In building construction, topping out is a builders' rite traditionally held when the last beam is placed atop a structure during its construction. Nowadays, the ceremony is parlayed into a media event for public relations purposes, it has since come to mean more finishing the structure of the building, whether there is a ceremony or not. The practice of "topping out" a new building can be traced to the ancient Scandinavian religious rite of placing a tree atop a new building to appease the tree-dwelling spirits displaced in its construction. Long an important component of timber frame building, it migrated to England and Northern Europe, thence to the Americas. A tree or leafy branch is placed on the topmost wood or iron beam with flags and streamers tied to it. A toast is drunk and sometimes workers are treated to a meal. In masonry construction the rite celebrates the bedding of the last brick. In some cases a topping out event is held at an intermediate point, such as when the roof is dried-in, which means the roof can provide at least semi-permanent protection from the elements.
The practice remains common in the United Kingdom and assorted Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada as well as Germany, Slovenia, Chile, Czech Republic, Poland, the Baltic States, the United States, where the last beam of a skyscraper is painted white and signed by all the workers involved. In New Zealand, completion of the roof to a water-proof state is celebrated through a "roof shout", where workers are treated to cake and beer; the tradition of "pannenbier" is popular in the Netherlands and Flanders, where a national, regional or city flag is hung once the highest point of a building is reached. It stays in place until the building's owner provides free beer to the workers, after which it is lowered, it is considered greedy. Groundbreaking John V. Robinson. "The'topping out' traditions of the high-steel ironworkers". Western Folklore, Fall 2001. "Topping Off!". Archived from the original on 2 June 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2008.. Carpenter Magazine, Sep/Oct 2001. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070311032321/http://www.stp.uh.edu/vol68/160/news/news4.html Tree symbolizes campus' growth.
"Topping Off". Archived from the original on September 28, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2008.. National Review, December 23, 2003 Richtfest.info A German language site about the topping out ceremonies. Topping out Roberts Pavilion Topping out the new athletic building at Claremont McKenna College
Music in Leeds
Leeds has a musical scene, has produced many notable artists. These include both national chart topping bands such as Kaiser Chiefs, but smaller, more local bands who play small venues around the city and make up the majority of the music scene; the Herman's Hermits Guitarist Derek Leckenby was born in Leeds. The Mekons and the influential Gang of Four came out of the 1970s punk movement, with the early 1980s the punk/oi! Groups Abrasive Wheels, The Underdogs and The Expelled who all shared the same record label, Bristol's Riot City. In the early to mid-1980s, the city was home to a large goth scene and many local bands who went on to have some degree of success nationally and internationally including The March Violets, Red Lorry Yellow Lorry, The Sisters of Mercy and Salvation; the avant-garde art scene centred on Leeds Metropolitan University's Fine Art course led to the formation of early 1980s electronic pioneers Soft Cell. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw success for John Peel favourites, regular Festive 50 botherers, Age of Chance, The Wedding Present, agitprop band Chumbawamba and indie rock group Cud.
In more recent times Leeds has gone some way to catching up cities with a richer musical heritage such as Manchester and Sheffield in terms of the number of bands originating from the city, Leeds based bands such as Kaiser Chiefs, The Music, The Pigeon Detectives, Your Vegas, Record Department, Duels, ¡Forward, Russia!, Buen Chico. The NME named Leeds as its number 1 musical hot-spot in 2004; the 2010s saw the emergence of a number of second-wave grunge bands, most notably Pulled Apart by Horses, Dinosaur Pile-Up and Holy State. House music had a big impact on Leeds. Early house nights included Downbeat at the Warehouse, Meltdown at the Astoria in Roundhay, Joy and Kaos at various temporary venues, along with a thriving Shebeen or "Blues" scene in Chapeltown. International DJs and producers like Paul Woolford, Ralph Lawson and Riley & Durrant have their studios in the city, alongside less well known DJs such as Bragguar and DJ Tango; the earlier underground house scene developed into the Leeds club scene of the 1990s, when for a while Leeds held the title of Britain's clubbing capital.
Both Back to Basics and mixed gay night Vague enjoyed the title of best club in Britain at different points in the decade, whilst The Orbit club in Morley was an internationally recognised techno mecca. In 2007, Leeds is emerging as a city with one of the most creative and diverse electronic music scenes in the UK. Club nights and collectives such as Gonzo and Room 237 hold regular events in the city and have been the catalyst for a growing electronic music scene which follows a more forward thinking and sometimes experimental path. Artists such as Headcleaner, Chris Kubex, Gwylo and Ant Orange are current leading lights in the scene, with local D. I. Y record labels such as Gonzo run Dirtyload Records and breakcore label Marionette providing an outlet for the wealth of electronic music coming out of Leeds. Dirtyload Records has seen support from Radio One's Mary Anne Hobbs, who featured a number of the labels artists in a special Breezeblock show about Leeds electronic music. Leeds is well known for its current DIY underground music scene, encompassing the genres of punk, skate punk, post-hardcore, post-punk, noise rock, dub reggae and electronic music among others.
There is a vibrant and active community based around the DIY ethic, supported in part by Cops and Robbers, a monthly guide to DIY events in and around Leeds, Leeds Music Scene, a guide to the city's independent music scene. Between 1979-84 Leeds was host to the Futurama Festival, an all day event organised by John Keenan at the Queens Hall. Over the years numerous acts played e.g.: Public Image Limited, Joy Division and the Banshees, Soft Cell, Gang of Four amongst many others. The Moor Music Festival takes place yearly in July on Addingham Moorside near Ilkley, plays host to artists from the city. In 1996 Leeds played host to the BBC Radio 1 Sound City festival. Leeds played host to the northern leg of the V festival between 1996 and 1998 before the event moved to Weston Park, Staffordshire. In 2000, Leeds played host to the first Radio 1 Love Parade at Roundhay Park. Since 1999 the Leeds Festival, a northern leg of the well established Reading Festival, has taken place on August bank holiday weekend.
The event was held at Temple Newsam before protests from residents forced a move to Bramham Park. Leeds is home to the Leeds International Pianoforte Competition, regarded highly, it was established in 1963 by Fanny Waterman with the 15th competition starting in September 2006. Leeds Lieder was established in 2004, holds a yearly classical music festival at Leeds College of Music as a platform for Lieder and other forms of art song. West Yorkshire Playhouse holds the annual Fuseleeds festival showcasing an eclectic mix of more left-field music. In 2006 and 2007 the two-day Wireless Festival took place at Harewood House. Leeds band Kaiser Chiefs headlined the festival in 2007. Live at Leeds is an annual multi-venue festival; the first Live At Leeds event took place in May 2007 to coincide with the city's 800th birthday celebrations. Each May Leeds has the SlamDunk North festival, whic
Demography of Leeds
Leeds, England is the third most populous city in the United Kingdom. Leeds's total population, according to the 2011 UK census, was 751,485; the population density was 1,388 people per square km. The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2011 censuses in Leeds. Notes for table above The most common main languages spoken in Leeds according to the 2011 census are shown below; the following table shows the religion of respondents in the 2011 censuses in Leeds. Demography of West Yorkshire Demography of the United Kingdom Demography of England Demography of London Demography of Birmingham Demography of Greater Manchester List of English cities by population List of English districts by population List of English districts and their ethnic composition List of English districts by area List of English districts by population density
Lend Lease Project Management & Construction
Lendlease Project Management & Construction is the international project management and construction division of Lendlease Group. The origins of Lendlease Project Management & Construction date back to the establishment of C. W. Bovis & Co by Charles William Bovis in London in 1885, it changed hands in 1908 when it was acquired by his cousin, Sidney Gluckstein. Bovis was one of the few construction companies to go public in the 1920s, during which time it developed an extensive retail clientele, by far the most important and long lasting of, Marks & Spencer. Central to the relationship with Marks was the pioneering Bovis System contract, designed to bring the interests of the contractor and client together: “the Bovis System pays the builder the prime cost of the work plus an agreed fee to cover overheads and profit; the client receives any savings during construction instead of the contractor.” During World War II, Bovis built the munitions factory at Swynnerton and worked on Mulberry harbour units.
At the end of hostilities, Bovis resumed work for the private sector and in the early 1950s, the company moved into housing. Following the acquisition of Frank Sanderson's business in 1967, Bovis Homes expanded and became one of the largest housebuilders by the early 1970s. Frank Sanderson was to change radically the future of Bovis, he was appointed Managing Director of Bovis Holdings in January 1970, Chairman and Chief Executive in August 1972. After a number of housing acquisitions, Sanderson attempted to obtain control of P&O by means of a reverse takeover. An initial agreement was followed by a boardroom and shareholder revolt at P&O and at the end of 1972 the merger failed. There was boardroom dissension, too, at Bovis and Sanderson was forced out in September 1973. One of Sanderson’s acquisitions, in 1971, had been Twentieth Century Banking, two years the secondary banking crisis created a run on deposits at the Bovis banking subsidiary; the crisis came to a head in December 1973 when National Westminster Bank refused to provide the necessary funds.
A rescue of Bovis was inevitable and the rescuer proved to be P&O: in March 1974 Bovis became a subsidiary of P&O. From 1985 the company was led by Sir Frank Lampl, who changed it from a British concern into an international contractor. Bovis Homes was demerged in 1997, floated on the London Stock Exchange; the company was bought by Lend Lease Corporation in 1999. In 2008, the company and a subcontractor abatement firm, the John Galt Corporation, were charged with numerous OSHA safety violations after a fire broke out and killed two firefighters at the Deutsche Bank Building, a Manhattan skyscraper being demolished in the wake of the September 11 attacks; the violations included an employee of "Lend Lease's Project Management & Construction Business" filling out a safety check list that identified a stand-pipe as being present and functional - when it was disconnected in a hard to see spot. The firemen consulted the check list, thought they had a good system and proceeded up into the building to fight the fire.
Only when they reached the dangerous area, on fire, did they realize the system did not have any water pressure, they died trying to retreat amid the confusion. As of June 2011, two out of the three individuals charged in the associated manslaughter and criminally negligent homicide case have been acquitted. On 17 February 2011 Lend Lease announced wider ranging changes to its group of brands; this announcement resulted in the retirement of the Bovis Lend Lease, Delfin Lend Lease, Vivas Lend Lease, Catalyst Lend Lease, Retirement by Design and Lend Lease Primelife brands and the instatement of Lend Lease as the primary and only brand across the business' operation's globally. Under the rebrand and internal structural changes, the company was re-identified as Lend Lease Project Management & Construction, was no longer a separate entity, but "a strategic business unit of the Lend Lease Group". In 2012, Lend Lease agreed to pay $56 million in fines and restitution after admitting that the company had over-billed clients and evaded government rules regarding the hiring of women and minority-owned firms.
For a ten-year time span ending in 2009, the company along with others devised a scheme to defraud federal and local government contracting agencies as well as private clients. The fine is the largest in the city's history. On 29 October 2012 the long boom of a Lend Lease construction crane atop the 1,004 foot high One57 snapped during Hurricane Sandy forcing the evacuation of several buildings in Midtown Manhattan. In October 2018, Lendlease was announced as a contender for a £330 million contract to renovate Manchester's Town Hall. Manchester's Opposition Leader and former MP John Leech uncovered a history of legal and worker safety controversy surrounding the two shortlisted companies, he said that "Under no circumstances" should Lendlease be considered for a council contract again until they paid a £3 million Grenfell-style cladding bill in the Green Quarter of Manchester. In January 2019, Lendlease was announced as the winner of the contract. Leech said it showed a lack of concern for local people.
The company has managed construction projects worldwide, including retail developments and airport terminals. Lend Lease's Project Management & Construction Business has a significant presence in Australia, Asia and the United States. Key sector expertise includes commercial, residential, government and pharmaceutical; as a major contractor in the UK, Lend Lease Project Management & Construction is a contractor member o
Emley Moor transmitting station
Emley Moor transmitting station is a telecommunications and broadcasting facility on Emley Moor, 1 mile west of the village centre of Emley, in Kirklees, West Yorkshire, made up of a 1,084-foot-tall concrete tower and apparatus which began transmitting in 1971. It is protected under UK law as a Grade II listed building, it is the tallest freestanding structure in the United Kingdom, seventh-tallest freestanding structure and fourth-tallest tower in Europe outside Russia, 24th-tallest tower in the world. The tower's current official name, Arqiva Tower, is shown on a sign beside the offices at the base of the tower, but it is known as "Emley Moor mast"; the present concrete tower is the third antenna support structure. The original 135-metre lattice tower was erected in 1956, it entered service on 3 November 1956, transmitting Granada Television programmes on weekdays, ABC TV programmes on weekends. In 1964, it was replaced by a taller 385.5 metres guyed mast, identical to the structure at Belmont transmitting station in Lincolnshire, at 53.612700°N 1.666078°W / 53.612700.
The dismantled lattice tower was rebuilt at Craigkelly transmitting station. Yorkshire Television commenced broadcasting from the Emley Moor transmitter following the reorganization of the ITV franchises on 29 July 1968 from YTV's new Kirkstall Road studios in Leeds. Emley Moor has been a transmission site since the earliest days of television; the first permanent transmitter built. It had a 135 metres lattice tower, its performance was improved in anticipation of colour PAL transmissions in 1966, when a 385 metres guy-supported tubular mast was erected. It was constructed from curved steel segments to form a 2.75 metres diameter tube, 275 metres long, was surmounted by a lattice section 107 metres tall, a capping cylinder, bringing the total height to 386 metres. At the time of its construction, it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world, it was designed by British Insulated Callender's Cables, manufactured by EMI, built by J. L. Eve Construction; the cylindrical steel mast was coated in ice during the winter months, large icicles formed on the guy wires, placing them under great strain.
During winter, ice falling from the guy-wires was common. For this reason, red warning lights on the tower operated when ice was a hazard, notices were posted on the fence adjacent to Jagger Lane, below the guy wire crossings. On 19 March 1969, a combination of strong winds and the weight of ice that had formed around the top of the mast and on the guy wires caused the structure to collapse; the duty engineer wrote in the station's log book, demonstrating that failure of the structure was unexpected: Day: Lee, Vander Byl Ice hazard - Packed ice beginning to fall from mast & stays. Roads close to station temporarily closed by Councils. Please notify councils when roads are safe Pye monitor - no frame lock - V10 replaced. Monitor overheating due to fan choked up with dust- cleaned out, motor lubricated and fan blades reset. Evening: Glendenning, Redgrove 1,265 ft Mast:- Fell down across Jagger Lane at 17:01:45. Police, I. T. A. HQ, R. O. etc. all notified. Mast Power Isolator:- Fuses removed & isolator locked in the "OFF" position.
All isolators in basement feeding mast stump switched off. Dehydrators & TXs switched off; the collapse left sections of twisted mast strewn over the transmitter site, across the junction of Common Lane and Jagger Lane, the surrounding fields. Although a falling stay cable cut through a local church and across the transmitter site buildings, no one was injured, it disabled the BBC2 UHF transmitter and the ITV VHF transmitter, leaving several million people without service. BBC1 VHF television transmissions continued from Holme Moss; the Independent Television Authority owned a collapsible emergency mast, 61 metres tall, moved to Emley from the Lichfield transmitting station so that some service could be restored. ITV signals were restored to 2.5 million viewers within four days. The BBC provided a mobile mast on an outside broadcast van to restore a restricted BBC2 colour service within two days; the ITA bought a larger temporary mast from a Swedish company. A crew of Polish riggers were hired, a 204 metres mast was erected in under 28 days at a cost of £100,000.
This mast could hold only one set of antennae, so many viewers in outlying areas still could not receive colour programmes. The taller mast was brought into service on 16 April; some weeks the BBC erected a 91 metres mast, improving coverage. The accumulation of ice was believed to have caused the collapse, but a committee of inquiry attributed it to a form of oscillation which occurred at a low but steady wind speed. Modifications, including hanging 150 tons of steel chains within each structure were made to similar masts at Belmont and Winter Hill. None of the modified masts have collapsed. A section of the collapsed tower was converted for use as a racing control tower at Huddersfield Sailing Club. After the temporary masts, erection of the current concrete tower began in 1969, it was not built on the site where the mast had stood, but instead a bit southeast at 53.612056°N 1.664390°W / 53.612056. UHF transmissions commenced on 21 January 1971, the older VHF (405-line black & whit
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Architecture of Leeds
The architecture of Leeds, a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, encompasses a wide range of architectural styles and notable buildings. As with most northern industrial centres, much of Leeds' prominent architecture is of the Victorian era. However, the City of Leeds contains buildings from as early as the Middle Ages such as Kirkstall Abbey, one of Britain's best preserved ruined Cistercian monasteries, as well as examples of 20th century industrial architecture in the districts of Hunslet and Holbeck. Most of the current buildings in Leeds are the product of the Industrial Revolution and post war regeneration in the 20th century, as many new buildings were provided in the city's commuter towns and villages to house the increasing suburban population. Leeds city centre is undergoing much redevelopment, with a number of skyscrapers such as Bridgewater Place. Many buildings in Leeds have won awards for their architecture: examples are the renovation projects for the Corn Exchange and the Henry Moore Institute, which have won RIBA awards.
Before modern times, buildings were constructed of local materials, including wood, thatch etc. The Nook in Oulton is a rare example of an original half-timbered house. Of the more durable materials, there are three rocks which have been used; these are gritstone found to the north and west, different sandstones in the Yorkshire Coal Measures, limestone to the north and east, as is shown in older villages in these directions. To the south of the city are substantial clay deposits, so that red brick has been the predominant building material for the extensive nineteenth century housing; the fine clay found in Burmantofts led to a decorative covering of terracotta or glazed Architectural Faience being used on both interior and exterior walls of important buildings. In the twentieth century, new building methods concrete and steel were used, the exterior was facing, thus materials from further away could be used, such as the Portland Stone used on the Leeds Civic Hall, the Parkinson Building of the University of Leeds and the Queens Hotel.
The earliest evidence of civilisation in the area of Leeds is at Seacroft and dates to 3500 BC. The oldest existent man-made structure in the Leeds metropolitan district is the earthworks of the Iron Age fort at Barwick in Elmet. Leeds is thought to have been the site of the Roman town of Cambodunum, abandoned when the Romans left Britain in around 400 AD; the first church in Leeds is thought to have been built around 600 AD. Leeds, like many industrial cities, has little remaining medieval architecture; the lack of Medieval architecture in central Leeds may be attributed to the small size of the town during the majority of the period, the population being around 1,000. At the time there were several larger settlements in Yorkshire such as York; the Church of St John the Baptist at Adel is one of the earliest remaining buildings in Leeds. It was built of gritstone with slate roofs between 1150 and 1170, it has been described as "one of the best and most complete Norman village churches in Yorkshire".
Kirkstall Abbey is the most noteworthy piece of architecture from this period in Leeds. The abbey, a Cistercian foundation, was begun on the banks of the River Aire in 1152; the abbey was disbanded and the buildings ruined during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII. Although Cistercian abbeys were numerous in England, many were located in remote areas and, unlike several Benedictine and Augustinian abbeys, did not survive the Dissolution by being reused as parish churches. At Kirkstall Abbey, the ruins are well preserved and show an austere form of Norman architecture with some Gothic additions and embellishments; the remnants of most of the monastic buildings are sufficiently intact to display the domestic arrangement and function of the monastery. The Abbey House Museum keeps records and displays artefacts from the abbey as well as from other eras across Leeds. Paintings of the Abbey have come from artists as renowned as J. M. W. Thomas Girtin. In 1889 the abbey was presented to Leeds City Council.
The council restored parts of the abbey and made it safe for public enjoyment before opening it in 1895. Although central Leeds has few buildings from the Middle Ages, there are examples within the City of Leeds boundaries, including two at Wetherby. Wetherby Bridge dates from the Medieval period, but has been altered, the pointed Gothic arches of different heights being replaced by semi-circular arches, it is said that the Bishop of York granted absolution of sins to local residents in return for building the bridge. The building of a castle was commenced in Wetherby in 1140, but it was demolished in 1155, because it was the King had not granted permission for its construction; the remains of its foundations can still be seen, it is remembered in the street name "Castle Gate". Harewood Castle is a 14th-century stone hall house and courtyard fortress, in the grounds of Harewood House, it is a Grade I listed and is undergoing conservation. By Tudor times, Leeds had become a market town of about 3,000 people, which grew to about 6,000 by the mid-17th century, however successive redevelopments of the city centre in the following centuries have destroyed all visible evidence of this period.
The earliest building remaining in the city centre is a late 16th- or early 17th-century house in Lambert's Yard, off Briggate. It is a timber framed building with a gable and three jettied storeys, "possibly the cross-wing of a larger hall house", it is in a state of disrepair and is