Robert George Brian Dickson known as Brian Dickson, was a Canadian lawyer, military officer and judge. He was appointed a puisne justice of the Supreme Court of Canada on March 26, 1973, subsequently appointed the 15th Chief Justice of Canada on April 18, 1984, he retired on June 30, 1990. Dickson's tenure as chief justice coincided with the first wave of cases under the new Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which reached the Supreme Court from 1984 onwards. Dickson wrote several influential judgments dealing with the Charter and laid the groundwork for the approach that the courts would take to the Charter. Dickson was born to Thomas Dickson and Sarah Elizabeth Gibson, in Yorkton, Saskatchewan, in 1916, although the family lived at that time in Wynyard, his adolescence and young adulthood occurred during the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl years, which hit the Canadian prairies hard. Dickson's father was a bank manager, the family was transferred to Regina, the capital of Saskatchewan.
Dickson attended high school at the Central Collegiate, where two of his classmates were William Lederman and Alexander "Sandy" MacPherson. All three would go into law, with Lederman becoming one of Canada's leading constitutional scholars and MacPherson becoming a justice of the Saskatchewan Court of Queen's Bench. In years, Dickson would reminisce that "Bill was always first in our class, Sandy and I were fighting for second and third". Sandy MacPherson's father was the attorney general for Saskatchewan; when the Legislature was sitting in the evenings and Sandy MacPherson would come in the evenings to the Attorney General's office to do their homework, sit in the galleries of the Assembly and listen to the debates. Dickson said; the Dickson family moved to Winnipeg, where Dickson attended the University of Manitoba after graduating from Ridley College in 1934. He was a member of the Zeta Psi fraternity. In 1938, Dickson graduated with a Bachelor of Laws, his first permanent job was with the Great-West Life Assurance Company, where he worked in the investment section for two years.
It was in Winnipeg as a young law student that Dickson met Barbara Sellers. They married in Winnipeg in 1943, when Dickson was back from Europe to attend military staff training in Kingston. Dickson was called to the bar in 1940, but before practising law, he enlisted in the Canadian armed forces for active service, he had joined the military reserve in 1939, on the outbreak of World War II. In June 1940, he and his friend from law school, Clarence Shepard, signed up for active duty as second lieutenants with the Royal Canadian Artillery, joining the 38th Field Battery in Winnipeg. In August 1940, he volunteered for overseas service. Lieutenant Dickson sailed in February 1941 for Britain with the 3rd Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, his abilities attracted notice and he was chosen for staff training, returning to Canada for a course in 1943, followed with a tour of duty in British Columbia as brigade major with the Royal Canadian Artillery. In 1944, Dickson volunteered to return to Europe as a captain.
He was posted to the 2nd Canadian Army Group, Royal Canadian Artillery, distinguished himself in Normandy, being mentioned in dispatches. In August 1944, during the battle of Falaise Gap, Dickson was hit by friendly fire and wounded, leading to the amputation of his right leg. By coincidence, two of his friends, Bill Ledermen and Clarence Shepard, were both serving in the area and witnessed the attack, they remembered the frantic attempts to have the attack called off, not knowing at the time Dickson was in the target area. He was discharged from the army in April 1945. Years when he came to Ottawa, Dickson renewed his ties to the military. In 1983, he accepted the honorary lieutenant-colonelship of the 30th Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery, was its honorary colonel from 1988 to 1992. Dickson returned to Winnipeg in 1945 at the end of the war, joining the law firm of Aikins, MacAulay, Thompson & Tritschler, he became a successful corporate lawyer, lectured at the Faculty of Law of the University of Manitoba for six years, until 1954.
In 1963, he was on a volunteer committee of the Canadian Bar Association which assisted the Manitoba government in preparing a new Companies Act. Two other volunteers on the committee were Lorne Campbell and Irwin Dorfman, both of whom would serve as national president of the CBA. In 1950, Dickson volunteered to be head of the Manitoba Red Cross, on the suggestion of a partner who told him it would only involve a few meetings per year. Instead, Dickson took the position just in time for the 1950 Red River flood, with the Red reaching the highest level since 1861. Winnipeg itself was inundated, 4 of 11 bridges were destroyed, over 100,000 people had to be evacuated. Dickson took charge of the relief effort by the Red Cross. Under his direction, the Red Cross mobilised 4,000 volunteers, evacuated thousands and provided support to the people working on the dykes, he admitted he ran the Red Cross volunteers like an army. Dickson served as chancellor for the Anglican Diocese of Rupert's Land. In 1963, Dickson was appointed to the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba and in 1967 was elevated to the Manitoba Court of Appeal.
He was appointed a puisne justice of the Supreme Court of Canada on March 26, 1973. On April 18, 1984, he was elevated to chief justice of Canada over the more senior Roland Ritchie, one year away from mandatory retirement at age 75 and was in ill health. During his early years on
Campaniform sensilla are a class of mechanoreceptors found in insects, which respond to stress and strain within the animal's cuticle. Campaniform sensilla function as proprioceptors that detect mechanical load as resistance to muscle contraction, similar to mammalian Golgi tendon organs. Sensory feedback from campaniform sensilla is integrated in the control of locomotion; each campaniform sensillum consists of a flexible dome, embedded in a socket within the cuticle and innervated by the dendrites of a single bipolar sensory neuron. Campaniform sensilla are oval-shaped with long axes of about 5-10 µm. Campaniform sensilla are distributed across the body surface of many insects. Sensilla with similar orientations are grouped together in regions where stress is to be high, including on the legs and wings. For example, stick insects have groups of campaniform sensilla on the trochanter, a group on the proximal femur, a group on the proximal tibia, a small number of sensilla on the distal end of each tarsomere.
In Diptera like blow flies, the highest density of campaniform sensilla is found at the base of the modified hind-wings, or halteres, which function as gyroscopic sensors of self-motion during flight. The activity of campaniform sensilla was first recorded by John William Sutton Pringle in the late 1930s, who determined that the oval shape of many sensilla makes them directionally selective; when cuticular deformations compress a campaniform sensillum along its short axis, the socket edges indent the cuticular cap. This squeezes the dendritic tip of the sensory neuron and opens its mechanotransduction channels, which leads to the firing of action potentials that are transmitted to the central nervous system. Campaniform sensilla signal the rate of cuticular deformation. In walking control, sensory feedback from leg campaniform sensilla is thought to reinforce muscle activity during the stance phase and to contribute to inter-leg coordination, much like sensory feedback from mammalian Golgi tendon organs.
In flight control, sensory feedback from haltere and wing campaniform sensilla is thought to mediate compensatory reflexes to maintain equilibrium
Gaspard van der Heyden was a goldsmith, master printer and builder of precision astronomical instruments including terrestrial and celestial globes from Leuven, Belgium. He was well known among the humanists in Leuven as well as among mathematicians. Gaspard was the son of the surgeon Peter van der Katharina van den Berghe, he was born around 1496 in Leuven. He's recorded to have married his wife, Anna van Luye in 1521. Little of his early life and education are recorded, but he was considered to be more than an artist, an engraver, a qualified craftsman, a metal worker, he had scientific education in mathematics. A letter from Prof. Goglenius of Leuven dated December 2, 1531, to a friend of Erasmus, namely, to John Dantiscus, Polish policeman in the Netherlands, great protector of Gemma Frisius, shows us that he and several other local humanists were friends of Erasmus. Goglenius thanks Dantiscus for a gift sent to him by Jaspar aurifex; the fact that the family name is not given makes it seem plausible that the goldsmith had a good reputation among the Humanists in Leuven and the Court of Marius of Hungary.
Goclenius does not mention what type of object the gift was. Gaspard van der Heyden is referred to as "aurifaber" or goldsmith in demographic records starting in 1524. In city records from Leuven his name is mentioned several times. It's recorded that on 13 June 1526 he received a payment for the production of a copper seal intended for the payment of the beer tax. On August 17, 1527 he's shown to have made a Seal for the city, on the following December 19, he's recorded to have repaired the chain of a city whistle. In 1531/32, he's commissioned to make a stamp for embossing cloth. Van der Heyden was considered an important member of the Leuven geographic circle, was noted by English scholar John Dee when he went abroad to speak with "some learned men, chiefly Mathematicians, as Gemma Phrysius, Gerardus Mercator, Gaspar à Myrica, Antonius Gogava." In 1526 or 1527 he made a terrestrial and a celestial globe in collaboration with Franciscus Monachus of Mechelen. These globes have not survived, but are described by Monachus in a letter to his patron, entitled De Orbis Situ ac descriptione ad Reverendiss.
D. archiepiscopum Panormitanum, Monachi ordinis Franciscani, epistola sane qua luculenta. He built another terrestrial globe with the assistance of Gemma Frisius in 1529, but they planned a new globe by 1535 to better represent new geographical discoveries; the new globe was completed in 1536 with Gerardus Mercator. A celestial globe was produced by Frisius and van der Heyden in 1537. Copies of the newer globes were produced until the 1570s. A legend engraved on the celestial globe reads "Made by Gemma Frisius and mathematician, Gaspar à Myrica, Gerardus Mercator of Rupelmonde in the year of the virgin birth 1537."On July 4, 1549, he received compensation for a five-day stay in Antwerp, where he bought a cup from the goldsmith, Matthieu van Campen. This gilded silver cup was decorated with the coat of arms of the town, inscribed with the inscription "insignia oppidi Lovaniensis", gifted to Philip II on 5 July 1549, when he received the most prestigious notables in Leuven. Atlas Cosmographicae Celestial globe Franciscus Monachus Gemma Frisius Gerardus Mercator Globe Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography History of cartography Sylvia Sumira.
Globes: 400 Years of Exploration and Power. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-13914-2. Gerhard Holzer. A World of Innovation: Cartography in the Time of Gerhard Mercator. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-7570-7. Cartographic images of maps and globes The History of Cartography, Volume 3, The University of Chicago Press - PDF The Discovery of Gerard Mercator's Astrolabes, G. L'E. Turner
The employment of Chinese citizens in Philippine firms engaging in offshore gambling known as Philippine Offshore Gaming Operators has been a subject of national interest in the Philippines. An influx of mainland Chinese started during the administration of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte who pursued cordial ties with China. Under his tenure, the responsibility of giving license to offshore gambling firms was given to the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation in 2016; this coincided the Chinese government ban of all electronic casinos operating in mainland China. Many POGOs employ Chinese nationals since they speak the same language to the Chinese customers they cater to. PAGCOR has stated that there are no Chinese-owned POGOs, all POGO foreign licensees have Filipino partner firms. While there is no official figure for the number of Chinese gambling workers in the Philippines, it is estimated. The president of the Philippine Association for Chinese Studies acknowledged the proliferation of Chinese-affiliated POGOs to have generated jobs and revenue for the Philippine economy but fostered tensions between Filipinos and the Chinese, worsened proliferation of prostitution and law enforcement issues.
In 2019, the Chinese embassy in Manila has expressed concern regarding the large-scale illegal recruitment of Chinese nationals in POGOs describing their plight as "modern slavery". It noted that some Chinese were illegally brought in the Philippines under tourist visas and some had their passport confiscated by their Philippine-based employers and forced to reside and work in certain places. Due to complaints of unruly behavior of Chinese workers in the Philippines, PAGCOR has proposed the establishment of self-contained communities or hubs for Chinese gambling workers to limit their interactions with the local population; the Chinese embassy in Manila has expressed concerns that such plan "may infringe on the basic legal rights of the Chinese citizens". Filipino security officials has raised concerns regarding Chinese-affilitated POGOs in the Philippines those near police and military installations. Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana has said that POGOs could be used in espionage activities
James Hill Carter is a Scottish former competitive swimmer. Carter represented Great Britain at the Olympics, FINA world championships and European championships, Scotland at the Commonwealth Games, during the 1970s and early 1980s. Carter competed in freestyle swimming events ranging from 100 metres to 1500 metres. Carter qualified for three Olympics in 1972, 1976 and 1980; as a British relay team member, he won bronze medals in the 4x100-metre medley relay at the 1975 World Aquatics Championships and 1977 European Aquatics Championships. He won a silver medal in the 1500-metre freestyle at the 1974 European Aquatics Championships. At the ASA National British Championships he won the 1973 and 1974 1500 metres freestyle titles, the 200 metres backstroke titles in 1976 and 1977, the 200 metres medley title in 1976 and the 400 metres medley title in 1974. Between 1977 and 1979 he studied at the University of California and swam for the university's California Golden Bears swimming and diving team.
Before that he was trained at the Ryde-Carlile Swimming Club, New South Wales, Australia. As seen on the Food Network television programme Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives, Carter now owns a diner called Meal Ticket in Berkeley, together with his wife Carolyn Del Gaudio
Sweden has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 59 times since making its debut in 1958, missing only three contests since then. Since 1959, the Swedish entry has been chosen through an annual televised competition, known since 1967 as Melodifestivalen. At the 1997 contest, Sweden was one of the first five countries to adopt televoting. Sweden is the only country to have hosted the event in five different decades, three times in Stockholm, twice in Malmö and once in Gothenburg. Sweden is one of the most successful competing nations at the Eurovision Song Contest, with a total of six victories, second only to Ireland's seven wins, has the most top five results of the 21st century, with 11. In total, Sweden has achieved 25 top five results in the contest. After finishing second with Lill Lindfors and Svante Thuresson in 1966, Sweden went on to achieve its six victories with ABBA, Carola, Charlotte Nilsson, Loreen and Måns Zelmerlöw. To date, Sweden is the only country. Sweden's first entrant in the contest was Alice Babs in 1958, placed fourth.
This remained the country's best result until 1966, when Lill Lindfors and Svante Thuresson were second. Sweden's first Eurovision victory was in 1974 with the song "Waterloo", performed by ABBA. Thanks to their victory in Brighton, ABBA went on to gain worldwide success and become one of the best-selling pop groups of all time. In the 1980s, Sweden achieved three successive top three results. After Carola finished third in 1983, the Herreys gave Sweden its second victory in 1984 with "Diggi-Loo Diggi-Ley". Kikki Danielsson finished third in 1985. Carola returned to the contest in 1991, to give the Swedes their third win with "Fångad av en stormvind", defeating France in a tie-break. Charlotte Nilsson gave the country a second win of the decade in 1999, with "Take Me to Your Heaven"; the 1990s saw two third-place results, for Jan Johansen in 1995 and One More Time in 1996. In the 2000s, the best Swedish result was fifth place, which they achieved four times, with Friends in 2001, Fame in 2003, Lena Philipsson in 2004 and Carola, who in 2006, became the only Swedish performer to achieve three top five results.
Together with Croatia and Malta, Sweden was one of only three countries never to have been relegated under the pre 2004 rules of the contest. Sweden was the first country to win 3 semifinals. In 2010, Anna Bergendahl became the first Swedish entrant to fail to make it to the final, finishing 11th in the semifinal, only five points from qualification. Since the country has been successful, finishing in the top five in six of the last seven contests, including victories for Loreen, who gave Sweden its fifth victory in 2012 with the song "Euphoria", making Sweden one of only two countries to have Eurovision victories in four different decades, winning for the sixth time with Måns Zelmerlöw's "Heroes" in 2015. Sweden is one of only two countries - along with Ukraine in 2004 and 2016 with Ruslana and Jamala - to win twice since the introduction of the semi-finals in 2004, performing the feat in both 2012 and 2015 with 372 and 365 points making Sweden additionally the first country to have scored 300 points or more twice.
They finished third in 2011 with Eric Saade and "Popular", third in 2014 with Sanna Nielsen and "Undo", fifth with Frans and the song "If I Were Sorry" in 2016,fifth with Robin Bengtsson and "I Can't Go On" in 2017, fifth with John Lundvik and " Too Late For Love" in 2019. Melodifestivalen is an annual music competition organised by Swedish public broadcasters Sveriges Television and Sveriges Radio, it has chosen the country's representative for the Eurovision Song Contest since 1959. It is Sweden's most popular television shows, it has been estimated that more than 4 million Swedes watch the show annually; every Swedish entry for Eurovision has been selected through Melodifestivalen. Only Sweden's first entry in 1958 was not selected through Melodifestivalen, having been selected internally by the Swedish broadcaster at the time, Swedish Radio Service. Over the years SVT commentary has been provided by several experienced radio and television presenters, including Jacob Dahlin, Ulf Elfving, Harald Treutiger, Pekka Heino, Kristian Luuk and Fredrik Belfrage.
From 2009 to 2018, Edward af Sillén provided the SVT commentary alongside various dual commentators. All conductors are Swedish except those marked with a flag. No restriction on the nationality of the songwriter and the artist exists in the Eurovision Song Contest rules, which has resulted in countries being represented by songwriters and artist who are not nationals of that country. In recent years Swedish songwriters have been involved in the writing or of entries from several countries apart from Sweden. In 2010, the songs from Belarus, Georgia, Norway and Azerbaijan were written or by Swedes. In 2014, the songs from Azerbaijan, Denmark, United Kingdom and Ukraine. In 2016, the songs from Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Georgia, Norway, Malta and Russia. In 2017, the songs from Azerbaijan, Cro