Channel S is a UK-based, free-to-air television channel targeting the British Bangladeshi community. The channel was established on 16 December 2004, by Mahee Ferdous Jalill – a Bangladeshi businessman in London. On Sky it had a deal with ATN Global, and in 2005 it started to broadcast for 24 hours,7 days a week. The television station is based at Prestige House in Walthamstow, North East London and it broadcasts programmes in Bengali, Sylheti and a few in English. It is the first Bangladeshi channel to broadcast content in the Sylheti dialect, since the launch of the channel in 2004, there has been bitter rivalry between Channel S and Bangla TV, with Channel S gaining rights to broadcast the Baishakhi Mela. A survey in the UK found Channel S was the most viewed Bengali TV channel in the UK, on 16 December 2004, Channel S started to broadcast on Sky with a timesharing deal with ATN Global on channel 827. It was founded by a Bangladeshi businessmen based in London, Mahee Ferdous Jalil, in March 2005, it moved to its own EPG channel 837 and started broadcasting 24 hours a day,7 days a week, and moved to channel 814.
These are available on Sky channels 826 and 827 respectively, on October 2008, it acquired the rights to broadcast a popular Bangladeshi channel called, Channel i on channel 826. In May 2007, Channel S launch Islam4U – a channel dedicated to Islamic programmes, Channel S provides viewers with a combination of cultural and religious programs for the viewers, including shows which help the community with legal or community issues. News is broadcast daily, with coverage of national news and international news, the main headline and political situation in Bangladesh. The channel has increasingly been providing programs in Sylheti, which is the first channel to do so and it recognises that Sylheti is a separate language than Bengali, targeting the majority Sylheti-speaking community. Lets Talk – hosted by Ajmal Masroor is a programme debating about current, as it claims to be the voice of the community, it provides people with advice concerning on legal issues, programs include Legal Advice and community-based issues such as Reality with Mahee.
Subjects include all community-based issues, including social, business, or contemporary, there are many Bengali entertainment programs with Bengali music and shows, including Sylheti drama which are produced in Sylhet and some from east London. Popular entertainment shows include iRonniee, and music shows of folk, poetry by leading artists in the UK or Bangladesh, since 2005, it has gained the rights to broadcast the Baishakhi Mela annually. Previously the rights were held by Bangla TV, however its commitment to the community has attracted many local business, in 2009, it was the joint media partner with BBC Asian Network, alongside the Tower Hamlets council. Channel S is one of the first Bengali channels which are committed to broadcasting Islamic-oriented programs, Islamic programs are shown quite frequently. Channel S has planned to launch a channel called Islam4U, which is a 24-hour channel Islamic channel in Bengali, there are many charity events for Islamic institutes on Channel S. In 2006 and 2007 during Ramadan, the British Bangladeshi community donated millions of pounds on live appeals and it led to Channel S in 2007 creating a fundraising initiative called, the Ramadan Family Commitment, which was the channels first concept based scheme
Demographics of British Bangladeshis
British Bangladeshis are people who have immigrated from Bangladesh to the United Kingdom. They have mainly settled in the boroughs of east London, primarily in the borough of Tower Hamlets, Haringey, Newham, over 50% of the Bangladeshi population living in the United Kingdom, live in London. The table below shows the dispersity of Bangladeshi people in the United Kingdom, the percentages include the population percentage of the total population of the region itself and the percentage of the Bangladeshi population in that region. The data for regional populations are estimates for 2006 from the Office for National Statistics, the Bangladeshi populations in the 17 local electoral districts called wards in London borough of Tower Hamlets. In comparison with all pupils nationally in the country, Bangladeshi pupils have average attainment at the end of key stage. The attainment of Bangladeshi pupils at Key Stage 1 is the considerably above the national average, the numbers of Bangladeshi pupils who are attaining five or more A*–C grades in the General Certificate of Secondary Education are above the national average.
In London the pupils do better than the average of the whole city, at the end of Key Stage 2, they are attaining 11 percentage points, which is above the national average in English. 97 per cent of Bangladeshi students in Tower Hamlets mainly speak English as a language, after Sylheti. Bangladeshi pupils make more progress than several other minority ethnic groups between Key Stage 3 and GCSE, bengali speaking pupils with greater English fluency are closing the gap for GCSE average scores with other language groups. For example, 71% of Bangladeshi pupils who achieve level 5 at Key Stage 3 achieve five or more A*–C grades at GCSE, compared with 67% of Pakistani pupils and 48% of Black Caribbean pupils. Overall, the correlation between FSM eligibility and attainment at GCSE is less strong for Bangladeshi girls and boys than for other groups, a lot of Bangladeshis are mainly employed in the retail, transport and restaurant industries, for both men and women. This is unsurprising, because many Bangladeshis have founded the restaurant,1 in 3 Bangladeshi women worked in this industry in 2004, compared with one in five of all women in employment.
Between 2001 and 2002, particularly men, Bangladeshis had the highest unemployment rate in Britain at 20%. The Bangladeshi women had the highest unemployment rate of all at 24 per cent, unemployment was mostly high amongst the youths, for example in Tower Hamlets itself had 32% of people aged between 18–25 years who were unemployed. The rates of unemployment and under-achievement are sometimes common with Bangladeshis. The average earnings of the Bangladeshis were at only £150 per week, new generation Bangladeshis living in Britain, are now willing to be involved and employed in professional careers. Bangladeshis were most likely to be employed or own curry restaurants in Britain, this is mainly present among the older generation or the first generation who have started this cultural business. The younger generation who are receiving education in comparison with their ancestors, are not very influenced by the business of the curry
Sylhet Division, known as Greater Sylhet or Sylhet region, is the northeastern division of Bangladesh, named after its main city, Sylhet. It is bordered by the Meghalaya and Tripura states of India to the north and south, Sylhet is considered one of the most picturesque and archaeologically rich regions in South Asia, and has major Islamic Sufi shrines and Hindu holy sites. Its bourgeoning economy has contributed to the attractions of landscapes filled with fragrant orange and pineapple gardens. Many Sylheti community members are working and residing abroad, particularly in the United Kingdom and they send remittances to fund projects and industries within the Sylhet Division, which have led to the expansion of the export industry and foreign investment sectors. Historians believe that Sylhet was an commercial centre since the ancient period. During this time, Sylhet was probably inhabited by Brahmins, though the population have included other contemporary South Asian ethnic groups as well as Arabs, Persians.
It has suggested that the Ancient Kingdom of Harikela was situated in modern Sylhet. The 14th century marked the beginning of Islamic influence in Sylhet, during the medieval period, Sylhet was a leading centre of Persian-speaking Muslim missionaries. Sikander Ghazi was the nephew of Sultan Feroze Shah of Delhi, under the spiritual leadership of Hazrat Shah Jalal and his 360 companions, the Muslims converted many local Hindus. He died in Sylhet in or around the year 1350 CE and his shrine is located inside the parameter of the mosque complex known as Dargah-e-Shah Jalal. Shah Jalal remains revered, visitors arrive from all over Bangladesh, saint Shah Jalal and his companions are credited with converting most of the populace from their earlier beliefs in Hinduism and other religions to Islam. By the 15th century, Sylhet became a centre of the Assam, in the official documents and historical papers, Sylhet was often referred to as Jalalabad during the era of the Muslim rule. Sylhet is an important center of historical significance to Hindus, Sylhet is home to two of the fifty-one body parts of Sati, a form of Goddess Durga, that fell on Earth according to accepted legends.
Shri Shail in Jainpur village near Gotatikar in south Surma and Jayanti at Kalajore Baurbhag village of Jaintia are where the neck, in addition, the 16th century Krishna Chaitanyass ancestral homes are in Golapganj and Habiganj. Hindus believe Chaitanya was a reincarnation of Krishna and will return during the kalijug or end of time, in the late 18th century, the British East India Company became interested in Sylhet and saw it as an area of strategic importance in the war against Burma. The British gradually absorbed Sylhet under their control, and governed it as a part of Bengal, after the British administrative reorganization of India, Sylhet was incorporated into Assam. It remained a part of Assam for the rest of the era of British rule. The referendum was held on 3 July 1947, there were a total of 546,815 votes cast on 239 polling stations, there were protests regarding bogus votes
Methodism, or the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and Johns brother Charles Wesley were significant leaders in the movement and it originated as a revival within the 18th century Church of England and became a separate Church after Wesleys death. Because of vigorous missionary work, the movement spread throughout the British Empire, Wesleys theology focused on sanctification and the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety and the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all, in theology and this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several others were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the latter position, Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor and the afflicted through the works of mercy. These ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens and schools to follow Christs command to spread the gospel, the movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are generally less ritualistic, Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition and Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. In Britain, the Methodist Church had an effect in the early decades of the making of the working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition. The Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, the Wesley brothers founded the Holy Club at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College.
The club met weekly and they set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting regularly, abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and frequently visited the sick, the fellowship were branded as Methodist by their fellow students because of the way they used rule and method to go about their religious affairs. John, who was leader of the club, took the attempted mockery, unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith. They looked for help to Peter Boehler and other members of the Moravian Church, at a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his heart strangely warmed. Charles had reported an experience an few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally.
Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, and Selina Hastings, George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was rapidly to become a national crusade
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin
Bethnal Green is a district mostly in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and partly in the London Borough of Hackney. Located 3.3 miles northeast of Charing Cross, it was historically a hamlet in the ancient parish of Stepney, the parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green in 1900 and the population peaked in 1901, entering a period of steady decline which lasted until 1981. Some 173 people were killed at an incident at Bethnal Green tube station in 1943. Bethnal Green has formed part of Greater London since 1965, the place-name Blithehale or Blythenhale, the earliest form of Bethnal Green, is derived from the Anglo-Saxon healh and blithe, or from a personal name Blitha. Nearby Cambridge Heath, is unconnected with Cambridge and may derive from an Anglo-Saxon personal name. The area was marshland and forest which, as Bishopswood. Over time, the name became Bethan Hall Green, which, a Tudor ballad, the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, tells the story of an ostensibly poor man who gave a surprisingly generous dowry for his daughters wedding.
The tale furnishes the parish of Bethnal Greens coat of arms, the Blind Beggar public house in Whitechapel is reputed to be the site of his begging. Boxing has an association with Bethnal Green. Daniel Mendoza, who was champion of England from 1792 to 1795 though born in Aldgate, since numerous boxers have been associated with the area, and the local leisure centre, York Hall, remains notable for presentation of boxing bouts. He was a capable pastoral visitor and established a parochial school, after examining the text of the sermon, the Bishop of London condemned it as containing erroneous and dangerous notions. As a result, the bishop sent Woodard to be a curate in Clapton, the Green and Poors Land is the area of open land now occupied by Bethnal Green Library, the V&A Museum of Childhood and St Johns Church, designed by John Soane. In Stows Survey of London the hamlet was called Blethenal Green and it was one of the hamlets included in the Manor of Stepney and Hackney. From that date, the trust has administered the land and its books are kept in the London Metropolitan Archives.
Bethnal House, or Kirbys Castle, was the house on the Green. One of its owners was Sir Hugh Platt, author of books on gardening, under its next owner it was visited by Samuel Pepys. In 1727 it was leased to Matthew Wright and for almost two centuries it was an asylum and its two most distinguished inmates were Alexander Cruden, compiler of the Concordance to the Bible, and the poet Christopher Smart. Cruden recorded his experience in The London Citizen Grievously Injured and Smarts stay there is recorded by his daughter, records of the asylum are kept in the annual reports of the Commissioner in Lunacy
The Irish people are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 9,000 years according to archaeological studies, for most of Irelands recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland, the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities, including Irish, Northern Irish, British, or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports, although Irish was their main language in the past, today the huge majority of Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, there have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Irelands conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the fathers of Europe, followed by saints Cillian and Fergal.
The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the father of chemistry, famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker and James Joyce, notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Robert McClure, Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides, many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry. The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are mainly in English-speaking countries, especially the United Kingdom. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand, the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country. Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears, in its summary of their article Who were the Celts.
The National Museum Wales notes It is possible that genetic studies of ancient. However, early studies have, so far, tended to produce implausible conclusions from very small numbers of people and using outdated assumptions about linguistics, nineteenth century anthropology studied the physical characteristics of Irish people in minute detail. During the past 10,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores, the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived, as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael
East End of London
The East End of London, known simply as the East End, is an area of Central and East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, and north of the River Thames. The relevance of Strypes reference to the Tower was more than geographical, the East End was the major part of an area called the Tower Division, which owed military service to the Tower of London. Later, as the East End grew and the Tower Division contracted, the area was notorious for its deep poverty and associated social problems. This has led to the East End’s history of political activism. Another major theme of East End history has been that of migration, Irish weavers, Ashkenazi Jews and, in the 20th century, Bangladeshis. The East End lies east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, Aldgate Pump on the edge of the City is the symbolic start of the East End and, on the river, Tower Bridge is sometimes described in these terms. Beyond these references though, the East End has no official or popularly accepted boundaries, a common preference is to include the modern borough of Tower Hamlets, together with the former parish and borough of Shoreditch.
This version makes the East End conterminous with the Tower Division of Middlesex under the borders that area had in the 19th century when the East End completed the process of urbanisation, an alternative definition is based solely on the modern borough of Tower Hamlets. Parts of the old parish and borough of Hackney are sometimes included, while others include areas east of the Lea such as West Ham, East Ham, knew not the way to the East End. The East End began with the growth of London beyond the walls, along the Roman Roads leading from Bishopsgate and Aldgate. Building accelerated in the 16th century, and the area that would become known East End began to take shape. The relevance of Strypes reference to the Tower was more than geographical, the East End was the major part of an area called the Tower Division, which had its roots in the Bishop of Londons historic Manor of Stepney and owed military service to the Tower of London. Later, as the East End grew and the Tower Division contracted, for a very long time the East End was physically separated from the Londons western growth by the open spaces known as Moorfields.
Shoreditchs boundary with the parish of St Lukes ran through the Moorfields countryside becoming, on urbanisation and that line, with very slight modifications, has become the boundary of the modern London Boroughs of Hackney and Islington. From the beginning, the East End has always contained some of the poorest areas of London, the main reasons for this include the following, the medieval system of copyhold, which prevailed throughout the East End, into the 19th century. Essentially, there was little point in developing land that was held on short leases, the siting of noxious industries, such as tanning and fulling downwind outside the boundaries of the City, and therefore beyond complaints and official controls. Historically, the East End is arguably conterminous with the Manor of Stepney and this manor was held by the Bishop of London, in compensation for his duties in maintaining and garrisoning the Tower of London. Further ecclesiastic holdings came about from the need to enclose the marshes, Edward VI passed the land to the Wentworth family, and thence to their descendants, the Earls of Cleveland
Culture of Bangladesh
The Culture of Bangladesh refers to the way of life of the people of Bangladesh. It has evolved over the centuries and encompasses the cultural diversity of social groups of Bangladesh. The Bengal Renaissance contained the seeds of a nascent political Indian nationalism and was the precursor in many ways to modern Indian artistic, the culture of Bangladesh is composite and over the centuries has assimilated influences of Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. The music and dance styles of Bangladesh may be divided into three categories, classical and modern. Several dancing styles in vogue in the part of the Indian subcontinent, like Manipuri and Santhali dances, are practised. Bangladesh has a tradition of folk songs, with lyrics rooted in vibrant tradition and spirituality, mysticism. Such folk songs revolve around themes, including love. The most prevalent folk songs and music traditions include Bhatiali, Marfati, lyricists like Lalon Shah, Hason Raja, Kangal Harinath, Romesh Shill, Abbas Uddin, and many unknown anonymous lyricists have enriched the tradition of folk songs of Bangladesh.
In a relatively modern context, Robindro Shongit and Nazrul Giti form precious cultural heritage of Bangladesh, western influences have given rise to quality rock bands, particularly in urban centres like Dhaka. Currently, musical instruments of western origin like guitars, the Bangladeshi press is diverse and privately owned. Over 200 newspapers are published in the country, Bangladesh Betar is the state-run radio service. The British Broadcasting Corporation operates the popular BBC Bangla news and current affairs service, Bengali broadcasts from Voice of America are very popular. Bangladesh Television is the television network. There more than 20 privately owned television networks, including several news channels, freedom of the media remains a major concern, due to government attempts at censorship and harassment of journalists. The cinema of Bangladesh dates back to 1898, when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dacca, the first bioscope in the subcontinent was established in Dacca that year.
The Dhaka Nawab Family patronised the production of silent films in the 1920s and 30s. In 1931, the East Bengal Cinematograph Society released the first full-length feature film in Bangladesh, the first feature film in East Pakistan, Mukh O Mukhosh, was released in 1956. During the 1960s, 25–30 films were produced annually in Dacca, by the 2000s, Bangladesh produced 80–100 films a year
London Borough of Tower Hamlets
The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London borough to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames. It is in the part of London and covers much of the traditional East End. It includes much of the redeveloped Docklands region of London, including West India Docks, many of the tallest buildings in London occupy the centre of the Isle of Dogs in the south of the borough. A part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is in Tower Hamlets, the borough has a population of 272,890, which includes one of the highest ethnic minority populations in the country and has an established British Bangladeshi business and residential community. Brick Lanes restaurants, neighbouring street market and shops provide the largest range of Bengali cuisine, carpets, the local authority is Tower Hamlets London Borough Council. The council, as of 2017 comprises 23 Labour Councillors,5 Conservative councillors,18 independent councillors of various affiliation, Tower Hamlets is located to east of the City of London and north of the River Thames in East London.
The London Borough of Hackney lies to the north of the borough while the River Lea forms the boundary with the London Borough of Newham in the east. On the other side of the Thames is The London Borough of Southwark to the southwest, The London Borough of Lewisham to the South, the River Lea forms the boundary between those parts of London historically in Middlesex, with those formerly in Essex. The Regents Canal enters the borough from Hackney to meet the River Thames at Limehouse Basin, a stretch of the Hertford Union Canal leads from the Regents canal, at a basin in the north of Mile End to join the River Lea at Old Ford. A further canal, Limehouse Cut, Londons oldest, leads from locks at Bromley-by-Bow to Limehouse Basin, most of the canal tow-paths are open to both pedestrians and cyclists. Victoria Park was formed by Act of Parliament, and administered by the LCC, since the latter authoritys abolition, the park has been administered by Tower Hamlets. Part of the borough is within the boundary of the Thames Gateway development area, the Hamlets of the Tower paid taxes for the militia in 1646.
The London Borough of Tower Hamlets forms the core of the East End and it lies east of the ancient walled City of London and north of the River Thames. Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, disease, the East End developed rapidly during the 19th century. The area attracted large numbers of people looking for employment. Successive waves of immigration began with Huguenot refugees creating a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century. They were followed by Irish weavers, Ashkenazi Jews and, in the 20th century, many of these immigrants worked in the clothing industry. The abundance of semi- and unskilled labour led to low wages and this brought the attentions of social reformers during the mid-18th century and led to the formation of unions and workers associations at the end of the century
Whitechapel Road is a major arterial road in Whitechapel, Tower Hamlets, in the East End of London. It is named after a chapel of ease dedicated to St Mary. The road is part of the historic Roman Road from London to Colchester, the road had become built up by the 19th century and is now a main shopping district in the Whitechapel area. There is a street market along the road next to Whitechapel tube station. The Whitechapel Bell Foundry and the Royal London Hospital have been based on Whitechapel Road since the 18th century and it remains an important road and is marked with bus lanes, with limited parking. Several ethnic minority communities have centred on Whitechapel Road, the road was a focal point of the Jewish Community from the 1850s to the 1930s, with many Jewish shops and market stalls. Altab Ali Park sits on the site of the church at the western end of Whitechapel Road. The roads name, along with the area, is derived from the original 14th-century White Chapel and it follows the section of the Roman road between Londinium and Camulodunum, which connected to the Pye Road to Venta Icenorum.
The section of the Roman Road that is now Whitechapel Road is a Primary A-road, the A11, owing to the popularity of the market, parking is heavily restricted, limited to occasional parking metered spaces along the road. Cycle Superhighway CS2 runs along Whitechapel Road, the nearest London Underground stations are Whitechapel station and Aldgate East station and the nearest National Rail station is Bethnal Green railway station. A number of local London Buses routes run along Whitechapel Road, the road has been an important thoroughfare and coaching route for centuries. Whitechapel High Street and Whitechapel Road are named as such on John Rocques Map of London,1746, on John Carys Environs of London of 1795 there are properties on both sides of the road. By the ninth edition in 1821, the road is shown as extensively built up, in the mid-19th century, drovers steered livestock from local farms along the road towards Smithfield Market, causing considerable traffic congestion. By the 1870s, the road had become extensively developed with properties along the stretch of the road.
The Freedom Press Bookshop is on Angel Alley, No, 84b Whitechapel High Street, and was established in the 1880s by Peter Kropotkin and Charlotte Wilson as the first publishing house to deal with anarchism and radical publications. The press has been controversial, and was fire-bombed in 2013, the Whitechapel Art Gallery on Whitechapel High Street opened in 1899. It was designed by Charles Harrison Townsend in 1895 and was the first major art gallery in East London and it has shown works of Jackson Pollock, Robert Rauschenberg and David Hockney. It continues to be the centre of the scene in the area
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register