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Bristol, Virginia

Bristol is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,835, it is the twin city of Bristol, just across the state line, which runs down the middle of its main street, State Street. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Bristol, with neighboring Washington County, for statistical purposes. Bristol is a principal city of the Kingsport–Bristol–Bristol, TN-VA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region. Evan Shelby first appeared in what is now the Bristol area around 1765. In 1766, Shelby settled at a place called Big Camp Meet, it is said that Cherokee Indians once inhabited the area and the Indian village was named, according to legend, because numerous deer and buffalo met here to feast in the canebrakes. Shelby renamed the site Sapling Grove. In 1774, Shelby erected a fort on a hill overlooking, it was an important stopping-off place for notables such as Daniel Boone and George Rogers Clark, as well as hundreds of pioneers’ en route to the interior of the developing nation.

This fort, known as Shelby's Station was a combination trading post, way station, stockade. By the mid-nineteenth century, when surveyors projected a junction of two railroad lines at the Virginia-Tennessee state line, Reverend James King conveyed much of his acreage to his son-in-law, Joseph R. Anderson. Anderson laid out the original town of Bristol, Tennessee/Virginia and building began in 1853. Samuel Goodson, who owned land that adjoined the original town of Bristol TN/VA at its northern boundary, started a development known as Goodsonville. Anderson was unable to incorporate Bristol across the state lines of Virginia. In 1856, Goodsonville and the original Bristol, Virginia were merged to form the composite town of Goodson, Virginia. Incorporation for Bristol and Goodson, Virginia occurred in 1856; the Virginia and Tennessee Railroads reached the cities in the late summer of 1856. Due to having two different railroads companies, two depots served the cities. In 1890, Virginia once again took the name Bristol.

The Grove, Solar Hill Historic District, Walnut Grove are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Bristol is located in southwestern Virginia at 36°36′N 82°11′W, it is bordered to the west and east by Washington County, to the south by the city of Bristol in Sullivan County, Tennessee. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.2 square miles, of which 13.0 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 1.07%, is water. Little Creek and Beaver Creek flow south through the city. Beaver Creek is a tributary of the South Fork Holston River; the city is served by Interstates 81 and 381, by U. S. Routes 11, 19, 58, 421. I-81 leads northeast 149 miles to Roanoke and southwest 113 miles to Knoxville, Tennessee. Interstate 381 is a spur from Interstate 81 that provides access to Bristol, United States, it runs for 1.7 miles from the intersection of Commonwealth Avenue and Keys/Church Streets in Bristol at exit 0 north to Interstate 81. The I-81 interchange, the only one on I-381, is signed as exits 1A and 1B.

US 11 and US 19, running parallel to I-81, lead northeast 15 miles to Virginia. US 11 splits into routes 11E in Bristol. US 58 runs with I-81 northeast for 17 miles before splitting off to the east just beyond Abingdon. US 421 leads southeast 33 miles to Tennessee; as of the census of 2000, there were 17,367 people, 7,678 households, 4,798 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,346.4 people per square mile. There were 8,469 housing units at an average density of 656.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.54% White, 5.57% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 1.08% from two or more races. 0.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,678 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.5% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,389, the median income for a family was $34,266. Males had a median income of $28,420 versus $20,967 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,311. Abou

Varna Necropolis

The Varna Necropolis is a burial site in the western industrial zone of Varna, internationally considered one of the key archaeological sites in world prehistory. The oldest gold treasure in the world, dating from 4,600 BC to 4,200 BC, was discovered at the site; the site was accidentally discovered in October 1972 by excavator operator Raycho Marinov. The first to value the significant historical meaning was Dimitar Zlatarski, the creator of the Dalgopol Historical Museum, he was called by the locals to examine. He realized how important the finding was, so he contacted the Varna Historical Museum and, after signing government papers, he handed over the research to the direction of Mihail Lazarov and Ivan Ivanov. About 30% of the estimated necropolis area is still not excavated. A total of 294 graves have been found in the necropolis, many containing sophisticated examples of metallurgy, high-quality flint and obsidian blades and shells; the graves have been dated to 4569–4340 BC by radiocarbon dating in 2006 and belong to the Chalcolithic Varna culture, the local variant of the KGKVI.

There are straight inhumations. Some graves do not contain grave gifts; these symbolic graves are the richest in gold artifacts. Three thousand gold artifacts were found, with a weight of six kilograms. Grave 43 contained more gold. Three symbolic graves contained masks of unbaked clay; the findings showed that the Varna culture had trade relations with distant lands exporting metal goods and salt from the Provadiya rock salt mine. The copper ore used in the artifacts originated from a Sredna Gora mine near Stara Zagora, Mediterranean Spondylus shells found in the graves may have served as primitive currency; the culture had sophisticated religious beliefs about afterlife and had developed hierarchical status differences. The site offers the oldest known burial evidence of an elite male; the high status male buried with the most remarkable amount of gold held a war adze or mace and wore a gold penis sheath. Bull-shaped gold platelets might have venerated virility, instinctual force, warfare. Gimbutas holds that the artifacts were made by local craftspeople.

According to M. Gimbutas, "The discontinuity of the Varna, Vinča and Lengyel cultures in their main territories and the large scale population shifts to the north and northwest are indirect evidence of a catastrophe of such proportions that cannot be explained by possible climatic change, land exhaustion, or epidemics. Direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, but in the emergence of a whole complex of Kurgan cultural traits." According to J. Chapman, "Once upon a time, not so long ago, it was accepted that steppe nomads from the North Pontic zone invaded the Balkans, putting an end to the Climax Copper Age society that produced the apogee of tell living, autonomous copper metallurgy and, as the grandest climax, the Varna cemetery with its stunning early goldwork. Now the boot is much on the other foot and it is the Varna complex and its associated communities that are held responsible for stimulating the onset of prestige goods-dominated steppe mortuary practice following the expansion of farming."

Among the metallic and non-metallic artifacts in the graves from the Varna Chalcolithic site are numerous beads of a chalcedony and agate composition. Three main morphological types of beads are described: type 1 – elongated barrel-shaped; the carnelian and related beads of type 2 have a "constant" number of 32 facets – 16+16 on both sides on the elongation of the bead, considered the earliest in Chalcolithic complex faceting on such a hard mineral. In the hole of a single carnelian bead was found a gold mini-cylinder; the gold artifacts from the Varna Chalcolithic necropolis are assumed to be the "oldest gold of mankind" according to their total volume and quantity. Analysis of the measured weight of the different types of gold artеfacts revealed a weight system with at least two minimal weight units of ~0.14 and ~0.40 g among both mineral and gold beads. The second one was suggested as a basic "Chalcolithic unit" with the name van; the artifacts can be seen at the Varna Archaeological Museum and at the National Historical Museum in Sofia.

In 2006, some gold objects were included in a major and broadly advertised national exhibition of antique gold treasures in both Sofia and Varna. The Varna gold started touring the world in 1973. In 1982, it was exhibited for 7 months in Japan as "The Oldest Gold in the World - The First European Civilization" with massive publicity, including two full l

PEMA Holding

The PEMA Holding is an Austrian real estate company. It developed several real estate projects in Austria and South Tyrol; the company with locations in Innsbruck and Vienna is co-owned by Markus Schafferer and the Koch family. The PEMA Holding was founded by Markus Schafferer in 2005. Schafferer used the connections he acquired through selling art to find investors for his projects and opened the Headline tower, the first big project of the company, in 2012; the tower holds office and gastronomy space and a hotel. In 2014, the company opened their office in Vienna. In 2015, the development of the second PEMA tower began, 50 metres high and cost 60 million Euros, it holds apartments and retail spaces and an open community space, designed by Andreas Braun, former CEO of Svarovski-Kristallwelten. Since 2016 the former CA- mmo boss Bruno Ettenauer is a consultant for PEMA, in 2017 former Austrian chancellor Werner Faymann started to support the company as a consultant; the Koch family bought 49% of the company in 2017, while Markus Schafferer remains CEO and main owner.

In 2017, PEMA started developing the former headquarter of the Creditanstalt in Vienna. The planning of the third PEMA tower, which will be developed out of the Porr tower, began in 2018, it will contain a Motel One hotel and retail space. The finalisation is planned to be in 2020; the company is owned with 51 % by 49 % by the Koch family. They operate through project corporations and buy additional services to keep the core company small and flexible