a wider page design; the site launched a set of semi-official RSS 0.91 syndication feeds in June 2003 and upgraded them to full feed RSS 2.0 in 2008. Each news index has its own RSS feed, including the in-depth sections.
In 2004 the BBC News website partnered with Moreover Technologies, in a response to the 2003 Graf Report, to provide links from BBC articles to rival publishers. Whilst the BBC does not censor or change results the algorithms used tend to give greater weight to national and international sources over regional or local ones. Mike Smartt, who became editor in chief in 2000, was succeeded by Pete Clifton, subsequently promoted to Head of BBC News Interactive and replaced by the previous editor Steve Herrmann in 2005; the BBC began providing real-time global user information in June 2006. A restructuring of BBC News starting in 2007 saw the dissolution of the separate BBC News Interactive department. New features were introduced, including the publicising of video content more prominently. From May 2007, the website began to offer a live video stream of BBC News 24, the rolling news channel now known as the BBC News channel. In line with the introduction of new features across BBC Online, including a new navigation bar, the site was updated in 2008 with wider centred page designs, larger images and an increased emphasis on audio and visual content.
Beginning on 30 April 2009, some published stories included in-text links to in-site profile articles on people and organisations. The BBC announced on 19 November 2009 that it was to pay more attention to search engine optimisation by extending news headlines. On 14 July 2010 the site was redesigned, with the vertical section headings moved to run horizontally near the top of the page; the new design, incorporating larger in-line videos within news articles and standardised font usage, was introduced as a first step to bringing the entire BBC website into line with its new style guidelines. It was met with mixed opinions. However, there was criticism, with some stating that the use of white space was too widespread and led to the need for continuous and excessive scrolling. On 4 March 2014, the BBC launched a beta version of the website, built around the principles of responsive web design, allowing the presentation of content to adjust automatically for a wide variety of screen sizes, from desktop computer to smartphones and tablet devices.
The new design went live on 23 March 2015. There are two different editions of the site: a UK edition, which gives prominence to UK stories, an international edition, which prioritises international news. Internet users with IP addresses originating from the UK are served the UK edition, all others receive the international edition; the international version contains an "Advertise With Us" link at the bottom. The international version of the website is operated by BBC Global News Ltd. the for-profit BBC subsidiary which operates the BBC World News television channel. All articles are archived indefinitely and can be retrieved via searching or by browsing the extensive Special Reports section, which contains collections of articles relating to major news stories; the previous seven days' top stories were available through the Week at a Glance section of the website. As well as pure news articles, the site contains material to support BBC news, current affairs and factual programmes. BBC News Online uses a blog-style system for correspondents to write articles within their specialism.
GMT (TV programme)
GMT is a news programme airing weekdays on BBC World News, which premiered on 1 February 2010. The programme's main presenters are Lucy Hockings and Stephen Sackur, who are rotated depending on the edition, with Tim Willcox serving as a primary relief presenter; each programme begins with the presenter providing an in-depth lead story, giving the time in that part of the world. Its title refers to Greenwich Mean Time, as the programme commences at 12 noon G. M. T. in London. GMT airs three times a day each Monday through Friday on BBC World News; the programme acts as a morning programme for North America and South America, a daytime/afternoon programme for Europe, Middle East and Africa, an evening programme for Asia, a late night/early morning programme for Australia and Oceania. The programme features analysis and discussion of the top news stories of the day and previews the exclusive reports, correspondent feature films and interviews planned on BBC World News programme BBC World News America at 00:00 GMT that day.
In the United States, the first half-hour of the 12:00 GMT segment of the program is syndicated to PBS member stations and select non-commercial educational independent stations through a distribution agreement between BBC World News and Los Angeles public independent KCET. From 6 September 2010, a 27-minute segment was shown on BBC Two in the UK on Mondays and Tuesdays and Fridays at 12:30 GMT, replacing Working Lunch. An edition of World Business Report was shown at 12:40 GMT, though this was changed for BBC Two viewers to feature a four-minute-long business update. There was no Wednesday edition during Parliament, because of a 90-minute-long edition of The Daily Politics to cover Prime Ministers Questions; the BBC Two simulcast was ended at the end of 2011, has since been replaced 2012 by an extended edition of The Daily Politics. An edition of BBC World News is shown instead on BBC Two at 11:30, this was replaced in 2015 with BBC Newsroom Live George Alagiah Zeinab Badawi Komla Dumor Naga Munchetty Kate Silverton GMT at BBC Programmes GMT at BBC Online
BBC News at Six
The BBC News at Six is the evening news programme bulletin from the BBC. Produced by BBC News, the programme is broadcast on BBC One and the BBC News channel on weekdays at 6:00pm. For a long period the News at Six was the most watched news programme in the UK but since 2006 it has been over taken by the BBC News at Ten. On average it is watched by four million viewers. George Alagiah is the programme's main presenter, presenting Mondays to Thursdays, with Fiona Bruce presenting on Fridays. Other BBC News presenters including Sophie Raworth, Reeta Chakrabarti, Clive Myrie and Jane Hill present the programme. In late 2007 the length of the programme was shortened from 30 minutes to 28 minutes to allow for a news summary being shown on BBC One at 7:58pm. On 8 May 2017, SBS in Australia began airing BBC News at Six during their English-language news programming segment, it is broadcast at 7:00am everyday on delay from Britain. The programme launched on 3 September 1984, replacing early evening news magazine Sixty Minutes and was presented by Sue Lawley and Nicholas Witchell.
Both presenters have since moved on to other positions within BBC News and the BBC itself. Jeremy Paxman, who went on to present Newsnight in 1989, was relief newsreader from 10 September.. Andrew Harvey, Philip Hayton, Frances Coverdale were regular relief presenters in the early years. In 1988, the Six O'Clock News studio was famously invaded during a live broadcast by a female group protesting against Britain's Section 28. Witchell famously grappled with the protesters and is said to have sat on one woman, provoking the memorable front-page headline in the Daily Mirror, "Beeb man sits on lesbian". Lawley left the Six O'Clock news that year, followed by Witchell a year although he would return as a relief presenter intermittently until 1999. From 1989, the programme was presented by two of Peter Sissons, Anna Ford, Andrew Harvey and Moira Stuart, with other BBC journalists such as Witchell, Jill Dando and Chris Lowe occasionally presenting. In 13 April 1993, the bulletin was relaunched with a more coherent look, adopted across all BBC newscasts on the same day.
A year Sissons departed to present the Nine O'Clock News, swapping positions with Martyn Lewis. From 1994-1999 the programme was presented by Lewis as lead presenter of the programme on Monday and Friday, with Ford taking on the lead role on Wednesday and Thursday, although both would cover each others absences. Stuart was co-presenter on Monday and Tuesday, Harvey on Wednesday and Dando on Friday. Other BBC journalists, in particular Jennie Bond covered in the absence of co-presenters, with future lead presenters Huw Edwards and Fiona Bruce making occasional appearances. Senior journalists, including Witchell and John Humphrys would present as lead anchor when both Lewis and Ford were unavailable. On 10 May 1999, the bulletin was relaunched again, along with the rest of the BBC News programme and the new presenter was Huw Edwards with Fiona Bruce as the deputy presenter. During Bruce's maternity leave in 2001, Sian Williams, Special correspondent for the programme at this time, covered as deputy presenter.
Both Edwards and Bruce left the Six O'Clock News on 19 January 2003 to front the Ten O'Clock News. On 20 January 2003, as George Alagiah and Sophie Raworth took over, the bulletin was relaunched along with the rest of BBC One's news bulletins. During Raworth's first maternity leave in 2004, Sian Williams stood in for her for over the six months. However, during Raworth's second maternity leave at the end of 2005, Natasha Kaplinsky stood in as a temporary measure; as part of a presenter reshuffle in April 2006, Kaplinsky was confirmed as the new full-time presenter. Sophie Raworth was named as the main presenter of the BBC News at One. Raworth is now a regular presenter on the News at Six and BBC News at Ten, covering for main presenters during their absences. Since April 2005, the programme has formed the first half-hour of the Six O'Clock Newshour on the BBC News Channel; the subsequent half-hour consists of business and sport updates presented from within the News channel studio by one of the News Channel presenters.
As before, the bulletin still completes at 6:30pm before splitting off to regional news programmes on BBC One. On 5 October 2007 it was announced that Natasha Kaplinsky was leaving the BBC to replace Kirsty Young on Five News, taking up her new role on 18 February 2008 presenting two half-hour evening bulletins, she left at the end of the Six O'Clock News on the same day. For a while Sian Williams filled in as co-presenter, but on 3 December 2007, the programme went single-headed, with George Alagiah as main presenter, Sian Williams as deputy presenter. A few months into the new arrangement Fiona Bruce took over from Sian as the main Friday presenter. On 28 January 2008, the programme moved studios, from N6 to TC7, as part of a restructuring across BBC News. On 21 April 2008 the programmes, along with the rest of BBC News, underwent a refresh, taking on new titles and a new set. On 17 March 2013, the BBC News at Six bulletin presented by Sophie Raworth was the final programme to be broadcast from TC7 in BBC Television Centre, after BBC Breakfast and Newsnight vacated the studio in 2012.
The studio will be demolished in 2013 as part of the redevelopment of the site. On 18 March 2013, the programme moved to Broadcasting House, along with the BBC News channel and the other BBC One bulletins, began broadcasting in high-definition. Alagiah was diagnosed with bowel cancer in 2014, took leave from presenting duties. Raworth and Bruce were the main cover presenters during this time, which saw regular appearances from Reeta
India Business Report
India Business Report was a weekly business news programme produced by the BBC and shown on BBC World News, presented by Yogita Limaye. The last episode of this programme aired on April 3, 2016; the programme was billed as: Traveling the country reporting what's going on in all walks of life, from corporate boardrooms and rural villages, to state-of-the-art research institutes and Bollywood studios. By interviewing company chiefs and aspiring entrepreneurs, politicians to farmers, the myriad people who make up one of the world's most vibrant economies, the programme aims to bring you the best of contemporary India, show you why it's worth knowing. Karishma Vaswani Rajini Vaidyanathan
Andrew Ferguson Neil is a British journalist and broadcaster. Neil was appointed editor of The Sunday Times by Rupert Murdoch, served in this position from 1983 to 1994. After this he became a contributor to the Daily Mail, he was chief executive and editor-in-chief of the Press Holdings group. In 1988 he became founding chairman of Sky TV part of Murdoch's News Corporation, he is the current chairman of Press Holdings Media Group, whose titles include The Spectator, the ITP Media Group. As of 2019, Neil presents live political programmes This Week on BBC One and Politics Live on BBC Two. Neil was born in Renfrewshire, he attended the local Lancraigs Primary School. At 11, Neil passed the Qualifying Examination and obtained entrance to the then-selective Paisley Grammar School, his father was an electrician and member of the Territorial Army, his mother worked in the local cotton mills. After school, Neil attended the University of Glasgow, where he edited the student newspaper, the Glasgow University Guardian, dabbled in student television.
He was a member of the Dialectic Society, the Conservative Club and participated in Glasgow University Union inter-varsity debates. In 1971, he was chairman of the Federation of Conservative Students, he graduated in 1971, gaining an MA with honours in political science. After his graduation, Neil worked as a sports correspondent for local newspaper, the Paisley Daily Express, before working for the Conservative Party. In 1973, he joined The Economist as a correspondent and was promoted as editor of the publication's section on Britain. Neil was editor of The Sunday Times from 1983 to 1994, his hiring was controversial. It was argued that he was appointed by Rupert Murdoch over more experienced colleagues, such as Hugo Young and Brian MacArthur. Neil regards the newspaper's revelation of details of Israel's nuclear weapons programme in 1986, by using photographs and testimony from former Israeli nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu, as his greatest scoop as an editor. During his editorship, the newspaper lost a libel case over claims that it had made concerning a witness, Carmen Proetta, interviewed after her appearance in the Death on the Rock documentary on the Gibraltar shootings.
One of The Sunday Times journalists involved, Rosie Waterhouse, resigned not long afterwards. While at The Sunday Times in 1988, Neil met the former Miss India, Pamella Bordes, in a nightclub, an inappropriate place for someone with Neil's job according to Peregrine Worsthorne; the News of the World suggested. Worsthorne argued in an editorial article "Playboys as Editors" in March 1989 for The Sunday Telegraph that Neil was not fit to edit a serious Sunday newspaper. Worsthorne accused Neil of knowing that Bordes was a prostitute, he did not know about Bordes, which the Telegraph had accepted by the time the libel case came to High Court of Justice in January 1990, but the paper still defended their coverage as fair comment. Neil won both £ 1,000 in damages plus costs. In 1992 Neil was criticised by anti-Nazi groups and historians like Hugh Trevor-Roper for employing the Holocaust denier David Irving to translate the diaries of Joseph Goebbels. According to Neil, he was replaced as Sunday Times editor in 1994 because Murdoch had become envious of his celebrity.
Many years in November 2017, former Conservative cabinet minister Kenneth Clarke said Neil had been removed because Neil's article about corruption in the Malaysian government of Mahathir Mohamad conflicted with Murdoch's desire to acquire a television franchise in the country. The Malaysian prime minister at the time told Clarke on a ministerial visit that he had achieved Neil's sacking after a telephone conversation with Murdoch; the conflict between Neil and Mohamad did become public knowledge at the time. The British minister of state for trade Richard Needham criticised Neil and the newspaper for putting thousands of jobs at risk. Neil's departure from his role as Sunday Times editor was reported in 1994 as being temporary, as he was to present and edit a current affairs programme for Fox in New York. "During my time, the Sunday Times has been at the centre of every major controversy in Britain", he said at the time. "These are the kind of journalistic values I want to reproduce at Fox".
Neil's new television programme did not make it to air. A pilot produced in September had a mixed internal response, Murdoch cancelled the entire project in late October. Neil did not return to his job as Sunday Times editor. Neil became a contributor to the Daily Mail. In 1996, he became editor-in-chief of the Barclay brothers' Press Holdings group of newspapers, owner of The Scotsman, Sunday Business and The European. Press Holdings sold The Scotsman in December 2005. Neil has not enjoyed great success with the circulations of the newspapers; the Business closed down in February 2008. He exchanged his role as chief executive of Press Holdings for chairman in July 2008. Since 2006 Neil has been chair of the Dubai based publishing company ITP Media Group. In June 2008, Neil led a consortium which bought talent agency Peters, Fraser & Dunlop from CSS Stellar plc for £4 million, making him chairman of the new company in addition to his other activities. Neil served as Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews from 1999 to 2002.
As well as Neil's newspaper activities he has maintained a television career. While he worked for The Economist, he provided news reports to American networks. In 1988 he b
BBC World News
BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel. It has the largest audience of any channel, with an estimated 99 million viewers weekly in 2015/16, part of the estimated 265 million users of the BBC's four main international news services. Launched on 11 March 1991 as BBC World Service Television outside Europe, its name was changed to BBC World on 16 January 1995 and to BBC World News on 21 April 2008; the service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to DD India, WION, DW, France 24 and RT. It broadcasts news bulletins, lifestyle programmes and interview shows. Unlike the BBC's domestic channels, BBC World News is owned and operated by BBC Global News Ltd. part of the BBC's commercial group of companies, is funded by subscription and advertising revenues, not by the United Kingdom television licence. It is not owned by BBC Studios; the channel started as BBC World Service Television and was a commercial operation. The British government refused to fund to the new television service using grant-in-aid.
The channel started broadcasting on 11 March 1991, after two weeks of real-time pilots as a half-hour bulletin once a day at 19:00 GMT. In 1995, BBC World Service Television was split into two services: BBC World started broadcasting on Monday, 16 January 1995 at 19:00 GMT and became a 24-hour English free-to-air international news channel. BBC Prime started broadcasting on Monday, 30 January 1995 at 19:00 GMT and became the BBC's light entertainment channel renamed BBC Entertainment. BBC World's on-air design was changed on 3 April 2000, bringing it closer to the look of its sister channel in the UK, known as BBC News 24, the on-air look of, redesigned in 1999; the look of both channels was made up of red and cream and designed by Lambie-Nairn, with music based on a style described as'drums and beeps' composed by David Lowe, a departure from the general orchestral nature of music used by other news programmes. On 8 December 2003 a second makeover, using the same'drums and beeps' style music but new graphics took place, although on a much smaller scale to that of 2000.
The music was changed while the main colour scheme became black and red, with studios using frosted glass and white and red colours. In 2004, the channel's slogan became Putting News First, replacing Demand a Broader View; the channel's present name -BBC World News- was introduced on 21 April 2008 as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's overall news output and visual identity. BBC World News moved to the renovated studio vacated by BBC News 24. New graphics were produced by the Lambie-Nairn design music reworked by David Lowe. BBC World News relocated to Broadcasting House from its previous home at Television Centre on 14 January 2013; this was part of the move of BBC News and other audio and vision departments of the BBC into one building in Central London. Broadcasting House was refurbished at a cost of £1 billion. A new newsroom and several state-of-the-art studios were built. Live news output originates from studios B and C in Broadcasting House with some recorded programming from Broadcasting House studio A and the BBC Millbank studio.
The BBC World News newsroom is now part of the new consolidated BBC Newsroom in Broadcasting House along with BBC World Service and UK domestic news services. The channel was broadcast in 4:3, with the news output fitted into a 14:9 frame for both digital and analogue broadcasting, resulting in black bands at the top and bottom of the screen. On 13 January 2009 at 09:57 GMT, BBC World News switched its broadcast to 16:9 format in Europe on Astra 1L satellite, Eutelsat Hot Bird 6 satellite to other broadcast feeds in the Asian region from 20 January 2009; as a result of the move to Broadcasting House, BBC World News gained high-definition studios and equipment to be able to broadcast in high-definition. On 5 August 2013, BBC World News was offered as a High Definition feed across the Middle East when it launched its international HD channel on Arabsat. Arabsat was the BBC's first distribution partner in the Middle East to offer the channel in HD. On 1 April 2015 BBC World News in English started broadcasting in high definition from the 11.229 GHz/V transponder on Astra 1KR at the 19.2°E orbital position, available free-to-air to viewers with 60 cm dishes across Europe and coastal North Africa.
BBC World News claims to be watched by a weekly audience of 74 million in over 200 countries and territories worldwide. BBC World News is most watched as a free-to-air channel; the channel is available in many parts of the world via satellite or cable platforms. In the United States, the channel is available through providers such as Cablevision, Spectrum, Verizon FiOS, AT&T U-verse; as of 2014, U. S. distribution and advertising sales for the channel are handled by AMC Networks, who are the minority partner for the BBC's entertainment channel BBC America. In addition, BBC World News syndicates its daytime and evening news programmes to public television stations throughout the U. S. maintaining a distribution partnership with Garden City, New York-based WLIW that lasted from 1998 until October 2008, when the BBC and WLIW mutually decided not to renew the contract. BBC World News subsequently entered into an agreement with Community Television of Southern California, Inc. in which Los Angeles PBS member station KCET would take over distribution rights to BBC World News America (the KCET agreement has since been extended to encompass a half-hour simulcas