São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Chocolate cake or chocolate gâteau is a cake flavored with melted chocolate, cocoa powder, or both. Chocolate cake is made with chocolate, it can include other ingredients. These include fudge, vanilla creme, other sweeteners; the history of chocolate cake goes back to 1764, when Dr. James Baker discovered how to make chocolate by grinding cocoa beans between two massive circular millstones. In 1828, Coenraad van Houten of the Netherlands developed a mechanical extraction method for extracting the fat from cacao liquor resulting in cacao butter and the defatted cacao, a compacted mass of solids that could be sold as it was "rock cacao" or ground into powder; the processes transformed chocolate from an exclusive luxury to an inexpensive daily snack. A process for making silkier and smoother chocolate called conching was developed in 1879 by Rodolphe Lindt and made it easier to bake with chocolate, as it amalgamates smoothly and with cake batters; until 1890 to 1900, chocolate recipes were for chocolate drinks, its presence in cakes was only in fillings and glazes.
In 1886, American cooks began adding chocolate to the cake batter, to make the first chocolate cakes in the US. The Duff Company of Pittsburgh, a molasses manufacturer, introduced Devil's food chocolate cake mixes in the mid-1930s, but introduction was put on hold during World War II. Duncan Hines introduced a "Three Star Special" was introduced three years after cake mixes from General Mills and Duncan Hines, took over 48 percent of the market. In the U. S. "chocolate decadence" cakes were popular in the 1980s. Chocolate lounges and artisanal chocolate makers were popular in the 2000s. Rich, all-but-flourless chocolate cakes are "now standard in the modern pâtisserie," according to The New Taste of Chocolate in 2001. Popular variants on chocolate cake include: "Traditional" Chocolate cake Chocolate layer cake – A cake made from stacked layers of cake held together by filling Black Forest gateau – A chocolate sponge cake with a cherry filling Chocolate soufflé cake – A baked egg-based dish using beaten egg whites to give an aerated texture Devil's food cake – A moist, rich chocolate layer cake Ding Dong – A small chocolate cake similar in shape and size to a hockey puck Flourless chocolate cake – A dense cake made from an aerated chocolate custard Fudge cake – A chocolate cake containing fudge Garash cake – A Bulgarian chocolate and walnut cake of 5 thin layers with a chocolate frosting German chocolate cake – A layer cake with chocolate and a coconut-pecan frosting Joffre cake – A chocolate buttermilk layer cake filled with chocolate ganache and frosted with chocolate buttercream Molten chocolate cake – A dessert that combines the elements of a flourless chocolate cake and a soufflé Red velvet cake – Reddish coloured chocolate cake with cream cheese icing Sachertorte – A chocolate cake invented by Franz Sacher Chocolate swiss roll - A sponge cake roll filled with jam, cream or icing List of cakes Bûche de Noël
Sachertorte is a specific type of chocolate cake, or torte, invented by Austrian Franz Sacher in 1832 for Prince Wenzel von Metternich in Vienna, Austria. It is one of the most famous Viennese culinary specialties. December 5th is National Sachertorte Day in the United States. Recipes similar to that of the Sachertorte appeared as early as the 18th century, one instance being in the 1718 cookbook of Conrad Hagger, another individual represented in Gartler-Hickmann's 1749 Tried and True Viennese Cookbook. In 1832, Prince Wenzel von Metternich charged his personal chef with creating a special dessert for several important guests; the head chef, having taken ill, let the task fall to his sixteen-year-old apprentice, Franz Sacher in his second year of training in Metternich's kitchen. The Prince is reported to have declared: "Let there be no shame on me tonight!" While the torte created by Sacher on this occasion is said to have delighted Metternich's guests, the dessert received no immediate further attention.
Sacher completed his training as a chef and afterward spent time in Bratislava and Budapest settling in his hometown of Vienna, where he opened a specialty delicatessen and wine shop. Sacher's eldest son Eduard carried on his father's culinary legacy, completing his own training in Vienna with the Royal and Imperial Pastry Chef at the Demel bakery and chocolatier, during which time he perfected his father's recipe and developed the torte into its current form; the cake was first served at the Demel and at the Hotel Sacher, established by Eduard in 1876. Since the cake remains among the most famous of Vienna's culinary specialties. In the early decades of the 20th century, a legal battle over the use of the label "The Original Sacher Torte" developed between the Hotel Sacher and the Demel bakery. Eduard Sacher completed his recipe for Sacher Torte while working at Demel, the first establishment to offer the "Original Sachertorte" cake. After the death of Eduard's widow Anna in 1930, followed by the bankruptcy of the Hotel Sacher in 1934, Eduard Sacher's son found employment at Demel and brought to the bakery the sole distribution right for an Eduard-Sacher-Torte.
The first differences of opinion arose in 1938, when the new owners of the Hotel Sacher began to sell Sacher Tortes from vendor carts under the trademarked name "The Original Sacher Torte". After interruptions brought about by the Second World War and the ensuing Allied occupation, the hotel owners sued Demel in 1954, with the hotel asserting its trademark rights and the bakery claiming it had bought the rights to the name "Original Sacher Torte". Over the next seven years, both parties waged an intense legal war over several of the dessert's specific characteristics, including the change of the name, the second layer of jam in the middle of the cake, the substitution of margarine for butter in the baking of the cake; the author Friedrich Torberg, a frequent guest at both establishments, served as a witness during this process and testified that, during the lifetime of Anna Sacher, the cake was never covered with marmalade or cut through the middle. In 1963, both parties agreed on an out of court settlement that gave the Hotel Sacher the rights to the phrase "The Original Sachertorte" and gave the Demel the rights to decorate its tortes with a triangular seal that reads Eduard-Sacher-Torte.
The cake consists of a dense chocolate cake with a thin layer of apricot jam on top, coated in dark chocolate icing on the top and sides. It is traditionally served with unsweetened whipped cream; the "Original" Sacher Torte has two layers of apricot jam between the outer layer of chocolate icing and the sponge base, while Demel's "Eduard-Sacher-Torte" has only one. Additionally, the Sacher Torte has a more coarse grain of sponge whereas the Demel Torte sponge is denser and smoother; some of the various recipes for cakes similar to the "Original" are listed below. For example, at "Graz-Kulturhauptstadt 2003", a festival marking the city of Graz being declared cultural capital that year, "Sacher-Masoch-Torte" was presented, using redcurrant jam and marzipan. Hotel Sacher's "Original Sacher Torte" is sold at the Vienna and Salzburg locations of the Hotel Sacher, at Cafe Sacher branches in Innsbruck and Graz, at the Sacher Shop in Bolzano, in the Duty Free area of Vienna airport, via the Hotel Sacher's online shop.
The recipe of the Hotel Sacher's version of the cake is a guarded secret. Those privy to it claim that the secret to the Sacher Torte's desirability lies not in the ingredients of the cake itself, but rather those of the chocolate icing. According to available information, the icing consists of three special types of chocolate, which are produced by different manufacturers for this sole purpose; the hotel obtains these products from Belgium. Vienna claims to be the "coffee house capital of the world". A strong tradition of coffee houses created an environment where both residents and visitors could meet, share ideas, leisurely discuss the events of the day; the coffee house status in Vienna would become central to its culture and tradition with the cornerstone of each fine coffee house being its freshly baked cakes. These classic tortes were to become regarded works of art and intense rivalries developed as to who could create the finest masterpiece. Today, the Original Sacher Torte is one of the most recognized cakes in the world and helped establish the five star Hotel Sacher in Vienna founded in 1876 by Franz Sacher's son, Eduard Sacher.
The Original Sacher Torte is still made entirely by hand using Franz Sacher's recipe and t
Dry cocoa solids are the components of cocoa beans remaining after cocoa butter, the fat component, is extracted from chocolate liquor, roasted cocoa beans that have been ground into a liquid state. Cocoa butter is 50% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its characteristic melting properties. Cocoa powder is the powdered form of the solids sold as an end product. Cocoa powder contains flavanol antioxidants, amounts of which are reduced if the cocoa is subjected to acid-reducing alkalization. Health benefits have been attributed to cocoa flavonoids. Natural cocoa powder has a light brown color and an extractable pH of 5.3 to 5.8. The processed cocoa powder is darker in color, ranging from brownish red to nearly black, with a pH from 6.8 to 8.1. The alkalization process reduces bitterness and improves solubility, important for beverage product applications. All of these pH values are considered safe for food use. Cocoa powder contains several minerals including calcium, magnesium, potassium and zinc.
All of these minerals are found in greater quantities in cocoa powder than either cocoa butter or chocolate liquor. Cocoa powder contains 230 mg of caffeine and 2057 mg of theobromine per 100g, which are absent from the other components of the cocoa bean. Cocoa powder contains clovamide. Cocoa powder is rich in a subset of polyphenols; the amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes. Alkalization known as Dutch processing, causes its content of flavonoids to be reduced. Cocoa powders may contain a toxic heavy metal and probable carcinogen; the European Union has imposed a limit for cadmium in cocoa powder of 0.6 µg per gram of cocoa powder, 0.8 µg per gram for chocolate with ≥ 50% total dry cocoa solids. In Canada, a daily serving of a natural health product must contain no more than 6 µg of cadmium for an individual weighing 150 pounds and 3 µg for a 75 lb individual. While the U. S. government has not set a limit for cadmium in foods or health products, the state of California has established a maximum allowable daily level of oral cadmium exposure of 4.1 µg, requires products containing more than this amount per daily serving to bear a warning on the label.
One investigation by an independent consumer testing laboratory found that seven of nine commercially available cocoa powders and nibs selected for testing contained more than 0.3 µg of cadmium per serving gram. Chocolate Baking chocolate Hamel, PJ. "The A-B-C's of cocoa". Flourish. King Arthur Flour. Retrieved 30 May 2015
The Nanaimo bar is a dessert item of Canadian origin. It is a bar dessert which requires no baking and is named after the city of Nanaimo, British Columbia, on Vancouver Island, it consists of three layers: a wafer and coconut crumb-base, custard flavoured butter icing in the middle and a layer of chocolate ganache on top. Many varieties exist, consisting of different types of crumb, different flavours of icing, different types of chocolate; the earliest confirmed printed copy of the recipe using the name "Nanaimo bars" appears in the Edith Adams' prize cookbook from 1953. A copy of the book is on view at the Nanaimo Museum. However, following research into the origins of Nanaimo bars, Lenore Newman writes that the same recipe was published in the Vancouver Sun earlier that same year under the name "London Fog Bar"; the recipe also appears in a publication entitled His/Her Favourite Recipes, Compiled by the Women's Association of the Brechin United Church, with the recipe submitted by Joy Wilgress, a Baltimore, native.
In 1954 the recipe "Mabel's Squares" was published in The Country Woman's Favorite by the Upper Gloucester Women's Institute. The recipe was submitted by the daughter of Mabel Scott; the ingredients list and fabrication match the recipe found on the City of Nanaimo's website. The first printing of recipes featuring Nanaimo bar ingredients is found in the 1952 Women's Auxiliary to the Nanaimo Hospital Cookbook, which features three nearly identical recipes that differ only from the modern Nanaimo bar, they are referred to as the "chocolate square" or the "chocolate slice". Other unconfirmed references date the bar back to the 1930s, when it was said to be known locally as "chocolate fridge cake". One modern reference refers to the bars' existing in nineteenth century Nanaimo; the popularity of the bar in Nanaimo led local residents to mobilise to have it voted "Canada's Favourite Confection" in a National Post reader survey. In 1985, Mayor Graeme Roberts initiated a contest to find the ultimate Nanaimo bar recipe.
The recipe submitted by Joyce Hardcastle, a resident of Nanaimo, was unanimously selected by a panel of judges. Recipes for similar desserts are found in various places, under various names, in North America and Europe; the designation "Nanaimo bar" is Canadian, appears in the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, but not in other language or dialect versions. An episode from the first season of MasterChef Canada featured an elimination challenge where competitors made desserts inspired by Nanaimo bars, chosen among three Canadian desserts; the 2016 US state dinner in honour of Justin Trudeau featured Nanaimo bars. The elaborate dinner hosted by former US President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama consisted of a blend of American and Canadian dishes; the main dessert featured was Nanaimo bars, was presented on a plate inspired by the Rocky Mountains. In April 2019, Canada Post announced the release of a booklet of postage stamps dedicated to Canadian desserts and sweets; the booklet of 10 stamps features images of the Nanaimo bar, the butter tart, tarte au sucre, blueberry grunt, Saskatoon berry pie.
Canada Post appear on a recipe card background. The Nanaimo bar stamp received some criticism for its ratio of "the crumbly base, the custard filling, the chocolate ganache icing." List of desserts Cremino London fog
Devil's food cake
Devil's food cake is a moist, rich chocolate layer cake. It is considered a counterpart to the yellow angel food cake; because of differing recipes and changing ingredient availability over the course of the 20th century, it is difficult to qualify what distinguishes devil's food from the more standard chocolate cake, though it traditionally has more chocolate than a regular chocolate cake, making it darker. The cake is paired with a rich chocolate frosting. Devil's food cake is a dense, rich chocolate cake, it traditionally uses unsweetened chocolate baking squares in lieu of unsweetened cocoa powder. However, contemporary recipes use cocoa powder for its convenience over the more traditional chocolate baking squares; because of its reduced amount of cocoa butter, cocoa powder has a more intense chocolate flavor than unsweetened chocolate. Moreover, coffee is added as a liquid to enhance the chocolate flavor; some recipes use boiling water as the cake's main liquid, rather than milk. Its antithetical counterpart, the angel food cake, is a light white cake that uses stiffly beaten egg whites and no dairy.
Devil's food cake is sometimes distinguished from other chocolate cakes by the use of additional baking soda, which raises the pH level and makes the cake a deeper and darker mahogany color. Devil's food cake incorporates butter, eggs and less egg than other chocolate cakes. Devil's food cake was invented in the United States in the early twentieth century, with the recipe in print as early as 1905. List of desserts Angel food cake Red velvet cake Media related to Devil's food cakes at Wikimedia Commons Food Timeline history of cakes, including Devil's Food Cake
Butter is a dairy product with high butterfat content, solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions, liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk, it is used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, added salt. Most made from cow's milk, butter can be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats and yaks. Salt and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter, removing the water and milk solids, produces clarified butter or ghee, entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, where the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a firm solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32 to 35 °C.
The density of butter is 911 grams per Litre. It has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white, its natural, unmodified color is dependent on the source animal's feed and genetics, but the commercial manufacturing process manipulates the color with food colorings like annatto or carotene. The word butter derives from the Latin butyrum, the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον; this may be a compound of βοῦς, "ox, cow" + τυρός, "cheese", "cow-cheese". The word turos is attested in Mycenaean Greek; the unlatinized form is found in the name butyric acid, a compound found in rancid butter and dairy products such as Parmesan cheese. In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors; the word is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed and nut products such as peanut butter and almond butter. It is applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as cocoa butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are known as "butters".
Non-dairy items that have a dairy-butter consistency may use "butter" to call that consistency to mind, including food items such as maple butter and witch's butter and nonfood items such as baby bottom butter, hyena butter, rock butter. Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules; these globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. Variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, undamaged fat globules. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter. Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream.
This watery liquid is called buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. The buttermilk is drained off; the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together. When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands; this consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets. Commercial butter is about 15 % water. Butterfat is a mixture of triglyceride, a triester derived from glycerol and three of any of several fatty acid groups. Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl; the density of butter is about the same as ice. In some countries, butter is given a grade before commercial distribution. Before modern factory butter making, cream was collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter.
During fermentation, the cream sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The fermentation process produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product. Today, cultured butter is made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria. Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the early 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient, since aging the cream used to make butter takes more space than storing the finished butter product. A method to make an artificial simulation of cultured butter is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter. Dairy products are pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other