The SM-liiga, colloquially called the Finnish Elite League in English, is the top professional ice hockey league in Finland. It is one of the six founding leagues of the Champions Hockey League and allocated five spots - the maximum number - based on success in previous editions, it was created in 1975 to replace the SM-sarja, fundamentally an amateur league. The SM-liiga is not directly overseen by the Finnish Ice Hockey Association, but the league and association have an agreement of cooperation. SM is a common abbreviation for Suomen mestaruus, "Finnish championship"; the SM-liiga had a system of automatic promotion and relegation in place between itself and the Mestis, the second highest level of competition in Finland, but the automatic system was ended in 2000. The league was allowed KalPa to get a promotion. In 2009, a new system was introduced and it includes the last placed SM-liiga team facing the Mestis champion in a best of seven playout series. In 2013, the relegation system was abandoned again and replaced by a procedure in which successful clubs of Mestis may apply for a promotion if they fulfill definite financial criteria.
Since 2013, Jokerit joined the KHL and Espoo Blues went bankrupt, but Sport, KooKoo and Jukurit were promoted. Therefore Liiga is a competition of 15 teams in the 2016 -- 2017 -- 18 seasons; the SM-liiga was constituted in 1975 to concentrate the development of top-level Finnish ice hockey, pave the way towards professionalism. Its predecessor, the SM-sarja, being an amateur competition, had its disadvantages, which were perceived as impeding Finland's rise to the highest ranks of ice hockey. One of the main problems was that the governing of the SM-sarja was based on the annual meeting of the Finnish Ice Hockey Association, where all important issues were decided by vote. Since all clubs registered under the Finnish Ice Hockey Association had the right to vote, the many amateur clubs prevailed over the few business-like clubs. Therefore, the concentrated development of top-level Finnish ice hockey by the motivated and financially capable clubs proved arduous; the new SM-liiga was to be run by a board consisting of its participating clubs only and to have an agreement of cooperation with the Finnish Ice Hockey Association.
The SM-sarja was outdated on its own, as it was run according to amateur principles. Clubs were not supposed to pay their players beyond compensation for lost wages. However, by the 1970s many clubs were run like businesses and recruited players through a contract of employment, paying their wages secretly and evading taxes. However, in 1974, accounting reform in Finland extended book-keeping standards to cover sports clubs, shortfalls were exposed in audit raids; the SM-liiga was to allow wages for players, clubs were put under a tighter supervision. They were to establish their own association for SM-liiga ice hockey only, separating their commitments from junior activities and other sports. Copies of all player contracts were to be sent to the SM-liiga to provide players with adequate security, such as insurance and pensions; the SM-sarja had other limits for players. According to amateur ideals, no player could represent more than one club within one season. Personal sponsorship was forbidden.
To discourage trading, a system of quarantine was in force. The SM-liiga stripped the limitations for players, replaced quarantine with a then-modest transfer payment, introduced the transfer list. Players wanting a transfer were to sign up, the SM-liiga would distribute the right of negotiations to clubs. In practice, the list was not successful, as both parties worked their way around the formalities; these changes led to a transition towards professional ice hockey as the league became semi-professional. Only a few players would make a livelihood out of ice hockey in Finland in the 1970s, many players the young, would settle for a contract in the SM-liiga without a wage. A major financial development for professional ice hockey in Finland was the introduction of playoffs. Gate receipts and other income from playoffs were distributed as a placement bonus. Although playoffs were the standard way of determining the champions in North American professional sports, at the time they were not common in Europe.
The SM-liiga was established rather hastily. The required changes were initiated at the 1974 annual meeting, the SM-liiga was launched for the 1975–76 season, it was the first Finnish professional sports league, its solutions were untried. However, there had been a mounting demand for these changes, as the popularity of ice hockey had been rising in the previous decade; the SM-liiga picked up. The four best of the regular season were to proceed to the playoffs; the system of promotion and relegation from the SM-sarja remained in force: last-placed teams of the regular season had to qualify for their position in the SM-liiga against the best teams of the second-highest series. The combined attendance for the first eleven regular seasons hovered around 900,000. In 1986–87, the number of games for each team was increased from 36 to 44, reaching its current level of 56 games in 2000–01, the SM-liiga was expanded to 12 clubs for the 1988–89 season; the general popularity of ice hockey strengthened through international success of the Finland men's national ice hockey team, the combined attendance climbed through the 1990s to about 1.8 million.
This prompted an increase in the profitability of the ice hockey business and the completion of the transition to full professionalism. By the mid-1990s, all players were full-time, by 2000, most clubs had reformed into limited companies. In late 1990s and early 2000s the S
2008 NHL Entry Draft
The 2008 NHL Entry Draft was the 46th NHL Entry Draft. It was hosted by the Ottawa Senators at Scotiabank Place in the city of Ottawa, Canada, on June 20–21, 2008; the Senators were awarded the 2005 NHL Entry Draft, but because of the lockout, that draft was scaled back from its usual format of being open to the public and having many draft-eligible players in attendance. The actual 2005 drafting was held in Ottawa's Westin Hotel instead of the Corel Centre, as Canadian Tire Centre was known; as a result of 2005's abridged draft, Ottawa was compensated with the 2008 draft. The draft was part of a festival of events that Ottawa and the NHL presented at the Scotiabank Place arena. Before the first round and during the rounds, the patio outside the main doors was the site of the'Senators Fan Fest', with hockey games and music. Indoors, the NHL presented an exhibit of NHL trophies, including the Stanley Cup. A hockey card and memorabilia sale was held; the 2008 draft lottery was held April 7. The Tampa Bay Lightning retained the first overall selection.
There were no changes from the reverse order of finish of the 2007–08 NHL season. Source: NHL Central Scouting Bureau staff. Club teams are located in North America. NotesThe New York Islanders' first-round pick went to the Toronto Maple Leafs as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent conditional second and third-round picks in either 2008 or 2009 to New York in exchange for this pick; the Toronto Maple Leafs' first-round pick went to the Nashville Predators as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first-round pick in 2008 and Florida's second-round pick in 2008 to the New York Islanders in exchange for this pick. New York acquired this pick as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first-round pick in 2008 to Toronto in exchange for conditional second and third-round picks in either 2008 or 2009 The Florida Panthers' first-round pick went to the New York Islanders as the result of to a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first-round pick 2008 to Nashville in exchange for Florida's second-round pick in 2008 and this pick.
Nashville acquired this pick as the result of a trade on June 22, 2007 that sent Tomas Vokoun to Florida in exchange for Detroit's second-round pick in 2007, a conditional second-round pick in 2007 or 2008 and this pick. The Edmonton Oilers' first-round pick went to the Buffalo Sabres as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first-round pick in 2008 and a third-round pick in 2009 to Los Angeles in exchange for this pick. Los Angeles acquired this pick as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent Calgary and Dallas' first-round picks in 2008 to Anaheim in exchange for this pick. Anaheim acquired this pick as compensation for not matching an offer sheet from Edmonton to restricted free agent Dustin Penner on August 2, 2007; the Buffalo Sabres' first-round pick went to the Los Angeles Kings as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent Edmonton's first-round pick in 2008 to Buffalo in exchange for a third-round pick in 2009 and this pick. The Nashville Predators' first-round pick went to the Ottawa Senators as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first-round pick in 2008 and a third-round pick in 2009 to Nashville in exchange for this pick.
The Calgary Flames' first-round pick went to the Anaheim Ducks as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent Edmonton's first-round pick in 2008 to Los Angeles in exchange for Dallas' first-round pick in 2008 and this pick. Los Angeles acquired this pick as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent Michael Cammalleri to Calgary in exchange for this pick; the Ottawa Senators' first-round pick went to the Nashville Predators as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first-round pick in 2008 to Ottawa in exchange for a third-round pick in 2009 and this pick. The Colorado Avalanche's first-round pick went to the Philadelphia Flyers as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent R. J. Umberger and a fourth-round pick in 2008 to Columbus in exchange for a third-round pick in 2008 and this pick. Columbus acquired this pick as the result of a trade on February 26, 2008 that sent Adam Foote to Colorado in exchange for a conditional fourth-round pick in 2009 and this pick.
The condition – Colorado qualifies for the 2008 Stanley Cup playoffs – was converted. The New Jersey Devils' first-round pick went to the Washington Capitals as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first and second-round pick in 2008 to New Jersey in exchange for this pick; the Anaheim Ducks' first-round pick went to the Edmonton Oilers as the result of a trade on July 3, 2006 that sent Chris Pronger to Anaheim in exchange for Joffrey Lupul, Ladislav Smid, a first-round pick in 2007, a second-round pick in 2008 and this pick. The condition – Edmonton will receive a first-round pick in 2008 if Anaheim reaches the 2007 Stanley Cup Finals – was converted on May 22, 2007; the Washington Capitals' first-round pick went to the Minnesota Wild as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first-round pick in 2008 and a third-round pick in 2009 to New Jersey in exchange for this pick. New Jersey acquired this pick as the result of a trade on June 20, 2008 that sent a first-round pick in 2008 to Washington in exchange for a second-round pick in 2008 and this pick.
The Minnesota Wild's first-round pick
TD Place Arena
TD Place Arena the Ottawa Civic Centre, is an indoor arena located in Ottawa, Canada, seating 9,500. With temporary seating and standing room it can hold 10,585. Opened in December 1967, it is used for sports, including curling, figure skating, ice hockey and lacrosse; the arena has hosted Canadian and world championships in figure skating and ice hockey, including the first women's world ice hockey championship in 1990. Canadian championships in curling have been hosted at the arena, it is used for concerts and conventions such as Ottawa SuperEX. The arena is the home of the Ottawa 67's of the Ontario Hockey League, it was the former home of the Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League from 1992 through 1995, the Ottawa Nationals of the World Hockey Association from 1972 to 1973 and the Ottawa Civics of the WHA in 1976, the Ottawa Rebel of the National Lacrosse League from 2002 to 2003. In the 1960s, the City of Ottawa was preparing to rebuild the football stadium at Lansdowne Park, on Bank Street at the Rideau Canal.
During the planning phase, the old Ottawa Auditorium arena was demolished and the City now needed two new sports venues. The City combined plans and the arena, named the Civic Centre, was built together under the north grandstand of the football stadium. One side of the arena is located beneath the upper part of the stadium grandstand, with a much lower ceiling than the opposite side of the arena. Dominion Bridge was the supplier of the huge steel girders for the arena and stadium's frame, some so large they had to be brought to the site by barge, up the Ottawa River and down the Rideau Canal. According to Dominion Bridge "the most striking feature of the unique design concept is a giant overhanging roof reaching out 170 degrees from atop eight massive steel A-frames."The new Civic Centre opened on December 29, 1967, although seating was not complete, for an exhibition game between the Ottawa 67's, boosted by five players from the Montreal Junior Canadiens, the NHL Montreal Canadiens. Seats were taken temporarily from the Coliseum building nearby.
President Howard Darwin said about 500 fans had to be turned away at the door. Of the 9,000 who attended the opening game, only six ticket-holders received refunds; the football stadium and arena complex was Ottawa's official "Centennial Project." Federal government grant money depended on the facility opening in 1967, construction was rushed to meet the deadline. It was renovated and seating increased in 1992 in order to temporarily accommodate the Ottawa Senators of the NHL. Luxury boxes were hung from the ceiling over ¾ of the bowl and all seats except for the club seats were narrowed in order to increase capacity to over 10,000; the seats were replaced in 2005 and wider seats were installed, thus reducing capacity to under 10,000 again. As part of the Lansdowne Park redevelopment, the arena underwent renovations, which included new seats digital signage, ceiling tiles to cover the steel support beams, in which the fire retardant was removed; the scoreboard over the ice was removed, a new scoreboard was installed on the north wall.
The renovation sealed up constant leaks, a problem for the Civic Centre for years. During the 2011–12 season, a 67's game had to be rescheduled because of the leaking roof. Midway through the renovation process at the end of 2013, steel corrosion was discovered by workers and cost an extra $17 million to repair. While the arena was renovated, the 67's used the Canadian Tire Centre for the 2012–13 and 2013-14 seasons; the primary tenant since the building's opening has been the Ottawa 67's junior men's team. The arena's seating capacity is large by junior standards; the team played before large crowds in the 1960s and 1970s but attendance started to drop in the late 80s and bottomed out after the arrival of the Ottawa Senators in the early 1990s. In 1998 the team was bought by local businessman Jeff Hunt and he improved attendance to take advantage of the arena's large capacity. Since the 67's have been one of the top-10 junior teams in Canada in terms of attendance finishing #1 on the list; the club has been successful on the ice, winning the OHL Championship in 1977, 1984, 2001 and the Memorial Cup championship in 1984 and 1999.
The 1972 and 1999 Memorial Cup tournaments were played at the arena, the 1999 tournament was won by the host 67's. In the 1970s, the arena was home to two WHA professional teams, the Ottawa Nationals and Ottawa Civics. Neither survived in Ottawa for more than one season; the Nationals played for one regular season, but moved their playoff games to Toronto, subsequently moved there permanently to become the Toronto Toros. The Civics were the hastily transplanted Denver Spurs franchise that played only two home games in Ottawa before disbanding; the arena hosted the first-ever Canada Cup hockey game on September 2, 1976, when Canada crushed Finland 11-2. They hosted games in the 1981 Canada Cup; the arena was the site of the first IIHF Women's World Ice Hockey Championships in 1990. Canada defeated the United States 5 -- 2 on March 1990 to win the gold medal. Starting in 1992, the new National Hockey League Ottawa Senators called the arena home for three and a half seasons. In preparation for the NHL, it was refurbished for the Senators, adding additional seating and 32 private boxes.
From 1995 to 1997, Roller Hockey International's Ottawa Loggers brought inline hockey to the arena, though the inline version of the sport proved to be both unprofitable and unpopular in Ottawa. In 2008 and 2009, it was used for games of the 2009 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships; the arena's unique arrangement of having most of the seats on
Campbell Soup Company
The Campbell Soup Company known as just Campbell's, is an American producer of canned soups and related products that are sold in 120 countries around the world. It is headquartered in New Jersey. Campbell's divides itself into three divisions: the "simple meals" division, which consists of soups that are either condensed or ready-to-serve; the company was started in 1869 by Joseph A. Campbell, a fruit merchant from Bridgeton, New Jersey, Abraham Anderson, an icebox manufacturer from South Jersey, they produced canned tomatoes, jellies, soups and minced meats. In 1876, Anderson left the partnership and the company became the "Joseph A. Campbell Preserve Company". Campbell reorganized into "Joseph Campbell & Co." in 1896. In 1897, John T. Dorrance, a nephew of the general manager Arthur Dorrance, began working for the company at a wage of $7.50 a week. Dorrance, a chemist with degrees from MIT and Göttingen University, developed a commercially viable method for condensing soup by halving the quantity of its heaviest ingredient: water.
He went on to become president of the company from 1914 to 1930 buying out the Campbell family. In 1898, Herberton Williams, a Campbell's executive, convinced the company to adopt a carnelian red and bright white color scheme, because he was taken by the crisp carnelian red color of the Cornell University football team's uniforms. To this day, the layout of the can, with its red and white design and the metallic bronze medal seal from the 1900 Paris Exhibition, has changed little, with the exception of the French phrase on the top of the bronze seal that said "Exposition-Universelle-Internationale", changed to the English name of the exhibition as "Paris International Exposition". Campbell Soup became one of the largest food companies in the world under the leadership of William Beverly Murphy, he was elected executive vice president of Campbell Soup in 1949 and was President and CEO from 1953 to 1972. While at Campbell's Soup Company, he took the corporation public and increased its brand portfolio to include Pepperidge Farm's breads and crackers, Franco-American's gravies and pastas, V8 vegetable juices, Swanson broths, Godiva's chocolates.
David Johnson was President and CEO from 1990 until 1997. Campbell Soup invested in advertising since its inception, many of its promotional campaigns have proven value in the Americana collectible advertising market. Best known are the "Campbell Kids" designed by illustrator Grace Drayton. Ronald Reagan was a spokesman for V8 when Campbell's acquired the brand in 1948. In addition to collectible advertising, the company has had notable commercial sponsorships. Among these was Orson Welles's The Campbell Playhouse, The Mercury Theatre on the Air. After the program's adaptation of The War of the Worlds became a sensation for accidentally starting a mass panic due to its realism, Campbell's took over as sponsor of the radio theater program in December 1938. In the UK and Ireland, Campbell Soup was rebranded as Batchelors Condensed Soup and Erin in March 2008, when the license to use the brand name expired. Premier Foods, St. Albans, Hertfordshire bought the Campbell Soup Company in the UK and Ireland, for £450m in 2006, but was licensed to use the brand only until 2008.
Under this agreement, the US-based Campbell Soup Company continued to produce Campbell's Condensed Soup but could not sell the product in the UK for a further five years. Campbell's continues to be a major part of Camden, New Jersey participating in charity events in the community. In 2009, Campbell's completed the building of a expanded headquarters in the city. In January 2010, Campbell's Canadian subsidiary began selling a line of soups that are certified by the Islamic Society of North America as being halal. Although Campbell does not have any plans to sell its halal soups in the United States, the move has drawn criticism from anti-Muslim critics in the United States. Blogger Pamela Geller called for a boycott of the company. In July 2011, Campbell's Soup decided to once again sell its product in the UK after being absent since 2008. Symingtons began manufacturing the brand under license; the new line-up comprised twelve cup soups, five simmer soups designed to be cooked in a pot of water, four savoury rice lines, four savory pasta and sauce packets.
The new range were not sold in cans, but instead in boxes. In 2011, the canned varieties returned to supermarket shelves with refreshed labels and new lines. In 2012, Campbell announced plans to buy Bolthouse Farms, a maker of juices, salad dressings and baby carrots, for $1.55 billion. Analysts saw this as an attempt to reach more affluent consumers. From 2012, Campbell Soup has been focused on updating their image and digital marketing to increase visibility among younger generations, they hired Umang Shah to lead global digital marketing. He led record social engagement campaigns including #DeclareRecess and #BIGFiveO. In June 2013, Campbell acquired the Danish multinational baked goods company Kelsen Group for an undisclosed amount. Kelsen has an 85-country distribution network and is seen as providing Campbell with opportunities for international expansion into China and other Asian markets. In June 2015, Campbell Soup acquired salsa maker Garden Fresh Gourmet for a sum of $231 million as it looked to expand into the fresh and organic packaged foods business.
In December 2017, Campbell's completed the acquisition of Pacific Foods of Oregon, LLC for $700 million and announced the agreement to
Steve Bernier is a Canadian professional ice hockey right winger playing for the Bridgeport Sound Tigers in the American Hockey League while under contract to the New York Islanders of the National Hockey League. He has played in the NHL for the New Jersey Devils, Florida Panthers, Buffalo Sabres, Vancouver Canucks and the San Jose Sharks, the latter of which selected him in the first round, 16th overall, in the 2003 NHL Entry Draft; as a youth, Bernier played in the 1998 and 1999 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournaments with a minor ice hockey team from Quebec City. After capturing the 2001 Air Canada Cup, while being named Tournament MVP, with the Gouverneurs de Ste-Foy, Bernier was drafted first overall in the 2001 Quebec Major Junior Hockey League Midget Draft, he played his entire four-season major junior career with the Moncton Wildcats. In his rookie year, he led Moncton in goals and finished fourth among QMJHL rookies in overall scoring, his most productive junior season came in his draft year, 2002–03, when he scored 49 goals and 101 points, ninth in League scoring.
He was named to the QMJHL Second All-Star Team. Going into the 2003 NHL Entry Draft, the San Jose Sharks traded their 21st, 66th and 107th selections in exchange for the 16th overall position, with which they used to draft Bernier. Upon being drafted, Bernier played two more seasons with Moncton and was named once more to the QMJHL Second All-Star Team in 2003–04. Helping lead Moncton to the 2004 QMJHL Finals, he scored seven goals and ten assists in 20 playoff games. However, the Wildcats were eliminated by the Gatineau Olympiques in five games. In his fourth and final junior season, in 2004–05, Bernier tallied 71 points and 114 penalty minutes in 68 games, but it marked the second-straight season his offensive output had dropped. Soon after being eliminated in the second round, the Sharks signed Bernier to his first professional contract, a three-year deal. Bernier split his first professional season, 2005–06, between the Sharks and their American Hockey League affiliate, the Cleveland Barons.
He added 13 assists in 39 games with the Sharks for a successful rookie season. His first NHL goal was scored on November 2005, against Marty Turco of the Dallas Stars. In the 2006 playoffs, he added one goal and five assists in 11 games, as San Jose was eliminated in the second round. Midway through his sophomore season, Bernier was sent back to the AHL after the Sharks suffered an 8–0 loss to the Phoenix Coyotes. However, Bernier missed a month's worth of games. After rehabilitation and ten games with Worcester, Bernier rejoined the Sharks in late February. On February 26, at the 2007–08 trade deadline, Bernier was sent to the Buffalo Sabres, along with a first-round draft pick, in exchange for defenceman Brian Campbell and a seventh-round pick; the next day, in his Sabres debut, Bernier scored two goals on his first two shots and added an assist, helping Buffalo to an 8–4 win over the Nashville Predators. At the time, Thomas Vanek wore number 26 for the Sabres, so Bernier chose the number 56 instead.
As Bernier became a restricted free agent at the end of the season, he was traded to the Vancouver Canucks in exchange for a second-round draft pick in 2010 and a third-round draft pick in 2009. While Bernier was admittedly surprised with the trade, he expressed approval in moving to Vancouver. Four days he was extended a one-year, $2.5 million offer sheet by the St. Louis Blues, which the Canucks matched. Playing in his first season with Vancouver, he injured both his left shoulder and left toe after missing a check on defenceman Brett Lebda and hitting the boards on November 24, 2008, against the Detroit Red Wings. However, he was only sidelined and, setting career-highs in assists and points, he was awarded the Fred J. Hume Award as the team's unsung hero. Although Bernier was seen at the start of the season as a promising candidate for the Canucks' top line with the Henrik and Daniel Sedin, he settled into a third-line checking role with linemates Kyle Wellwood and Mason Raymond in the latter stages of the season.
Following the Canucks' second round elimination to the Chicago Blackhawks, Bernier was re-signed to a two-year, $4 million contract on May 14, 2009. In preparation for the 2009–10 season, Bernier reported to training camp 15 pounds lighter. On June 25, 2010, during the 2010 NHL Entry Draft, Bernier was traded, along with Michael Grabner and the Canucks' first-round choice in the Draft, to the Florida Panthers in exchange for Keith Ballard and Victor Oreskovich. In November 2010, Bernier missed eight games with a right eye injury. In the season, he was placed on waivers by Florida on February 24, 2011, but went unclaimed. Remaining with Florida, he missed the final two games of the season with a shoulder injury, finishing with 15 points over 68 contests in 2010–11. Set to become a restricted free agent in the off-season, Florida chose not to tender Bernier a qualifying offer, giving him unrestricted status on July 1, 2011. Without a contract at the start of the NHL's training camp period, he was invited to the New Jersey Devils' training camp in September 2011.
Within a month, he accepted an AHL contract with New Jersey's minor league affiliate, the Albany Devils. Bernier was signed to a one-year, two way contract with the Devils on January 30, 2012. In Game 6 of the 2012 Stanley Cup Finals, Bernier received a five-minute major penalty and a game misconduct for boarding after hitting Los Angeles Kings defenceman Rob Scuderi from behind with 9
The ECHL is a mid-level professional ice hockey league based in Princeton, New Jersey, with teams scattered across the United States and two franchises in Canada. It is a tier below the American Hockey League; the ECHL and the AHL are the only minor leagues recognized by the collective bargaining agreement between the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, meaning any player signed to an entry-level NHL contract and designated for assignment must report to a club in either the ECHL or the AHL. Additionally, the league's players are represented by the Professional Hockey Players' Association in negotiations with the ECHL itself; some 623 players have played at least one game in both the NHL and the ECHL. For the 2018–19 season, 25 of 31 National Hockey League teams have affiliations with an ECHL team with the Anaheim Ducks, Columbus Blue Jackets, Florida Panthers, Montreal Canadiens, Nashville Predators, San Jose Sharks having no official affiliations as of September 29, 2018.
The two independent teams are Rapid City Rush. However, unaffiliated NHL teams do sometimes lend contracted players to ECHL teams for development and increased playing time; the league's regular season ends in April. The current ECHL champion is the Colorado Eagles, although the organization has since left the league to join the American Hockey League; the league, which combined teams from the defunct Atlantic Coast Hockey League and All-American Hockey League, began play as the East Coast Hockey League in 1988 with 5 teams—the Carolina Thunderbirds. In 2003, the West Coast Hockey League ceased operations, the ECHL Board of Governors approved membership applications from the Anchorage/Alaska Aces, the Bakersfield Condors, the Fresno Falcons, the Idaho Steelheads, the Las Vegas Wranglers, the Long Beach Ice Dogs and the San Diego Gulls as well as from potential teams in Ontario and Reno, Nevada. Alaska, Fresno, Las Vegas, Long Beach and San Diego began play in the 2003–04 season as expansion teams.
In a change reflective of the league's now-nationwide presence, the East Coast Hockey League shortened its name to the orphan initialism ECHL on May 19, 2003. The ECHL reached its largest size to date that season before being reduced to 28 teams for the 2004–05 season; the ECHL has attempted to be more tech-friendly to its fans. Some improvements on the league's website have included a new schedule and statistics engine powered by League Stat, Inc. internet radio coverage for most teams, pay-per view broadcasting of ECHL games through B2 Networks. In 2008, the league introduced the ECHL toolbar for internet browsers which gave users short cut access to statistics, scores and news updates. At the annual ECHL Board of Governors Meeting on June 15, 2010, in Henderson, the Board of Governors approved changes to the names of the conferences and divisions; the former American Conference was renamed the Eastern Conference, while the National Conference was re-designated the Western Conference. Within the Eastern Conference, the East Division was renamed the Atlantic Division, the Western Conference's former West Division was dubbed the Mountain Division.
The league lost its only Canadian team with the folding of the Victoria Salmon Kings subsequent to the 2010–11 season. The league increased to 20 teams for the 2011–12 season with the addition of the expansion franchise Chicago Express and the Colorado Eagles who played in the Central Hockey League. With the folding of the Chicago Express at the conclusion of the 2011–12 season and the announcement of expansion franchises in Orlando, San Francisco and Fort Wayne the league played the 2012–13 season with 23 teams; that number dropped to 22 for the 2013–14 season with the folding of the Trenton Titans and subsequently fell to 21 with the mid-season folding of the San Francisco Bulls on January 27, 2014. On November 26, 2013, the ECHL announced that the Indy Fuel would begin play for the 2014–15 season and would play its home games at the Fairgrounds Coliseum, a 6,145-seat building located on the Indiana State Fairgrounds in Indianapolis. On October 7, 2014, the ECHL announced that the seven remaining active members of the Central Hockey League would be admitted as new members for the 2014–15 season, raising the number of teams to 28 and placing a team in Canada for the first time since 2011.
Before the 2015–16 season, the AHL's creation of a Pacific Division led the three California ECHL teams to relocate to former AHL cities with the Bakersfield Condors, Ontario Reign, Stockton Thunder relocating to become the Norfolk Admirals, Manchester Monarchs, Adirondack Thunder, respectively. By the 2018–19 season, the ECHL had expanded into other markets vacated by the AHL in the Maine Mariners, Newfoundland Growlers, Worcester Railers. Notes Representatives from all potential expansion franchises, markets that have been granted expansion franchises and franchises that have suspended operations must attend th
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th