Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. Operettas have similarities to both operas and musicals, the boundaries between the genres are sometimes blurred. For instance, American composer Scott Joplin insisted that his serious but ragtime-influenced work Treemonisha was an opera, but some reference works characterize it as an operetta; some of Leonard Bernstein's works he designated as operas are categorized as operettas, his operetta Candide is sometimes considered a musical. Operettas are shorter than operas, are of a light and amusing character. Operettas are considered less "serious" than operas. While an opera's story is believable and more relatable to its audience, an operetta aims to amuse. Topical satire is a feature common to many operettas. However, satire is used in some "serious" operas as well: Formerly, in countries such as France, operas expressed politics in code – for example, the circumstances of the title character in the opera Robert le diable referred, at its first performance, to the French king's parental conflict and its resolution.
Some of the libretto of an operetta is spoken rather than sung. Instead of moving from one musical number to another, the musical segments – e.g. aria, chorus – are interspersed with periods of dialogue. There is no musical accompaniment to the dialogue, although sometimes some musical themes are played under it. Short passages of recitative are, sometimes used in operetta as an introduction to a song; the operetta is a precursor of the modern musical theatre or the "musical". In the early decades of the 20th century, the operetta continued to exist alongside the newer musical, with each influencing the other; the main difference between the two genres is that most operettas can be described as light operas with acting, whereas most musicals are plays with singing and dancing. This can be seen in the performers chosen in the two forms. An operetta's cast will consist of classically trained opera singers. A musical may use actors who are not operatically trained, the principals are called upon to dance.
These distinctions can be blurred: Ezio Pinza, Paulo Szot, Renée Fleming and other opera singers have appeared on Broadway and Broadway musicals have been remounted in opera houses. There are features of Hammerstein's Show Boat, among others; the characters in a musical may be more complex than those in an operetta, given the larger amount of dialogue. For example, the characters in Lerner and Loewe's musical My Fair Lady – based on George Bernard Shaw's 1914 play Pygmalion – are unchanged from those in Shaw's stage work, because the musical version is quite faithful to the original to the point of retaining most of Shaw's dialogue. Man of la Mancha, adapted by Dale Wasserman from his own ninety-minute television play I, Don Quixote, retains much of the dialogue in that play, cutting only enough to make room for the musical numbers which were added when the play was converted into a stage musical. Operetta grew out of the French opéra comique around the middle of the 19th century, to satisfy a need for short, light works in contrast to the full-length entertainment of the serious opéra comique.
By this time, the "comique" part of the genre name had become misleading: Georges Bizet's Carmen is an example of an opéra comique with a tragic plot. The definition of "comique" meant something closer to "humanistic," meant to portray "real life" in a more realistic way, representing tragedy and comedy next to each other, as Shakespeare had done centuries earlier. With this new connotation, opéra comique had dominated the French operatic stage since the decline of tragédie lyrique. Most researchers acknowledge that the credit for creating the operetta form should go to Hervé, a singer, librettist and scene painter. In 1842 he wrote the little opérette, L'Ours et le pacha, based on the popular vaudeville by Eugène Scribe and X. B. Saintine. In 1848, Hervé made his first notable appearance on the Parisian stage, with Don Quichotte et Sancho Pança, which can be considered the starting point for the new French musical theatre tradition. Hervé's most famous works are the Gounod-parody Le petit Mam ` zelle Nitouche.
Jacques Offenbach further developed and popularized operetta, giving it its enormous vogue during the Second Empire and afterwards. Offenbach's earliest one-act pieces included Les deux aveugles, Le violoneux and Ba-ta-clan, his first full-length operetta success was Orphée aux enfers; these led to the so-called "Offenbachiade": works including Geneviève de Brabant 1859, Le pont des soupirs 1861, La belle Hélène 1864, Barbe-bleue and La Vie parisienne both 1866, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein 1867, La Périchole 1868 and Les brigands 1869. Offenbach's tradition was carried on by Emmanuel Chabrier, Robert Planquette, André Messager, others. What characterizes Offenbach's operettas is both the grotesque way they portray life, the frivolous way this is done bordering on the pornographic. Émile Zola describes the back-stage and on-stage situation in the Théâtre des Variétés during the Second Empire in his novel Nana, which takes place in late 1860s and describes the career of operetta diva/courtesan Nana.
The character was modeled after Offenbach's female star Hortense Schneider, Offenbach's librettist Ludovic Halévy gave Émile Zola the details. Considering how Zola's Nana describes an Offenbach-style operetta performance in Paris, it is not surprising that the male, upper-class audience crowded the various the
Pre-Code Hollywood refers to the brief era in the American film industry between the widespread adoption of sound in pictures in 1929 and the enforcement of the Motion Picture Production Code censorship guidelines, popularly known as the "Hays Code", in mid-1934. Although the Code was adopted in 1930, oversight was poor, it did not become rigorously enforced until July 1, 1934, with the establishment of the Production Code Administration. Before that date, movie content was restricted more by local laws, negotiations between the Studio Relations Committee and the major studios, popular opinion, than by strict adherence to the Hays Code, ignored by Hollywood filmmakers; as a result, some films in the late 1920s and early 1930s depicted or implied sexual innuendo, mild profanity, illegal drug use, prostitution, abortion, intense violence, homosexuality. Strong female characters were ubiquitous in such pre-Code films as Female, Baby Face, Red-Headed Woman. Gangsters in films like The Public Enemy, Little Caesar, Scarface were seen by many as heroic rather than evil.
Along with featuring stronger female characters, films examined female subject matters that would not be revisited until decades in US films. Nefarious characters were seen to profit from their deeds, in some cases without significant repercussions, drug use was a topic of several films. Many of Hollywood's biggest stars such as Clark Gable, Barbara Stanwyck, Joan Blondell, Edward G. Robinson got their start in the era. Other stars who excelled during this period, like Ruth Chatterton and Warren William, would wind up forgotten by the general public within a generation. Beginning in late 1933 and escalating throughout the first half of 1934, American Roman Catholics launched a campaign against what they deemed the immorality of American cinema. This, plus a potential government takeover of film censorship and social research seeming to indicate that movies which were seen to be immoral could promote bad behavior, was enough pressure to force the studios to capitulate to greater oversight. In 1922, after some risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder William H.
"Will" Hays, a figure of unblemished rectitude. Hays nicknamed the motion picture "Czar", was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities." Hollywood mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula" in 1924, which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning; the Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before, such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916, little had come of the efforts.
In 1929, an American Roman Catholic layman Martin Quigley, editor of the prominent trade paper Motion Picture Herald, Father Daniel A. Lord, a Jesuit priest, created a code of standards, submitted it to the studios. Lord's concerns centered on the effects sound film had on children, whom he considered susceptible to their allure. Several studio heads, including Irving Thalberg of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, met with Lord and Quigley in February 1930. After some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the main motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention, it was the responsibility of the Studio Relations Committee, headed by Colonel Jason S. Joy, to supervise film production and advise the studios when changes or cuts were required; the Code was divided into two parts. The first was a set of "general principles" which concerned morality; the second was a set of "particular applications", an exacting list of items that could not be depicted.
Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or the use of specific curse words, were never directly mentioned but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation. Miscegenation, the mixing of the races, was forbidden, it stated that the notion of an "adults-only policy" would be a dubious, ineffective strategy that would be difficult to enforce. However, it did allow that "maturer minds may understand and accept without harm subject matter in plots which does younger people positive harm." If children were supervised and the events implied elliptically, the code allowed what Brandeis University cultural historian Thomas Doherty called "the possibility of a cinematically inspired thought crime". The Code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen, but to promote traditional values. Sexual relations outside of marriage could not be portrayed as attractive and beautiful, presented in a way that might arouse passion, nor be made to seem right and permissible. All criminal action had to be punish
Corinne Mae Griffith was an American film actress and author. Dubbed The Orchid Lady of the Screen, she was one of the most popular film actresses of the 1920s and considered the most beautiful actress of the silent screen, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in The Divine Lady. Shortly after the advent of sound film, Griffith retired from acting and became a successful author and businesswoman. A biographical film about her life was released in 1963 titled Papa's Delicate Condition, based on her memoir and focusing on the relationship between her and her father. Griffith was born in Texarkana, Texas to John Lewis Griffin and Ambolina Ghio, she attended Sacred Heart Convent school in New Orleans and worked as a dancer before she began her acting career. Griffith began her screen career at the Vitagraph Studios in 1916, she moved to First National, where she became one of their most popular stars. In 1928, she had the starring role in The Garden of Eden; the next year, in 1929, Griffith received an Academy Award nomination for her role in The Divine Lady.
Griffith's first sound film, Lilies of the Field, was released in 1930. Griffith's voice did not record well, the film was a box office flop. After appearing in one more Hollywood picture, Back Pay in 1930, a British film Lily Christine in 1932, she retired from acting, she returned to the screen in 1962 in the low-budget melodrama Paradise Alley, which received scant release. Griffith was one of the few film stars to move into new careers once her stardom had ended, she was an accomplished writer who published eleven books including two best sellers, My Life with the Redskins and the memoir Papa's Delicate Condition, made into a 1963 film starring Jackie Gleason about the Ghio and Griffin family. Her actual family names were used in the film, her ventures into real estate were successful. Griffith was a member of the Christian Science religion. While married to Washington Redskins owner George Preston Marshall, she introduced NFL Commissioner Bert Bell to his future wife, she introduced Curly Lambeau to his second and third wives.
All were old friends from her film career. She was a California Republican Committee Woman and an early advocate for the career of Richard Nixon, she was an old friend of FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, she was the long time consort to Curly Lambeau, who recommended various methods for operating a pro football team. Lambeau recommended Sammy Baugh as quarterback and the T formation, she arranged for her husband to hire Lambeau as coach. Griffith was married four times and produced no children but adopted two girls and Cynthia, she was married to actor and frequent co-star Webster Campbell from 1920 to 1923, producer Walter Morosco from 1924 to 1934, George Preston Marshall from 1936 to 1958. During her marriage to Marshall, she composed the lyrics to the Redskins fight song "Hail to the Redskins" which became one of the most famous football anthems. In 1965, she married and divorced her fourth husband, Broadway actor Danny Scholl. Scholl was 45, more than 25 years Griffith's junior. In court she testified that she was not Corinne Griffith.
She claimed that she was the actress's younger sister who had taken her place upon the famous sister's death. Contradictory testimony by actresses Betty Blythe and Claire Windsor, who had both known her since the 1920s, did not shake her story. In 1974, Adele Whitely Fletcher, editor of Photoplay, said Griffith was still claiming that she was her own younger sister. On July 13, 1979, Griffith died of heart failure in Santa Monica, aged 84. For her contributions to the motion picture industry, Griffith has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1560 Vine Street. Tom Tryon wrote a novella, based on Griffith's claim that she had taken the place of the real actress. 1947 My Life with the Redskins – history of the Washington Redskins football team, owned by her husband, George Marshall 1952 Papa's Delicate Condition – memoir of her childhood 1955 Eggs I Have Known – collection of recipes 1961 Antiques I Have Known – book about her interest in antiques 1962 Taxation Without Representation – Griffith's argument against taxes.
1963 I Can't Boil Water – collection of recipes she obtained from famous restaurants 1963 Hollywood Stories – collection of short fiction written by Griffith 1964 Truth is Stranger – collection of true stories and anecdotes told by Griffith that struck her as stranger than any fiction 1969 Not For Men Only – But Almost – a book on sports and its lack of appeal for most women 1972 This You Won't Believe – another collection similar to "Truth is Stranger" 1974 I'm Lucky at Cards – a book of various essays by Griffith Corinne Griffith photographed by Alfred Cheney Johnston List of actors with Academy Award nominations Film portal Notes Bibliography Dallas Morning News, "Griffin-Ghio: Notable Social Event at Texarkana Presents Numerous and Costly.", July 8, 1887. Dallas Morning News, "Texarkana Girl Joins Movies: Miss Corinne Griffin Becomes Prominent in Picture While in California.", November 20, 1915. 1900 United States Federal Census, Waco Ward 4, McLennan, June 7, 1900, Enumeration District 78, Sheet 18A.
1910 United States Federal Census, Texarkana Ward 1, Texas, April 30, 1910, Enumeration District 4, Sheet 2B. California Death Index 1940–1997, Ancestry.com. Charleston Daily Mail, "Star Gazing at Corinne Griffith", August 25, 1929, p. 21. Corinne Griffith on IMDb Corinne Griffith at Find a Grave Corinne Griffith at Women Film Pioneers Project Phot
A silhouette is the image of a person, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single color black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject. The interior of a silhouette is featureless, the hole is presented on a light background white, or none at all; the silhouette differs from an outline, which depicts the edge of an object in a linear form, while a silhouette appears as a solid shape. Silhouette images may be created in any visual artistic media, but were first used to describe pieces of cut paper, which were stuck to a backing in a contrasting colour, framed. Cutting portraits in profile, from black card became popular in the mid-18th century, though the term silhouette was used until the early decades of the 19th century, the tradition has continued under this name into the 21st century, they represented a cheap but effective alternative to the portrait miniature, skilled specialist artists could cut a high-quality bust portrait, by far the most common style, in a matter of minutes, working purely by eye.
Other artists from about 1790, drew an outline on paper painted it in, which could be quick. From its original graphic meaning, the term silhouette has been extended to describe the sight or representation of a person, object or scene, backlit, appears dark against a lighter background. Anything that appears this way, for example, a figure standing backlit in a doorway, may be described as "in silhouette"; because a silhouette emphasises the outline, the word has been used in the fields of fashion and fitness to describe the shape of a person's body or the shape created by wearing clothing of a particular style or period. The word silhouette is derived from the name of Étienne de Silhouette, a French finance minister who, in 1759, was forced by France's credit crisis during the Seven Years' War to impose severe economic demands upon the French people the wealthy; because of de Silhouette's austere economies, his name became synonymous with anything done or made cheaply and so with these outline portraits.
Prior to the advent of photography, silhouette profiles cut from black card were the cheapest way of recording a person's appearance. The term silhouette, although existing from the 18th century, was not applied to the art of portrait-making until the 19th century. In the 18th and early 19th century, “profiles” or “shades” as they were called were made by one of three methods: painted on ivory, paper, card, or in reverse on glass; the silhouette is tied in mythology to the origins of art. Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History Books XXXIV and XXXV, recounts the origin of painting. In Chapter 5 of Book XXXV, he writes, “We have no certain knowledge as to the commencement of the art of painting, nor does this enquiry fall under our consideration; the Egyptians assert that it was invented among themselves, six thousand years before it passed into Greece. As to the Greeks, some say that it was invented at others at Corinth. In Chapter 15, he tells the story of Butades of Corinth: “Butades, a potter of Sicyon, was the first who invented, at Corinth, the art of modelling portraits in the earth which he used in his trade.
It was through his daughter. Upon seeing this, her father filled in the outline, by compressing clay upon the surface, so made a face in relief, which he hardened by fire along with other articles of pottery.” In accord with the myth, Greek Black-figure pottery painting known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic employs the silhouette and characteristic profile views of figures and objects on pottery forms. The pots themselves exhibit strong forms in outline that are indicators of their purpose, as well as being decorative. For the depiction of portraits, the profile image has marked advantage over a full-face image in many circumstances, because it depends upon the proportions and relationship of the bony structures of the face making the image is clear and simple. For this reason profile portraits have been employed on coinage since the Roman era; the early Renaissance period saw a fashion for painted profile portraits and people such as Federico da Montefeltro and Ludovico Sforza were depicted in profile portraits.
The profile portrait is linked to the silhouette. Recent research at Stanford University indicates that where previous studies of face recognition have been based on frontal views, studies with silhouettes show humans are able to extract accurate information about gender and age from the silhouette alone; this is an important concept for artists who design characters for visual media, because the silhouette is the most recognisable and identifiable shape of the character. A silhouette portrait can be drawn. However, the traditional method of creating silhouette portraits is to cut them from lightweight black cardboard, mount them on a pale background; this was the work of specialist artists workin
Douglas Fairbanks Jr.
Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr. was an American actor and producer, a decorated naval officer of World War II. He is best known for starring in such films as The Prisoner of Zenda, Gunga Din and The Corsican Brothers, he was once married to Joan Crawford. Douglas Elton Fairbanks Jr. was born in New York City. His paternal grandfather was Jewish. Fairbanks's father was one of cinema's first icons, noted for such swashbuckling adventure films as The Mark of Zorro, Robin Hood and The Thief of Bagdad. Fairbanks had small roles in his father's films The Three Musketeers, his parents divorced when he was nine years old, both remarried. He lived with his mother in New York, California and London. On the basis of his father's name, in May 1923 Fairbanks Jr. was given a contract with Paramount Pictures at age 13, at $1,000 a week for three years. He was signed by Jesse L. Lasky who said the junior Fairbanks "is the typical American boy at his best" and said it was he be starred on a film about Tom Sawyer."I do not think it is the right thing for the boy to do," said his father.
"I want to see him continue his education. He is only 13 years old." The young actor was mobbed. Tom Sawyer was not made. Instead Fairbanks Jnr appeared; the film was not a hit. Paramount and he parted ways by mutual consent and Doug went to Paris to resume his studies. A year he returned to the studio, hired at what Fairbanks called "starvation wages" having him work as a camera assistant."I was anxious to build my career as an actor and painstakingly," he said. "I don't want to be a young blonde leading man with an aquiline nose and shiny white teeth."Paramount gave him supporting roles in The Air Mail and Wild Horse Mesa. Sam Goldwyn borrowed him to play the juvenile in Stella Dallas, which wound up being his first box office success, he had supporting roles in Paramount's The American Venus, Padlocked. At Warner Bros. Fairbanks was in Broken Hearts of Hollywood at Metropolitan Pictures, he was in Man Bait. At MGM he was in Edmund Goulding's Women Love Diamonds and for Alfred E. Green at Fox he was in Is Zat So?.
He supported Will Rogers in A Texas Steer. In 1927 Fairbanks made his stage debut in Young Woodley based on a book by John Van Druten. Fairbanks Jr received excellent reviews and the production was a success - the play did much to improve his reputation in Hollywood. A regular audience member was Joan Crawford with, he appeared in a stage production of Saturday's Children. Fairbanks' second lead role was in Dead Man's Curve for FBO, he was Helene Chadwick's leading man in Modern Mothers at Columbia and he starred in The Toilers for Tiffany. Fairbanks starred in another for The Power of the Press, directed by Frank Capra, he went back to supporting roles for The Barker at First National, his first "talkie" and A Woman of Affairs at MGM with Greta Garbo and John Gilbert. Fairbanks had another starring role at FBO with The Jazz Age and received top billing over Loretta Young in Fast Life at Warner Bros, he appeared in MGM's Our Modern Maidens opposite Crawford. First National gave Fairbanks a starring role in The Careless Age and he was reunited with Young in The Forward Pass.
He was one of many names in The Show of Shows. In September 1929 he returned to the stage in a production of The Youngest. Victor Halperin cast Fairbanks in the lead of Party Girl back at First National he did a third with Young, Loose Ankles. In 1930, Fairbanks Jr. went to Warner Bros. to test for the second lead in Moby Dick. Although he did not win the part, head of production Darryl F. Zanuck was impressed with Douglas's screen test, cast him in an important role in The Dawn Patrol directed by Howard Hawks. Universal borrowed him to have the lead role in Little Accident and at Warners he was in the lead in The Sin Flood, he supported Leslie Howard in the prestigious Outward Bound and was Billie Dove's leading man in One Night at Susie's. Fairbanks had an excellent role supporting Edward G. Robinson in Little Caesar, filmed in August 1930. "We knew it was going to be good when we were making it but not that it would become a classic", he said. The movie was a big hit, Warner Bros. offered Fairbanks Jr. a contract with cast and script approval — a condition which, Fairbanks Jr. says, was only offered to one other actor at the studio, Richard Barthelmess.""By sheer accident, I had four successes in a row in the early'30s, although I was still in my 20s, I demanded and received approval of cast and director.
I don't know how I got away with it, but I did!"Because he spoke French he was put in L'aviateur. Back in Hollywood he was in Changes and I Like Your Nerve with Young. In June 1931 he starred in another play The Man in Possession which he produced along with Sid Graumann. Fairbanks Jnr said he wanted to stay away from costume adventures which were associated with his father, he starred in two for Alfred E Green, Gentleman for a Day with Joan Blondell and It's Tough to Be Famous. He starred in a film shot in L'athlète incomplet, he starred in Love Is Scarlet Dawn for William Dieterle. Fairbanks did another with Green, Parachute Jumper, which gave an early co starring role to Bette Davis. Fairbanks sta
Frederick Lonsdale was a British playwright known for his librettos to several successful musicals early in the 20th century, including King of Cadonia, The Balkan Princess, The Maid of the Mountains, Monsieur Beaucaire and Madame Pompadour. He wrote comedy plays, including The Last of Mrs. Cheyney and On Approval and the murder melodrama But for the Grace of God; some of his plays and musicals were made into films, he wrote a few screenplays. Lonsdale was born Lionel Frederick Leonard in St Helier, the son of Susan and John Henry Leonard, a tobacconist, he worked for the London and South Western Railway. His daughters included Angela Worthington and his daughter and biographer Frances Donaldson, while his grandsons included the actors Edward Fox and James Fox, the film producer Robert Fox. Frank Curzon produced the musical King of Cadonia. Lonsdale's more substantial than usual dialogue for the show's Ruritanian comic opera plot won King of Cadonia fine notices and helped the musical to a long career.
His next success was for Curzon, The Balkan Princess. Lonsdale's next success was five years for George Edwardes, with Betty. Following Edwardes's death, he submitted to Edwardes' executor, Robert Evett, a text that Curzon had rejected, The Maid of the Mountains, which became one of the phenomenally successful wartime shows in London, establishing itself as a classic of the British musical stage. Lonsdale continued to write some musicals after the war, he adapted Booth Tarkington's Monsieur Beaucaire as a successful light opera and Jean Gilbert's Die Frau im Hermelin and Katja, die Tänzerin, as well as Leo Fall's Madame Pompadour. He wrote the successful original book to the Parisian tale of The Street Singer for Phyllis Dare and Lady Mary, he began to write straight comedies, his plays included Aren't We All?, Spring Cleaning, The Last of Mrs. Cheyney, On Approval, Canaries Sometimes Sing and Let Them Eat Cake among others. In 1946 he had a further West End hit with the murder melodrama But for the Grace of God.
His last play, The Way Things Go, was written in 1949, more than 40 years after his first stage work and five years before his death in London from a heart attack. It was staged in 1950 with a cast including Kenneth More and Glynis Johns and ran for 155 performances in the West End; the Fast Set, directed by William C. deMille A Kiss in the Dark, directed by Frank Tuttle The Fake, directed by Georg Jacoby The Last of Mrs. Cheyney, directed by Sidney Franklin The Lady of Scandal, directed by Sidney Franklin On Approval, directed by Tom Walls Canaries Sometimes Sing, directed by Tom Walls Women Who Play, directed by Arthur Rosson Aren't We All?, directed by Harry Lachman The Maid of the Mountains, directed by Lupino Lane Leave It to Smith, directed by Tom Walls The Last of Mrs. Cheyney, directed by Richard Boleslawski On Approval, directed by Clive Brook The Law and the Lady, directed by Edwin H. Knopf The Last of Mrs. Cheyney, directed by Franz Josef Wild The Devil to Pay! Lovers Courageous Bad Subject - Italian remake of The Devil to Pay!
The Private Life of Don Juan Biography: Donaldson, F: Freddy Lonsdale Aren't We all full text on internet archive Let them eat cake full text on internet archive The last of Mrs Cheney full text on gutenberg Works by Frederick Lonsdale at Faded Page Works by or about Frederick Lonsdale at Internet Archive Biography of Lonsdale Frederick Lonsdale at the Internet Broadway Database "Profile of Lonsdale including information about his comedies". Archived from the original on 1 June 2004. Retrieved 2004-06-01. Frederick Lonsdale on IMDb
Myrna Loy was an American film and stage actress. Trained as a dancer, Loy devoted herself to an acting career following a few minor roles in silent films, she was typecast in exotic roles as a vamp or a woman of Asian descent, but her career prospects improved following her portrayal of Nora Charles in The Thin Man. Born in Helena, Loy was raised in rural Radersburg throughout her early childhood, before relocating to Los Angeles with her mother in her early adolescence. There, she began studying dance, trained extensively throughout her high school education, she was discovered by production designer Natacha Rambova, who helped facilitate film auditions for her, she began obtaining small roles in the late 1920s portraying vamps. Her role in The Thin Man helped elevate her reputation as a versatile actress, she reprised the role of Nora Charles five more times. Loy's career began to slow in the 1940s, she appeared in only a few films in the 1950s, including a lead role in the comedy Cheaper by the Dozen, as well as supporting parts in The Ambassador's Daughter and the drama Lonelyhearts.
She would go on to appear in only eight films between 1960 and 1981, after which she formally retired from acting. Although Loy was never nominated for a competitive Academy Award, in March 1991 she was presented with an Honorary Academy Award in recognition of her life's work both onscreen and off, including serving as assistant to the director of military and naval welfare for the Red Cross during World War II, a member-at-large of the U. S. Commission to UNESCO. Loy died in December 1993 in New York City, aged 88. Loy was born Myrna Adele Williams on August 2, 1905, in Helena, the daughter of Adelle Mae and rancher David Franklin Williams, her parents had married in Helena in 1904, one year before Loy was born. She had David Frederick Williams. Loy's paternal grandfather, David Thomas Williams, was Welsh, immigrated from Liverpool, England to the United States in 1856, arriving in Philadelphia. Unable to read or write in English, he settled in the Montana Territory where he began a career as a rancher.
Loy's maternal grandparents were Swedish immigrants. During her childhood, her father worked as a banker, real estate developer, farmland appraiser in Helena, was the youngest man elected to the Montana state legislature, her mother had studied music at the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago, at one time considered a career as a concert performer, but instead devoted her time to raising Loy and her brother. Loy's mother was a lifelong Democrat, she was raised in the Methodist faith. Loy spent her early life in Radersburg, Montana, a rural mining community 50 miles southeast of Helena. During the winter of 1912, Loy's mother nearly died from pneumonia, her father sent his wife and daughter to La Jolla, California. Loy's mother saw great potential in Southern California, during one of her husband's visits, she encouraged him to purchase real estate there. Among the properties he bought was land he sold at a considerable profit to Charlie Chaplin so the filmmaker could construct his studio there.
Although her mother tried to persuade her husband to move to California permanently, he preferred ranch life and the three returned to Montana. Soon afterward, Loy's mother needed a hysterectomy and insisted Los Angeles was a safer place to have it done, so she and Loy's brother David moved to Ocean Park, where Loy began to take dancing lessons. After the family returned to Montana, Loy continued her dancing lessons, at the age of 12, Myrna Williams made her stage debut performing a dance she had choreographed based on "The Blue Bird" from the Rose Dream operetta at Helena's Marlow Theater. After the November 1918 death of Loy's father from the 1918 flu pandemic, Loy's mother permanently relocated the family to California, where they settled in Culver City. Loy attended the exclusive Westlake School for Girls while continuing to study dance in downtown Los Angeles; when her teachers objected to her extracurricular participation in theatrical arts, her mother enrolled her in Venice High School, at 15, she began appearing in local stage productions.
In 1921, Loy posed for Venice High School sculpture teacher Harry Fielding Winebrenner for the central figure "Inspiration" in his allegorical sculpture group Fountain of Education. Completed in 1922, the sculpture group was installed in front of the campus outdoor pool in May 1923 where it stood for decades. Loy's slender figure with her uplifted face and one arm extending skyward presented a "vision of purity, youthful vigor, aspiration", singled out in a Los Angeles Times story that included a photo of the "Inspiration" figure along with the model's name—the first time her name appeared in a newspaper. A few months Loy's "Inspiration" figure was temporarily removed from the sculpture group and transported aboard the battleship Nevada for a Memorial Day pageant in which "Miss Myrna Williams" participated. Fountain of Education can be seen in the opening scenes of the 1978 film Grease. After decades of exposure to the elements and vandalism, the original concrete statue was removed from display in 2002, replaced in 2010 by a bronze duplicate paid for through an alumni-led fundraising campaign.
Loy left school at the age of 18 to help with the family's finances. She obtained work at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre, where she performed in elaborate musical sequences that were related to and served as prologues for the feature film. During this period, she saw Eleonora Duse in the