Sterling Heights Assembly, or Sterling Heights Assembly Plant, is an automobile manufacturing factory in Sterling Heights, Michigan operated by FCA US LLC. The factory was opened by Chrysler under its Missile Division in 1953 to produce missiles; the nearby Sterling Stamping opened in 1965. Subsequent to its first plant in the continental United States — Volkswagen Westmoreland Assembly Plant in Pennsylvania — Volkswagen converted the plant for automobile production in 1980 and made automobiles there until they sold the plant to Chrysler in the late 80s After the plant was modernized in 2006, the assembly line and tooling for the outgoing Stratus and Sebring were sold to OAO GAZ and shipped to that company's factory in Nizhny Novgorod in Russia. GAZ continued to produce the Stratus under license there through 2010, marketed as the Volga Siber. On May 6, 2009 it was announced that the Sterling Heights Assembly plant would close by December 2010 with the adjacent stamping plant to remain open however the decision of the Chrysler board to make the new 200 model allowed it to bring new life into the plant and saved it from being closed.
In 2010 Chrysler purchased the plant from Old Carco LLC for USD$20 million. The plant will retain its current 1,200 employees. Chrysler will break ground on a new paint shop at the plant on June 21, 2011; this comes after an announcement of an 850 million dollar investment in October 2010. When the Chrysler 200 was discontinued in December 2016, FCA announced that the Sterling Heights facility would receive a $1.49 billion investment to retool so it can build the next-generation Ram 1500 pickup, which will be transferred from the Warren Truck Assembly so that it can build the all-new, full size Jeep Wagoneer with a planned launch in 2018. Ram 1500 Sterling Heights Assembly Chrysler 200 Sedan and Convertible Lancia Flavia Dodge Avenger Chrysler Sebring Sedan and Convertible Plymouth Breeze Dodge Stratus Chrysler Cirrus Dodge Daytona Dodge Shadow/Plymouth Sundance Chrysler LeBaron GTS/Dodge Lancer Sterling Stamping Stamped metal panels Sterling Heights Assembly history List of Chrysler factories
The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is one of six main centers for the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, a part of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services; the current Director of CBER is Dr. Karen Midthun, M. D. CBER is responsible for assuring the safety, purity and effectiveness of biologics and related products. Not all biologics are regulated by CBER. Monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins are regulated by the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Blood for transfusion and as a raw material for drug products, as well as reagents used for blood typing and other related activities -and- plasma derivatives, including immunoglobulins, hyperimmune products, antitoxins. Blood and blood products activities are managed through the Office of Blood Research and Review Human cells and cellular and tissue-based products, except vascularized organs for transplantation and the associated blood vessels. Vaccines for use in humans. Diagnostic and therapeutic allergenic extracts.
Live biotherapeutics. Some medical devices test kits for HIV, tests used to screen blood donations, blood bank collection machines and equipment, blood bank computer software. Xenotransplantation Historically, CBER was responsible for some therapeutic proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies. Control of these has been transferred to CDER; some other drugs, such as certain anticoagulants and plasma volume expanders remain under the control of CBER. As of July 2006 CBER's authority resides in sections 351 and 361 of the Public Health Service Act and in various sections of the Food and Cosmetic Act. Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act requires licensure of biological products that travel in interstate commerce in the United States. CBER may deny licensure or suspend or cancel a current license if a manufacturer does not comply with requirements. Unlicensed blood products used within the boundaries of a state are not unusual, these products are subject to general regulations from other FDA legal authorities.
Section 361 of the same act allows the Surgeon General to make and enforce regulations to control the interstate spread of communicable disease. This broad authority has been delegated to the FDA through a Memorandum of Understanding. Many of the products overseen by CBER are considered drugs, are subject to the same rules and regulations as any other drug product from the Food and Cosmetic Act. From these legal authorities, CBER publishes regulations which are included in the first chapter Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Most of the regulations specific to CBER are found from 21CFR600-680. 21CFR1271 contains the rules for HCT/Ps. For products which are drugs, such as blood for transfusion, rules in 21CFR200 and following apply. Other general rules, such as the regulations for clinical trials involving human subjects in 21CFR50, may apply. In addition to these laws and guidelines, CBER publishes guidance documents; these are not requirements, but are followed by industry. Licensed manufacturers are expected to adopt either an equivalent process.
In some cases, the guidance documents have the force of regulation because they are written to clarify existing rules. As of 2003, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System was based on a data integration platform from Informatica; the FDA uses this software to analyze data on adverse reactions to vaccines and other biological, in order to improve regulation. CBER's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee meets annually for a discussion and vote concerning the next year's influenza vaccine virus selection. According to numbers from the FDA, in 2001 the CBER reviewed 16 Biologics License Applications with a median review time of 13.8 months and a median approval time of 20.3 months. CBER's history began with a horse named Jim, a vaccine-contamination scandal that prompted the Biologics Control Act of 1902. CBER was part of what became the National Institutes of Health, rather than the FDA, its mission included a mandate to foster the development of new vaccines. The Bureau was transferred from the NIH to the FDA in 1972, where it was renamed Bureau of Biologics and focused on vaccines, serums for allergy shots, blood products.
Ten years with the beginning of the biotechnology revolution, the line between a drug and a biologic, or a device and a biologic, became blurred. It was merged with the FDA's Bureau of Drugs to form the Center for Drugs and Biologics during an agency-wide reorganization under Commissioner Arthur Hayes; this reorganization merged the bureaus responsible for medical devices and radiation control into the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. In 1987, under Commissioner Frank Young, CBER and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research were split into their present form; the two groups were charged with enforcing different laws and had different philosophical and cultural differences. CBER took a more collaborative, public-health driven approach to working with the industry, in the 1980s was quicker to approve products than their drugs counterparts; the growing crisis around HIV testing and treatment, an inter-agency dispute between officials from the former Bureau of Drugs and officials from the former Bureau of Biologics over whether to approve Genentech's Activase, led to the split.
CBER was declared the primary agency for HIV/AIDS-related products, since HIV had been spread by blood transfusion and related products. In 1997, Congress re-authorized user fees, research p
Michael Arthur Walsworth is an American real estate developer from West Monroe, a former Republican member for District 33 of the Louisiana State Senate, holding the seat from 2008 until 2020. He represented District 15 in the Louisiana House of Representatives until term-limited. Walsworth's Senate district includes Ouachita, Morehouse and West Carroll parishes, he defeated the Democratic State Representative Charles McDonald of Fairbanks community in northern Ouachita Parish to succeed the term-limited Republican Senator Robert J. Barham of Oak Ridge in Morehouse Parish. Walsworth polled 17,292 to McDonald's 16,058. McDonald's House seat, to which he was term-limited, was narrowly won in the November 17, 2007, state election by a Republican, Sam Little, retired farmer from Bastrop, seat of Morehouse Parish. From 1984 to 1996, Walsworth was a member of the Louisiana Republican State Central Committee. On February 9, 2008, he sought to return to the committee to represent his former State Representative District 15 berth.
But he withdrew his candidacy two days before the closed primary election, the position went by default to M. Randall "Randy" Donald. Walsworth was first elected to the state House in the 1995 primary when he unseated two-term Democrat Charles Anding of West Monroe and assumed the seat in 1996. Walsworth was born to Leo Walsworth and the former Lila "Tootsie" Kitchens in West Monroe in Ouachita Parish, his maternal grandparents and Emily Kitchens, operated a grocery store in Monroe. Walsworth graduated in 1974 from West Monroe High School and thereafter procured a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Louisiana at Monroe, he is a real estate developer. He worked in management of Coca-Cola, he is affiliated with the Greater Ouachita Lions Club, American Red Cross and Girls Clubs, Civitan Club, Big Brothers, Big Sisters, American Heart Association. He is involved in the United Way of America, National Rifle Association, ULM Alumni Association. Walsworth is the song leader at a local Church of Christ.
He is the father of Lindsay Michelle Walsworth. "Looking at the generation, not the next election" has been a motto of Walsworth's political campaigns. In the legislature, Walsworth worked to establish the Ouachita Port Commission and the Ouachita Expressway Commission, he authored a law. He worked on the Ethics Reform Bill to prohibit lawmakers from doing business with the state, he worked to pass tort reform in his first legislative session. He has pushed for funding of rural schools, which abound in House District 15 and Senate District 33. In his initial election to the House, Walsworth defeated Charles Anding, 7,745 to 6,403. In 1999, with 9,060 votes, Walsworth defeated Democrat Royce Calhoun, who had 4,441 votes, to win a second term in the House. Walsworth was unopposed in 2003 for his final term in the House. In 2013, Walsworth joined State Representative Rob Shadoin of Ruston to rename the Louisiana Highway 33 bridge over Lake D'Arbonne in Farmerville after Representative James Peyton Smith of Union Parish.
James Peyton Smith had died in 2006. To remain in the state Senate, Walsworth faced opposition in the nonpartisan blanket primary scheduled for October 24, 2015, from his intra-party rival, former U. S. Representative Vance McAllister. Walsworth handily turned back McAllister's challenge, 15,891 votes to 9,626. In January 2016, Senate President John Alario appointed Walsworth chairman of the Environment Committee. Walsworth is the chairman of two legislative committees, the Senate Environmental Quality Committee and the Legislative Audit Advisory Committee, he serves as the vice-chairman of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee. He is a member of the Joint Legislative Committee on the Budget and the Senate Education Committee. Senator Walsworth is the former chairman of the Louisiana Republican Legislative Delegation, he has won numerous pro-business, economic development, early childhood education, school-based health center awards. In 2014, he was rated 100% pro-life by Louisiana Right to Life.
In 2012, 2013, 2014, he was named Outstanding Family Advocate by the conservative Louisiana Family Forum and in 2013, he was given their Life and Liberty Award. Term-limited in the state Senate, Walsworth is a Republican candidate for Ouachita Parish Clerk of Court in the nonpartisan blanket primary on October 12, 2019, he ruled out an attempt to return to the District 15 state House seat that he held prior to 2008. The outgoing District 15 representative, Republican Frank A. Hoffmann, is raising money to contest Walsworth's Senate seat. "Meet the Next Governor of Louisiana" louisianaconservative.com April, 2007 "Senate Candidate Mike Walsworth Leads the Way" louisianaconservative.com August, 2007 "REPRESENTATIVE MIKE WALSWORTH “A Warrior for What Is Right”" louisianaconservative.com September, 2007 "MONROE NEWSSTAR ENDORSES MIKE WALSWORTH - SENATE DISTRICT 33" louisianaconservative.com October, 2007 "Creationist Senator wants to know how to turn E. Coli into Humans" Louisiana State Senate - Mike Walsworth official government website Mike Walsworth for State Senate official campaign website
Andalusian Arabic known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule from the 9th century to the 17th century. It became an extinct language in Iberia after the expulsion of the Moriscos, which took place over a century after the Conquest of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. Once spoken in Iberia, the expulsions and persecutions of Arabic speakers caused an abrupt end to the language's use on the peninsula, its use continued to some degree in Africa after the expulsion, although Andalusi speakers were assimilated by the North African communities to which they fled. Andalusian Arabic appears to have spread and been in general oral use in most parts of Al-Andalus between the 9th and 15th centuries; the number of speakers is estimatedto have peaked at around 5–7 million speakers around the 11th and 12th centuries before dwindling as a consequence of the Reconquista, the gradual but relentless takeover by the Christians.
In 1502, the Muslims of Granada were forced to choose between exile. In 1526, this requirement was extended to the Muslims elsewhere in Spain. In 1567, Philip II of Spain issued a royal decree in Spain forbidding Moriscos from the use of Arabic on all occasions and informal, speaking and writing. Using Arabic in any sense of the word would be regarded as a crime, they were given three years to learn a "Christian" language, after which they would have to get rid of all Arabic written material. This triggered one of the largest Morisco Revolts. Still, Andalusian Arabic remained in use in certain areas of Spain until the final expulsion of the Moriscos at the beginning of the 17th century; as in every other Arabic-speaking land, native speakers of Andalusian Arabic were diglossic, that is, they spoke their local dialect in all low-register situations, but only Classical Arabic was resorted to when a high register was required and for written purposes as well. Andalusian Arabic belongs to the pre-Hilalian dialects of the Maghrebi Arabic family, with its closest relative being Moroccan Arabic.
Like other Maghrebi Arabic dialects, Andalusian does not differentiate between sedentary and bedouin varieties. By contrast, Andalusian does not show any detectable difference between religious communities, such as Muslim Muladis, Christian Mozarabs, Jews, unlike in North Africa where Judeo-Arabic languages were common; the oldest evidence of Andalusian Arabic utterances can be dated from the 10th and 11th century, in isolated quotes, both in prose and stanzaic Classical Andalusi poems, from the 11th century on, in stanzaic dialectal poems and dialectal proverb collections, while its last documents are a few business records and one letter written at the beginning of the 17th century in Valencia. Andalusi Arabic is still used in Andalusi music and has influenced the dialects of such towns as Sfax in Tunisia, Tétouan and Tangier in Morocco, Tlemcen and Cherchell in Algeria, Alexandria in Egypt. Nowadays there is one case of Spanish converts to Islam; the language exerted some influence on Mozarabic, Ladino, Catalan-Valencian-Balearic, Classical Arabic and the Moroccan, Egyptian and Algerian Arabic dialects.
Many features of Andalusian Arabic have been reconstructed by Arabists using Hispano-Arabic texts composed in Arabic with varying degrees of deviation from classical norms, augmented by further information from the manner in which the Arabic script was used to transliterate Romance words. Such features include the following; the phoneme represented by the letter ق in texts is a point of contention. The letter, which in Classical Arabic represented either a voiceless pharyngealized velar stop or a voiceless uvular stop, most represented some kind of post-alveolar affricate or velar plosive in Andalusian Arabic; the vowel system was subject to a heavy amount of fronting and raising, a phenomenon known as imāla, causing /a/ to be raised to or and with short vowels, in certain circumstances when i-mutation was possible. Contact with native Romance speakers led to the introduction of the phonemes /p/, /ɡ/ and the affricate /tʃ/ from borrowed words. Monophthongization led to the disappearance of certain diphthongs such as /aw/ and /aj/ which were leveled to /oː/ and /eː/ though Colin hypothesizes that these diphthongs remained in the more mesolectal registers influenced by the Classical language.
There was a fair amount of compensatory lengthening involved where a loss of consonantal gemination lengthened the preceding vowel, whence the transformation of عشّ /ʕuʃ/ into عوش /ʕuːʃ/. The -an which, in Classical Arabic, marked a noun as indefinite accusative, became an indeclinable conjunctive particle, as in Ibn Quzmân's expression rajul-an'ashîq; the unconjugated prepositive negative particle lis developed out of the classical verb lays-a. The derivational morphology of the verbal system was altered. Whence the initial n- on verbs in the first person singular, a feature shared by many Maghrebi dialects; the form V pattern of tafaʻʻal-a was altered by epenthesis to atfa``al. Andalusian Arabic developed a contingent/subjunctive tense consisting of the imperfect form of a verb, preceded by either kân or kîn (depending on the
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