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A bride is a woman, about to be married or, newlywed. When marrying, the bride's future spouse, is referred to as the bridegroom or groom. In Western culture, a bride may be attended by one or more bridesmaids; the word comes from the Old English'bryd', which in turn is derived from the Proto-Germanic verb root *brū-, meaning'to cook, brew, or make a broth,', the role of the daughter-in-law in primitive families.. In Europe and North America, the typical attire for a bride is a veil. In the "white wedding" model, the bride's dress is bought for the wedding, is not in a style that could be worn for any subsequent events; until at least the middle of the 19th century, the bride wore her best dress, whatever color it was, or if the bride was well-off, she ordered a new dress in her favorite color and expected to wear it again. For first marriages in Western countries, a white wedding dress is worn, a tradition started by Queen Victoria, who wore a white court dress for her wedding. Through the earlier parts of the 20th century, Western etiquette prescribed that a white dress should not be worn for subsequent marriages, since the wearing of white was mistakenly regarded by some as an ancient symbol of virginity, despite the fact that wearing white is a recent development in wedding traditions, its origin has more to do with conspicuous consumption from an era when a white dress was luxurious prodigal, because of difficulties with laundering delicate clothes.

Today, Western brides wear white, cream, or ivory dresses for any number of marriages. Outside of Western countries, brides most wear national dress. White wedding dresses are uncommon in Asian traditions, because white is the color of mourning and death in those cultures. In many Asian cultures, red is usual for brides, as this colour indicates vibrance and health and has over time been associated with brides. However, in modern times other colours may be worn. Regardless of colour in most Asian cultures bridal clothes are decorative covered with embroidery, beading or gold. In some traditions brides may wear more than one outfit, this is true for example in Japan, parts of India, archaically, in parts of the Arab world. Particular styles of jewelry are associated with bridal wear, for example wedding rings in most Western cultures, or chura in Punjabi Sikh culture. Hindu brides are presented with a mangalsutra during the wedding ceremony, which has much of the same significance as a wedding ring in other parts of the world.

Wedding jewellery has traditionally been used to demonstrate the value of the bride's dowry. In addition to the gown, brides wear a veil and carry a bouquet of flowers, a small heirloom such as a lucky coin, a prayer book, or other token. In Western countries, a bride may wear "something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue"; the term bride appears in combination with many words. Thus "bridegroom" is a newly married man, "bride-bell," "bride-banquet" are old equivalents of wedding-bells, wedding-breakfast. "Bridal" the wedding-feast itself, has grown into a general descriptive adjective, the bridal ceremony. The bride-cake had its origin in the Roman confarreatio, an upper-class form of marriage, the essential features of whose ceremony were the eating by the couple of a cake made of salt and spelt flour, the holding by the bride of three wheat-ears, a symbol of plenty; the cake-eating went out of fashion. In the Middle Ages they were either carried by the bride, it became the custom for the young girls to assemble outside the church porch and throw grains of wheat over the bride, afterwards a scramble for the grains took place.

In time the wheat-grains came to be cooked into thin dry biscuits, which were broken over the bride's head, as is the custom in Scotland today, an oatmeal cake being used. In Elizabeth's reign these biscuits began to take the form of small rectangular cakes made of eggs, sugar and spices; every wedding guest had one at least, the whole collection were thrown at the bride the instant she crossed the threshold. Those that lighted on her head or shoulders were most prized by the scramblers. At last these cakes became amalgamated into a large one that took on its full glories of almond paste and ornaments during Charles II's time, but today in rural parishes, e.g. north Notts, wheat is thrown over the bridal couple with the cry "Bread for life and pudding for ever," expressive of a wish that the newly wed may be always affluent. The throwing of rice, a ancient custom but one than the wheat, is symbolical of the wish that the bridal may be fruitful; the bride-cup was the bowl or loving-cup in which the bridegroom pledged the bride, she him.

The custom of breaking this wine-cup, after the bridal couple had drained its contents, is common to both the Greek Christians and members of the Jewish faith. It is thrown against trodden under foot; the phrase "bride-cup" was sometimes used of the bowl of spiced wine prepared at night for the bridal couple. Bride-favours, anciently called bride-lace, were at first pieces of gold, silk or other lace, used to bind up the sprigs of rosemary worn at weddings; these took the form of bunches of ribbons, which were at last metamorphosed into rosettes. The bride-wain, the wagon in which the bride was driven to her new home, gave its name to the weddings of any poor deserving couple

Imperia (statue)

Imperia is a statue at the entrance of the harbour of Konstanz, commemorating the Council of Constance that took place there between 1414 and 1418. The concrete statue is 9 metres high, weighs 18 tonnes, stands on a pedestal that rotates around its axis once every four minutes, it was created by Peter Lenk and clandestinely erected in 1993. The erection of the statue caused controversy, but it was on the private property of a rail company that did not object to its presence. Imperia shows a woman holding two men on her hands; the two men represent Emperor Sigismund. Martin V was elected during the Council. Both are naked except for the crown and papal tiara that they wear as symbols of their power; the statue refers to a short story by Balzac, "La Belle Impéria". The story is a harsh satire of the Catholic clergy's morals, where Imperia seduces cardinals and princes at the Council of Constance and has power over them all; the historical Imperia that served as the source material of Balzac's story was a well-educated Italian courtesan who died in 1512, nearly 100 years after the council, never visited Konstanz.

Helmut Weidhase: Imperia. Konstanzer Hafenfigur. Konstanz: Stadler 1997. ISBN 3-7977-0374-0 "Imperia im Hafen Konstanz". Peter Lenk. Retrieved February 22, 2017. Text of Les contes drolatiques by Balzac, including "La belle Impéria" 3D-model of Imperia Imperia: Article and Pictures

The Firemen's Ball

The Firemen's Ball is a 1967 comedy film directed by Miloš Forman. It is set at the annual ball of a small town's volunteer fire department, the plot portrays the series of disasters that occur during the evening; the film uses few professional actors – some firemen portrayed are played by the firemen of the small town where it was filmed. In its portrayal of the prevailing corruption of the local community, the collapse of well-intentioned plans, the film has been interpreted as a satire on the Communist system by foreign film critics; the Firemen's Ball was the last film Forman made in his native Czechoslovakia before going into USA. It is the first film he shot in color, a milestone of the Czechoslovak New Wave; the volunteer fire department in a small Czechoslovak town decides to organize a ball in a townhall with raffle and a beauty pageant. The firefighters plan to present a small ceremonial fire axe as the birthday gift to their retired chairman who has cancer. During the ball, three of the members of the firefighters' committee look for eight candidates for the beauty contest, but they have difficulty finding enough of them.

A man continues to buy drinks for the committee members to persuade them to include his overweight daughter among the candidates. During the ball the raffle prizes start to disappear from fine consumables first. Josef, one of the firefighters, knows the prizes have been stolen, but is unable to recover them, finds out that his wife is involved in the theft. After much trouble, enough candidates for the beauty contest are found, they are told that the winner will present a gift to their honorary chairman after the end of the contest. However, when the contest begins, the girls decide not to participate and lock themselves in the bathroom; the crowd uses force to draw the replacement candidates to the stage. Soon afterwards, the siren sounds. All people begin to leave the townhall without paying for the drinks they consumed. With the fire engine stuck in the snow, the firefighters manage to save some furniture from the house, but are unable to extinguish the fire. To help the old man who lost everything in a fire, the people donate their raffle tickets to him.

However, it is soon discovered all of the prizes had been stolen during the ball. The firefighters order the unknown thieves to return the stolen prizes once they turn off the lights, but during the period of darkness the remaining items are stolen. Realizing this, the firefighters' committee moves backstage to discuss what they can do to save the reputation of the department. Deciding to do nothing, they return to the now empty hall, where only their retired chairman remains; the committee presents him the gift box, but when the box is opened, it turns out that the axe itself has been stolen. After the success of Loves of a Blonde, along with fellow screenwriters Ivan Passer and Jaroslav Papoušek, could not concentrate on their follow-up screenplay and so went to the small north Bohemian town of Vrchlabí to hole up in a hotel and concentrate on writing. "One evening, to amuse ourselves, we went to a real firemen's ball," Forman recalls. "What we saw was such a nightmare that we couldn't stop talking about it.

So we abandoned what we were writing on to start this script."The movie was shot in a typical local Palace of Culture "Na střelnici" in Vrchlabí. Most of the actors were not professional actors. To shoot the natural sound of their voices it was necessary to have silence on-set, so, during the actors' dialogue scenes, the band pretended to play, the dancing couples wore woollen socks or slippers. Forman has commented on the issue of whether his film should be seen as an allegory of the larger society of the time: The film generated considerable controversy on its release. Among other things, fire companies across Czechoslovakia protested that the film was an attack on their integrity, to the extent that Forman and his team felt obliged to tour the country dispelling this literal reading; the Czechoslovak Communist party members took exception to the film's cynical tone. However the film became a big hit in Czechoslovak cinemas. Carlo Ponti, the film's Italian producer took umbrage at the film and pulled his financing, leaving Forman to face a possible 10 years imprisonment for "economic damage to the state".

Forman drove from London to Paris to meet Claude Lelouch who once promised him he'd buy international rights for any movie Forman would make. Unfortunatelly at that time Lelouche was in Morroco. By chance Forman met with Claude Berri who contacted François Truffaut and after watching the movie they both agreed to buy the international rights. Contrary to many claims the film wasn't banned in Czechoslovkia and was broadcast on Czechoslovak Television in May 1969; the film was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 41st Academy Awards. The film was listed to compete at the 1968 Cannes Film Festival, but the festival was cancelled due to the events of May 1968 in France. List of submissions to the 41st Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Czechoslovakia submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film The Firemen's Ball on IMDb The Firemen's Ball at AllMovie The Firemen's Ball an essay by J. Hoberman at the Criterion Collection

Yorkshire Sculpture Park

The Yorkshire Sculpture Park is an open-air gallery in West Bretton near Wakefield in West Yorkshire, showing work by British and international artists, including Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth. The park's collection of works by Moore is one of the largest open-air displays of his bronzes in Europe; the sculpture park occupies the 500-acre parkland of Bretton Hall and straddles the border of West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Sculpture Park, opened in 1977, was the UK's first sculpture park based on the temporary open air exhibitions organised in London parks from the 1940s to 1970s by the Arts Council and London County Council. The'gallery without walls' has a changing exhibition programme, rather than permanent display as seen in other UK sculpture parks such as Grizedale Forest; the park is situated in the grounds of Bretton Hall, an 18th-century estate, a family home until the mid 20th century when it became Bretton Hall College. Follies, landscape features and architectural structures from the 18th century can be seen around the park including the deer park and deer shelter, an ice house, a camellia house.

Artists working at YSP, such as Andy Goldsworthy in 2007, take their inspiration from its architectural, historical or natural environment. Since the 1990s, Yorkshire Sculpture Park has made use of indoor exhibition spaces a Bothy Gallery and a temporary tent-like structure called the Pavilion Gallery. After an extensive refurbishment and expansion, YSP has added an underground gallery space in the Bothy garden, exhibition spaces at Longside, its programme consists of modern sculpture. British sculpture is well represented in the past exhibition programme and semi-permanent installations. Many British sculptors prominent in the 1950s and 1960s have been the subject of solo exhibitions at YSP, including Lynn Chadwick, Austin Wright, Phillip King, Eduardo Paolozzi, Hans Josephsohn, Kenneth Armitage. Exhibitions tend to be monographic -- rather than thematic; the redundant Grade II* listed St Bartholomew's Chapel, West Bretton built by William Wentworth in 1744 has been restored as gallery space.

Longside Gallery is a space for sculpture overlooking Yorkshire Sculpture Park. The Arts Council Collection and Yorkshire Sculpture Park share Longside Gallery for an alternating programme of exhibitions. Between exhibitions, Longside Gallery is used for outreach activities and events. In July 2019, the new visitor centre housing a gallery and shop, made the shortlist for the Stirling Prize for excellence in architecture. List of sculpture parks Yorkshire Sculpture Park website Arts Council case study on the Yorkshire Sculpture Park

2015–16 Jackson State Tigers basketball team

The 2015–16 Jackson State Tigers basketball team represented Jackson State University during the 2015–16 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Tigers, led by third year head coach Wayne Brent, played their home games at the Williams Assembly Center and were members of the Southwestern Athletic Conference, they finished the season 12 -- 6 in SWAC play to finish in third place. They defeated Prairie View A&M and Mississippi Valley State to advance to the championship game of the SWAC Tournament where they lost to Southern, they were invited to the Tournament where they defeated Sam Houston State in the first round to advance to the second round where they lost to Grand Canyon

Lake Louise, Alaska

Lake Louise is a census-designated place in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, United States. Although it is an isolated settlement and is close to Glennallen, it is considered part of the Anchorage, Alaska Metropolitan Statistical Area like all other locations in the Mat-Su Borough. At the 2010 census the population was 46, down from 88 in 2000; the first recorded name of Lake Louise was Shosubenich, which means "great flat water with many islands". Lake Louise was named Lake Adah after a girlfriend of Lieutenant Castner. Captain Edwin Glenn changed the name to Lake Louise in honor of his wife; the U. S. Army established a recreation facility at the lake towards the end of World War II and built the first road into the area. Lake Louise road runs about 20 miles from the Glenn Highway to the lake. There are still several dilapidated cabins at the "Army Point" campground, including one, used for four days by General Dwight D. Eisenhower before he was president; the lake is home to the Lake Louise State Recreation Area.

Lake Louise is located at 62°17′4″N 146°33′25″W. Lake Louise is located between four mountain ranges: The Wrangell, Talkeetna and Alaska Ranges. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 74.2 square miles, of which, 47.9 square miles of it is land and 26.4 square miles of it is water. There are many small islands at the south end of the lake. There are several private resorts and marinas, a state recreation area with campgrounds and a boat launch. Lake Louise first appeared on the 2000 U. S. Census as a census-designated place; as of the census of 2000, there were 88 people, 41 households, 25 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1.8 people per square mile. There were 255 housing units at an average density of 5.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 10.23 % Native American. There were 41 households out of which 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 2.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.0% were non-families.

24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.64. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 1.1% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 46.6% from 45 to 64, 8.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 135.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $5,000, the median income for a family was $43,750. Males had a median income of $3,750 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $11,057. There were no families and 56.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. The Lake Louise State Recreation Area has a large campground, boat launch, picnic areas, as well as a trail leading to the hilltop where the Army's original recreation area's cabins still stand, although in a state of severe disrepair.

Visitors can expect to see a wide variety of wildlife, including the only known freshwater nesting site for cormorants, located on Bird Island. In the fall the Nelchina caribou herd passes through this area; the fishing in the lake is considered excellent, with a variety of freshwater fish, including lake trout and burbot