Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Westerwood is an area in the north-east of Cumbernauld in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It was the site of a Roman Fort of which a video reconstruction has been produced. In the past two decades, new housing developments have been built around the Westerwood Hotel and Golf Course; the golf complex is owned by Aprirose since they acquired QHotels in October 2017. The hotel's internationally award winning spa cost more than half a million pounds. In October 2018, after a 1.3 million pound refurbishment, the resort re-opened as DoubleTree by Hilton Glasgow Westerwood Spa and Golf Resort in a franchise agreement between Aprirose and Hilton Hotels. The golf course, designed by Seve Ballesteros and Dave Thomas, is located on the north side of the town, close to Cumbernauld Airport. Westerwood Community Council was set up for local residents and a committee has been appointed. Neighbouring villages which are outside of Cumbernauld include Dullatur to the north-west and Castlecary to the east. Westerwood is the site of a Roman Fort on the Antonine Wall.
Its neighbouring forts were Croy Hill to Castlecary to the east. At Tollpark, is one of the best preserved continuous sections of the whole Wall, between the forts of Castlecary and Westerwood. There may have been a signal tower at Garnhall from where both Westerwood and Castlecary forts are to have been visible. A kissing gate behind Castlecary Hotel provides access to this section of the wall to the east. Parking for the section of the wall to the west can be found at Dullatur or Croy. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is likely to have been large communities of civilians around the site. Westerwood was excavated in 1932 by Sir George Macdonald, it was excavated in 1974 and 1985-8. Finds near Westerwood include a distance slab depicting a sea-deity and a naked, captive and an uninscribed altar which were found at Arniebog.
The slab can now be viewed at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow. Other artefacts include a diamond patterned a grey, buff jar. A religious stone showed a relief of an engorged phallus over the inscription EX VOTO "the result of a vow", it has since been lost. It had a second inscription: NVX "the night". A centurion called Verecundus, his wife, dedicated an altar to Silvanus and the Sky, recovered at Westerwood. Pottery found at Westerwood is unlike any other pottery found on the Antonine Wall, it has been suggested that the course pottery was made locally by a single potter at Westerwood
Molding or moulding is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix. This itself may have been made using a model of the final object. A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block, filled with a liquid or pliable material such as plastic, metal, or ceramic raw material; the liquid hardens or sets inside the mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the counterpart to a cast; the common bi-valve molding process uses two molds, one for each half of the object. Articulated moulds have multiple pieces that come together to form the complete mold, disassemble to release the finished casting. Piece-molding uses a number of different molds, each creating a section of a complicated object; this is only used for larger and more valuable objects. A manufacturer who makes molds is called a moldmaker. A release agent is used to make removal of the hardened/set substance from the mold easily. Typical uses for molded plastics include molded furniture, molded household goods, molded cases, structural materials.
There are several types of molding methods. These include: Blow molding Powder metallurgy plus sintering Compression molding Extrusion molding Injection molding Laminating Reaction injection molding Matrix molding Rotational molding Spin casting Transfer molding Thermoforming Vacuum forming, a simplified version of thermoforming Injection molding die with side pulls Casting
The suovetaurilia or suovitaurilia was one of the most sacred and traditional rites of Roman religion: the sacrifice of a pig, a sheep and a bull to the deity Mars to bless and purify land. The ritual is preserved in Cato the Elder's De Agri Cultura, "On Agriculture"; the first step was to lead the three animals around the boundaries of the land to be blessed, pronouncing the following words: Cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat, mando tibi, uti illace suovitaurilia fundum agrum terramque meam quota ex parte sive circumagi sive circumferenda censeas, uti cures lustrare."That with the good help of the gods success may crown our work, I bid thee, Manius, to take care to purify my farm, my land, my ground with this suovetaurilia, in whatever part thou thinkest best for them to be driven or carried around.""Manius" in this passage may be an obscure minor deity, related to the Manes, or may be the equivalent of English John Doe. Before the sacrifice is performed, the following prayer to Mars must be made: Mars pater, te precor quaesoque uti sies volens propitius mihi domo familiaeque nostrae, quoius re ergo agrum terram fundumque meum suovitaurilia circumagi iussi, uti tu morbos visos invisosque, viduertatem vastitudinemque, calamitates intemperiasque prohibessis defendas averruncesque.
To this intent, to the intent of purifying my farm, my land, my ground, of making an expiation, as I have said, deign to accept the offering of these suckling victims. It illustrates the sing-song and poetic format of polytheistic prayers. Cakes of bread were sacrificed along with the three animals. At the moment the sacrifices were made, the landowner was to say: Eiusque rei ergo macte suovitaurilibus inmolandis esto."To this intent deign to accept the offering of these victims."If favourable omens as a response to the sacrifice were not forthcoming, the landowner was instructed to redo the sacrifice and offer a further prayer: Mars pater, siquid tibi in illisce suovitaurilibus lactentibus neque satisfactum est, te hisce suovitaurilibus piaculo."Father Mars, if aught hath not pleased thee in the offering of those sucklings, I make atonement with these victims."If only one or two of the omens expected after the three sacrifices failed to appear, the landowner was instructed to offer an additional swine, saying: Mars pater, quod tibi illoc porco neque satisfactum est, te hoc porco piaculo."Father Mars, inasmuch as thou wast not pleased by the offering of that pig, I make atonement with this pig."The nature of the expected omens is not given by Cato.
The omens, were determined by the art of haruspicy, the examination of the entrails, the livers, of sacrificed animals for divinatory signs. Both public and private suovetaurilias were performed in the Roman religion. Cato describes "lustrate", a farm. A private rural suovetaurilia was sacrificed each May on the festival of Ambarvalia, a festival that involved "walking around the fields." Public suovetaurilias were offered at certain state ceremonies, including agricultural festivals, the conclusion of a census, to atone for any accidental ritual errors. Traditionally, suovetaurilias were performed at five year intervals: this period was called a lustrum, the purification sought by a suovetaurilia was called lustration. If a temple were destroyed, the site of the temple must be purified by a suovetaurilia before a new temple could be reconstructed on the site; when the Capitolium was burnt as a result of a struggle for imperial succession in the year 69, a suovetaurilia was performed to reconsecrate the site.
A public suovetaurilia was offered to bless the army before a major military campaign. On Trajan's column, the emperor Trajan is depicted as offering a suovetaurilia to purify the Roman army. A suovetaurilia is shown on the right hand panel of The Bridgeness Slab, it was suggested that the sacrifice might have been made at the start of the building of the Antonine Wall. Some religious rites similar to the Roman suovetaurilia were practiced by a few other Indo-European peoples, from Iberia to India; the Cabeço das Fráguas inscript describes a threefold sacrifice practiced by the Lusitanians, devoting a sheep, a pig and a bull to what may have been local gods. In the Indian Sautramani, a ram, a bull and a goat were sacrificed to Indra Sutraman. Similar to the above rituals is the Greek trittoíai, the oldest known being described in the Odyssey and
Summerston is a residential area of Glasgow, Scotland. With most of the housing constructed in the 1970s, it is situated in the far north of the city and is sometimes considered to be part of the larger Maryhill district, but has a different postcode. With open farmland to the north-east, Summerston is separated from the southern parts of the town of Bearsden to the north-west by the River Kelvin and a golf course. Summerston has a riding school run by UK charity Riding for the Disabled; the area is home to St Blane's Primary and John Paul Academy. The 4th Glasgow Scout Beaver Colony and Cub Scout Pack are based in Caldercuilt Primary School at 101 Invershiel Road, it is home to Summerston Childcare, the most popular Family Learning and Out of School centre in Summerston having had a waiting list for their classes since their opening in 1995. Maryhill Harriers running club meet at John Paul Academy as well as various other clubs together with a range of fitness class in the evening at the school.
Summerston has several large shops, including an ASDA, a B&M Bargains and a Poundstretchers store, a flooring shop and chemist. There is an entrance to Maryhill Park from Summerston which contains tennis courts, a children’s play area and walking paths; the current Summerston railway station is about a mile and a half south of the original one, on the Kelvin Valley Railway. The original station was north and west of the River Kelvin, close to the Summerston Farm and Cottages and the site of a fortlet on the Antonine Wall; the fortlet was discovered from aerial observation in 1980. A temporary marching camp, south of the Kelvin, was found in 1978 from the air. A sandstone distance slab was found at Summerston Farm before 1694. A video of scans taken from the stone has been produced; the slab, reminiscent of The Bridgeness Slab, was made by the Second Legion and depicts a helmeted horseman and naked captives. It is now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow; the slab was originally painted with bright pigments.
The colours were found using laser technology. The gorey slabs showed natives with bright red blood on their faces and legs; the neighbouring forts to this forlet were at Bearsden at Balmuildy to the east. Another Summerston slab can be compared with one found near Castlehill. Both these similar slabs, like two others from Duntocher have two decorative pelta shields, one on either side of the slab; the horns of each shield are embellished with three rosettes on the Castlehill slab whereas the Summerton slab has these end in two griffins' heads. The first, badly weathered, slab has four rosettes between the inscription, it was found in 1803 on Low Millochan farm. The farm called East Millichen, is near Summerston, it records the building of 3666.5 paces of wall by the Sixth Legion. MacDonald relates that some of the abbreviations are unusual, he suggests. On the similar Castlehill slab he suggests the stone-cutter has blundered and made a letter P where he should have a letter F on the fourth line.
The Castlehill slab records 3666.5 paces although the units used are a matter of ongoing research. There is some evidence of a Roman bridge over the Kelvin between Balmuildy. Summerston was part of the parish of Strathblane. Ironstone and coal were mined in the area. Neighbourhood Profile and statistics at Understanding Glasgow Black and White Town, music video by Doves filmed at Summerston and featuring local children
Duntocher is a village in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It has an estimated population of 6,850; the etymology of the name of the village indicates that its name means "the fort on the causeway". Duntocher has become a northern suburb of the nearby town of Clydebank, as have neighbouring Hardgate and Faifley. Duntocher expanded due to housebuilding by Clydebank Burgh Council after the Second World War, although the area was never formally absorbed into the burgh; when burghs were abolished by local government reorganisation in 1975, Duntocher was included in the larger Clydebank District, which existed until the creation of West Dunbartonshire in 1997. Further housing was built by the Wimpey firm in the late 1960s and early 1970s, on what had been green belt land. At one time this was the most north westerly point on the Glasgow Corporation Transport tram system, trams operating from here via Hardgate to Clydebank, at times, on to Partick depot. Duntocher had several cotton and corn mills, driven by the Duntocher Burn, the traditional boundary between Duntocher and neighbouring village Hardgate.
The Antonine Wall runs through the village, ancient Roman fortifications are still visible in the local Goldenhill Park. Lottery funding is to provide funds for a children's playpark at Goldenhill. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the findings at Duntocher. Duntocher has a Roman Catholic church - St. Mary's, a United Presbyterian Church and a Church of Scotland - Duntocher Trinity; the village has one Roman Catholic primary school - St Mary's and one non-denominational, Carleith Primary School. The village has a main street; the majority of the villages shops and pubs, the cafe and the local churches and village halls are located along or close to a small stretch of this road The village is at the southern edge of the Kilpatrick Hills. The Roman Fort at Duntocher has been known about since at least the 18th century. Digital reconstructions of the fort and the fortlet it was built to replace, have been created. Two distance slabs of the Second Legion were found in the area. Other distance slabs by the Second Legion include one from Balmuildy.
The Second Legion is associated with The Bridgeness Slab. The slabs are two of the four inscriptions on stone found at Duntocher; the first, with its upper right corner missing lacks information about its discovery. Both slabs have a Pegasus below their inscriptions. Both slabs have two decorative pelta shields, one on either side of the slab each of, embellished with two griffins' heads. Symmetry suggests both were designed with four rosettes in the corners though one has the upper right rosette missing. Other differences between the slabs are the amount of decoration around the inscription, the Emperor's title, but most notably the number of paces being 4,140 versus 3,271. Other find which have been RTI mapped include rooftile fragments, a water nymph fountainhead, a hypocausted tile; until 1649 the villages of Bowling, West Dunbartonshire, Hardgate and Old Kilpatrick were all part of Kilpatrick Parish for a further 240 or so years formed part of Old or West Kilpatrick Parish. In 1889 however, the formation of Dumbarton County Council saw the transfer of authority to that body where it remained until 1975 when the villages were split up.
Bowling and Milton became part of the Dumbarton District Council area and Duntocher, along with Old Kilpatrick and Hardgate, was absorbed by Clydebank District. Industry around the village was aided by the nearness of the Duntocher Burn, a fast flowing waterway ideal for industrial purposes. Between 1808 and 1831 four large cotton mills were set up there leading to a significant population increase and subsequent improvements being instituted to road and river transport links; the boom was short lived however and the demise of the cotton industry towards the end of the 1800s left Duntocher the loser. There were lime mines near Duntocher in the 19th century. Today all five of the villages form a bedroom community for commuters to Clydebank and Glasgow. Traditionally a gala was held in the first week in June for Hardgate. "Duntocher". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. 1911
The Antonine Wall, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire, it spanned 63 kilometres and was about 3 metres high and 5 metres wide. Lidar scans have been carried out to establish the length of the wall and the Roman distance units used. Security was bolstered by a deep ditch on the northern side, it is thought. The barrier was the second of two "great walls" created by the Romans in what the English once called Northern Britain, its ruins are less evident than the better-known Hadrian's Wall to the south because the turf and wood wall has weathered away, unlike its stone-built southern predecessor. Construction began in AD 142 at the order of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, took about 12 years to complete. Antoninus Pius never visited Britain. Pressure from the Caledonians may have led Antoninus to send the empire's troops further north.
The Antonine Wall was protected by 16 forts with small fortlets between them. The soldiers who built the wall commemorated the construction and their struggles with the Caledonians in decorative slabs, twenty of which survive; the wall was abandoned only eight years after completion, the garrisons relocated back to Hadrian's Wall. In 208 Emperor Septimius ordered repairs; the occupation ended a few years and the wall was never fortified again. Most of the wall and its associated fortifications have been destroyed over time, but some remains are visible. Many of these have come under the care of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered the construction of the Antonine Wall around 142. Quintus Lollius Urbicus, governor of Roman Britain at the time supervised the effort, which took about twelve years to complete; the wall stretches 63 kilometres from Old Kilpatrick in West Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Carriden near Bo'ness on the Firth of Forth. The wall was intended to extend Roman territory and dominance by replacing Hadrian's Wall 160 kilometres to the south, as the frontier of Britannia.
But while the Romans did establish many forts and temporary camps further north of the Antonine Wall in order to protect their routes to the north of Scotland, they did not conquer the Caledonians, the Antonine Wall suffered many attacks. The Romans called the land north of the wall Caledonia, though in some contexts the term may refer to the whole area north of Hadrian's Wall; the Antonine Wall was shorter than Hadrian's Wall and built of turf on a stone foundation, but it was still an impressive achievement. It was a simpler fortification than Hadrian's Wall insofar as it did not have a subsidiary ditch system behind it to the south, as Hadrian's Wall did with its Vallum; the stone foundations and wing walls of the original forts on the Antonine Wall demonstrate that the original plan was to build a stone wall similar to Hadrian's Wall, but this was amended. As built, the wall was a bank, about four metres high, made of layered turves and earth with a wide ditch on the north side, a military way on the south.
The Romans planned to build forts every 10 kilometres, but this was soon revised to every 3.3 kilometres, resulting in a total of nineteen forts along the wall. The best preserved but one of the smallest forts is Rough Castle Fort. In addition to the forts, there are at least 9 smaller fortlets likely on Roman mile spacings, which formed part of the original scheme, some of which were replaced by forts; the most visible fortlet is Kinneil, at the eastern end of the Wall, near Bo'ness. There was once a remarkable Roman structure within sight of the Antonine Wall at Stenhousemuir; this was Arthur's O'on, a circular stone domed monument or rotunda, which may have been a temple, or a tropaeum, a victory monument. It was demolished for its stone in 1743. In addition to the line of the Wall itself there are a number of coastal forts both in the East and West, which should be considered as outposts and/or supply bases to the Wall itself. In addition a number of forts farther north were brought back into service in the Gask Ridge area, including Ardoch, Strageath and Dalginross and Cargill.
Recent research by Glasgow University has shown that the distance stones, stone sculptures unique to the Antonine Wall which were embedded in the wall to mark the lengths built by each legion, were brightly painted unlike their present bare appearance. These stones are preserved in the University's museum and are said to be the best-preserved examples of statuary from any Roman frontier. Several of the slabs have been analysed by various techniques including portable X-ray fluorescence. Tiny remnants of paint have been detected by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Several of the distance slabs have been scanned and 3-D videos produced. There are plans to reproduce the slabs, both digitally and in real physical copies, with their authentic colours. A copy of the Bridgeness Slab has been made and can be found in Bo'ness, it is expected that lottery funding will allow replicas of distance markers to be placed along the length of the wall. The wall was abandoned onl