Captain is the name most given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The rank is equal to the army rank of colonel. Equivalent ranks worldwide include "ship-of-the-line captain", "captain of sea and war", "captain at sea" and "captain of the first rank"; the NATO rank code is OF-5, although the United States of America uses the code O-6 for the equivalent rank. Any naval officer who commands a ship is addressed by naval custom as "captain" while aboard in command, regardless of his or her actual rank though technically an officer of below the rank of captain is more titled the commanding officer, or C. O. Officers with the rank of captain travelling aboard a vessel they do not command should be addressed by their rank and name, but they should not be referred to as "the captain" to avoid confusion with the vessel's captain; the naval rank should not be confused with the army, air force, or marine ranks of captain, which all have the NATO code of OF-2.
On large US ships, the executive officer may be a captain in rank, in which case it would be proper to address him by rank. The XO prefers to be called "XO" to avoid confusion with the CO, a captain in rank and the captain of the ship; the same applies to senior commanders on board US aircraft carriers, where the commander and deputy commander of the embarked carrier air wing are both captains in rank, but are addressed by the titles of "CAG" and "DCAG", respectively. Captains with sea commands command ships of cruiser size or larger. In the Royal Navy, a captain might command an aircraft carrier, an amphibious assault ship, or the Ice Patrol Ship, while naval aviator and naval flight officer captains in the U. S. Navy command aircraft carriers, large-deck amphibious assault ships, carrier air wings, maritime patrol air wings, functional and specialized air wings and air groups. Maritime battlestaff commanders of one-star rank will embark on large capital ships such as aircraft carriers, which will function as the flagship for their strike group or battle group, but a captain will retain command of the actual ship, assume the title of "flag captain".
When a senior officer, in the ship's captain's chain of command is present, all orders are given through the captain. The following articles deal with the rank of captain. Captain Captain Captain Capitaine de vaisseau Kapitän zur See Kapitan of the 1st rank Kapitan of the 1st rank Sea captain Post captain Captain's cabin
Warren, Rhode Island
Warren is a town in Bristol County, Rhode Island. The population was 10,611 at the 2010 census. Warren was the site of the Indian village of Sowams, located on the peninsula called Pokanoket, Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins from the Plymouth Colony established a trading post there in 1621. In 1623, Winslow and John Hampden saved the life of Wampanoag Sachem Massasoit, gaining an important ally. In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from Salem and fled to Sowams, where he was sheltered by Massasoit until he established Providence Plantations. Permanent English settlement began east of the Indian village starting in 1653. Massasoit and his oldest son sold to certain Plymouth Colony settlers what is now Warren and parts of Barrington, Rhode Island, Swansea and Rehoboth, Massachusetts; the land was first incorporated as part of Swansea. After the death of Massasoit, relations became strained between the Indians and the settlers, leading to King Philip's War in 1675 when the Indians destroyed the settlement at Sowams.
In 1668, the township was incorporated with the name Sowams. Sowams was ceded to Rhode Island from Massachusetts in 1747 along with the Attleborough Gore, Bristol and Little Compton, Rhode Island; the town was named "Warren" after British naval hero Admiral Sir Peter Warren after a victory at Louisburg in 1745. Barrington was unified with Warren at the time, until it was separated again in 1770. Warren was the original home of Brown University, founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations; the school registered its first students in 1765 and was the Baptist answer to Congregationalist Yale and Harvard, Presbyterian Princeton, Episcopalian Penn and Columbia. It was the only one of these schools that welcomed students of all religious persuasions, following the example of Roger Williams, who founded Rhode Island in 1636 on the same principle. In the mid-18th century, the town was well known as a whaling port, ship building became an important industry.
The Revolutionary War affected Warren's commercial prosperity, the town suffered British raids in 1778 along with the rest of the region. Commerce revived within the decade after the Revolution until the middle of the 19th century, Warren was famous for the fine vessels launched from its yards; these vessels were commanded and operated by Warren crews, they engaged in whaling, merchant service, the West India trade. Three notable ships were built in Warren by Chase & Davis: the 1853 clipper Lookout, the 1853 clipper bark Gem of the Sea, the 1854 clipper bark Mary Ogden. With the decline of the whaling industry and related seafaring commerce toward the middle of the 19th century, business attention turned to textile manufacturing. Warren's first cotton mill was erected by the Warren Manufacturing Company in 1847. Further mills and factories developed during and after the Civil War, attracting an immigrant work force. Today, Warren is home to several waterfront businesses such as Blount Marine, Blount Seafood, Dyer Boats.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.6 square miles, of which 6.2 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. Warren is located on the east bank of the Warren River; as of the census of 2000, there were 11,360 people, 4,708 households, 2,994 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,845.8 people per square mile. There were 4,977 housing units at an average density of 808.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.82% White, 0.83% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population. There were 4,708 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $41,285, the median income for a family was $52,824. Males had a median income of $35,472 versus $27,023 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,448. About 5.2% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. Warren is a part of the 10th District in the Rhode Island Senate and is represented by Democrat Walter Felag Jr; the town is a part of Rhode Island's 1st congressional district at the federal level and is presently represented by Democrat David Cicilline.
It is a reliably Democratic stronghold in presidential elections, as no Republican has carried the town in over three decades. Warren United Methodist Church and Parsonage Warren Waterfront Historic District East Bay Bike Path Lou Abbruzzi, NFL football player Pat Abbruzzi, All-Star Canadian football player, RI football legend F. Nelson Blount, Founder of the Blount Seafood Corporation and steam locomotive collector. Luther Blount, Started
Metacom known as Metacomet and by his adopted English name King Philip, was chief to the Wampanoag people and the second son of the sachem Massasoit. He became a chief in 1662. Wamsutta's widow Weetamoo, sunksqua of the Pocasset, was Metacomet's ally and friend for the rest of her life. Metacomet married Weetamoo's younger sister Wootonekanuske. No one knows what happened to them all. Wootonekanuske and one of their sons were sold to slavery in the West Indies following the defeat of the Native Americans in what became known as King Philip's War. At the beginning Metacom sought to live in harmony with the colonists; as a sachem, he took the lead in much of his tribes' trade with the colonies. He adopted the European name of Philip, bought his clothes in Boston, Massachusetts, but the colonies continued to expand. To the west, the Iroquois Confederation was fighting against neighboring tribes in the Beaver Wars, pushing them from the west and encroaching on his territory. In 1671, the colonial leaders of the Plymouth Colony forced major concessions from him.
Metacomet surrendered much of his tribe's armament and ammunition, agreed that they were subject to English law. The encroachment continued until hostilities broke out in 1675. Metacomet led the opponents of the English, with the goal of stopping Puritan expansion. In the spring of 1660 Metacomet's brother Wamsutta appeared before the court of Plymouth to request that he and his brother be given English names; the court agreed and Wamsutta had his name changed to Alexander, Metacomet's was changed to Philip. Author Nathaniel Philbrick has suggested that the Wampanoag may have taken action at the urging of Wamsutta's interpreter, the Christian convert John Sassamon. Metacomet was called "King Philip" by the English. Metacomet used tribal alliances to coordinate efforts to push European colonists out of New England. Many of the native tribes in the region wanted to push out the colonists following conflicts over land use, diminished game as a consequence of expanding European settlement, other tensions.
As the colonists brought their growing numbers to bear, King Philip and some of his followers took refuge in the great Assowamset Swamp in southern Massachusetts. He held out with his family and remaining followers. Hunted by a group of rangers led by Captain Benjamin Church, he was fatally shot by a praying Indian named John Alderman, on August 12, 1676, in the Misery Swamp near Mount Hope in Bristol, Rhode Island. After his death, his wife and nine-year-old son were sold as slaves in Bermuda. Philip's head was mounted on a pike at the entrance to Plymouth, where it remained for more than two decades, his body was hung in trees. Alderman was given Metacomet's right hand as a trophy. Mary Rowlandson, taken captive during a raid on Lancaster, Massachusetts wrote a memoir about her captivity, described meeting with Metacomet while she was held by his followers. Washington Irving relates a romanticized but sympathetic version of Metacomet's life in the 1820 sketch "Philip of Pokanoket," published in his collected stories, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent..
John Augustus Stone wrote Metamora. In his short story "The Devil and Daniel Webster", Stephen Vincent Benet portrays Metacom as a villain to the colonists, as being killed by a blow to the head. Webster is portrayed as respecting Metacomet as one of those who "formed American history." Metacomet, together with other famous historical villains, takes Webster's side against the Devil. In the film he is replaced by the Black Monk. Metacomet is featured in the 1995 film The Scarlet Letter as the Wampanoag's new chief after his father's death. David Kerr Chivers' Metacomet's War is an historical novel about King Philip's War. Narragansett journalist John Christian Hopkins's novel, Carlomagno, is a historical novel that imagines Metacomet's son becoming a pirate after having been sold into slavery in the West Indies; the novel "My Father's Kingdom" focuses on the events leading to King Philip's War. Numerous places are named after Metacomet: Metacomet Mill in Fall River, built in 1847 and named for the chief, is the oldest remaining textile mill in the city.
King Philip Stockade, a large park named after the chief, where the Pocumtuc Indians planned and began the Sack of Springfield, is now a part of Forest Park in Springfield King Philip Mills in Fall River, built 1871 The USS Metacomet, an 1863 United States Navy ship The Metacomet Ridge, a 100-mile long mountain range in southern New England The 51-mile Metacomet Trail in central Connecticut The 110-mile Metacomet-Monadnock Trail in the Connecticut River Valley of Massachusetts and southern New Hampshire Metacomet Country Club, a golf course in East Providence, Rhode Island Metacomet Park in Medfield, Massachusetts The Metacomet parcel of conservation land within the Black Brook Management Area in Easton, Massachusetts Metacom Avenue, a major road running through Bristol and Warren, Rhode Island Metacomet Avenues in Ocean Grove and South Deerfield, Massachusetts Metacomet Lane in Franklin, Massachusetts Metacomet Road in Longmeadow, Massachusetts Metacomet Streets in Wrentham and Belchertown, Massachusetts Multiple Metacomet street names surrounding the Metacomet Trail in Connecticut Mettacomet Path, a street in Harvard, Massachusetts Metacomet Drive in San Antonio, Texas Metacomet Lake, a point of inte
King Philip's War
King Philip's War was an armed conflict in 1675–78 between Indian inhabitants of New England and New England colonists and their Indian allies. The war is named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the name Philip because of the friendly relations between his father Massasoit and the Mayflower Pilgrims; the war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April 1678. Massasoit had maintained a long-standing alliance with the colonists. Metacom was his younger son, he became tribal chief in 1662 after Massasoit's death. Metacom, did not maintain his father's alliance between the Wampanoags and the colonists; the colonists insisted. Colonial militia and Indian raiding parties spread over Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Maine over the next six months; the Narragansetts remained neutral, but several individual Narragansetts participated in raids of colonial strongholds and militia, so colonial leaders deemed the Narragansetts to be in violation of peace treaties.
They assembled the largest colonial army that New England had yet mustered, consisting of 1,000 militia and 150 Indian allies, Governor Josiah Winslow marshaled them to attack the Narragansetts in November 1675. They attacked and burned Indian villages throughout Rhode Island territory, culminating with the attack on the Narragansetts' main fort called the Great Swamp Fight. An estimated 150 Narragansetts were killed, many of them women and children, the Indian coalition was taken over by Narragansett sachem Canonchet, they pushed back the colonial frontier in Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island colonies, burning towns as they went, including Providence in March 1676. However, the colonial militia overwhelmed the Indian coalition and, by the end of the war, the Wampanoags and their Narragansett allies were completely destroyed. Metacom fled to Mount Hope where he was killed by the militia; the war was the greatest calamity to occur in seventeenth-century New England and is considered by many to be the deadliest war in the history of American colonization.
In the space of little more than a year, 12 of the region's towns were destroyed and many more were damaged, the economy of Plymouth and Rhode Island Colonies was all but ruined and their population was decimated, losing one-tenth of all men available for military service. More than half of New England's towns were attacked by Indians. King Philip's War began the development of an independent American identity; the New England colonists faced their enemies without support from any outside government or military, this gave them a group identity separate and distinct from Britain. The Pilgrims who arrived on the Mayflower and founded Plymouth Plantation expended great effort forging friendship and peace with the Indians around Cape Cod, they traveled long distances to make peace with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag tribe, Governor William Bradford made a gift of his prized red horse coat upon seeing that the chief admired it. Yet over the next 50 years and misunderstandings multiplied as wave after wave of Puritans and non-religious "strangers" kept arriving oblivious to the fragile peace woven since the earliest arrivals.
By 1675, the early efforts at friendship failed. King Philip's War joined a list of uprisings and conflicts between various Indian tribes and the French and English colonial settlements of Canada, New York, New England; these include the Powhatan wars of 1610–14, 1622–32, 1644–46 in Virginia, the Pequot War of 1637 in Connecticut, the Dutch-Indian war of 1643 along the Hudson River, the Iroquois Beaver Wars of 1650. Throughout the Northeast, the Indians had suffered severe population losses as a result of epidemics of smallpox, spotted fever and measles starting in about 1618, two years before the Pilgrims established Plymouth Colony. Plymouth Colony was established in 1620 with significant early help from local Indians Squanto and Massasoit. Subsequent colonists founded Salem and many small towns around Massachusetts Bay between 1628 and 1640, during a time of increased English immigration, as well as towns such as Windsor, Newbury, Hartford, Springfield, Northampton and Providence, Rhode Island.
The colonists progressively expanded throughout the territories of the several Algonquian-speaking tribes in the region. Prior to King Philip's War, tensions fluctuated between Indian tribes and the colonists, but relations were peaceful; the Rhode Island, Massachusetts Bay and New Haven colonies each developed separate relations with the Wampanoags, Narragansetts, Mohegans and other tribes of New England, whose territories had differing boundaries. Many of the neighboring tribes had been traditional enemies; as the colonial population increased, the New Englanders expanded their settlements along the region's coastal plain and up the Connecticut River valley. By 1675, they had established a few small towns in the interior between Boston and the Connecticut River settlements; the Wampanoag tribe under Metacomet's leadership had entered into an agreement with the Plymouth Colony and believed that they could rely on the colony for protection. However, in the decades preceding the war
United States Rubber Company
The United States Rubber Company is an American manufacturer of tires and other synthetic rubber-related products, as well as variety of items for military use, such as ammunition and operations and maintenance activities at the government-owned contractor-operated facilities. It was founded in Naugatuck, Connecticut, in 1892, it was one of the original 12 stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, became Uniroyal, Inc. as part of creating a unified brand for its products and subsidiaries in 1961. In 1990, Uniroyal was acquired by French tire maker Michelin and ceased to exist as a separate business. Today around 1,000 workers in the U. S. remain employed by Michelin to make its Uniroyal brand products. The company's long-lived advertisement slogan was "United States Tires are Good Tires."One of Uniroyal's best known tires is the Tiger Paw introduced in the 1960s and included as original equipment for that decade's muscle cars such as the Pontiac GTO, which itself was promoted as The Tiger during its early years.
Today, Uniroyal still uses the Tiger Paw brand name in its tire line. In North America and Peru, the Uniroyal brand has been owned by Michelin since 1990, outside those regions, the Uniroyal brand has been owned by Continental AG since 1979 following their acquisition of Uniroyal Europe known as Englebert. By 1892, there were many rubber manufacturing companies in Naugatuck, Connecticut, as well as elsewhere in Connecticut. Nine companies consolidated their operations in Naugatuck to become the United States Rubber Company, it should be noted that one of the nine, Goodyear's India Rubber Glove Mfg. Co. – which manufactured rubber gloves for telegraph linemen – was the only company in which Charles Goodyear, inventor of the rubber vulcanization process, is known to have owned stock. From 1892 to 1913, the rubber footwear divisions of U. S. Rubber manufactured their products under 30 different brand names, including the Wales-Goodyear Shoe Co; the company consolidated these footwear brands under one name, Keds, in 1916, were mass-marketed as the first flexible rubber-sole with canvas-top "sneakers" in 1917.
On May 26, 1896, Charles Dow created the Dow Industrial average of twelve industrial manufacturing stocks, which included among them U. S. Rubber Company; when the average expanded to a list of 20 stocks in 1916, U. S. Rubber remained, however the listing expanded to 30 stocks in 1928 and U. S. Rubber was dropped. In an effort to increase its share of the automobile tire market in 1931, U. S. Rubber Company bought a substantial portion of the Gillette Safety Tire Company; the company was founded in 1916 by Raymond B. Gillette and its primary manufacturing plant was located in Wisconsin; the Gillette plant held large contracts with the General Motors Corporation and with the addition of U. S. Rubber products, became one of the world's largest suppliers of original equipment tires. U. S. Rubber produced tires under the Gillette, Atlas, U. S. Rubber and U. S. Royal brands. In 1940, U. S. Rubber purchased the remainder of the Gillette Safety Tire Company, began to expand and modernize the Eau Claire factory increasing production.
During World War II, U. S. Rubber factories were devoted to production of war goods, produced military truck and airplane tires, as well as the canvas-top, rubber-soled Jungle boot for soldiers and marines serving in tropical and jungle environments. U. S. Rubber ranked 37th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. In 1942, the United States government restricted the sale of scarce rubber products for civilian use and production at the plant dwindled; the company sold the Eau Claire plant to the government, which converted it for the manufacture of small caliber ammunition and renamed it the Eau Claire Ordnance plant. By December 31, 1943, the need for tires outweighed the need for ammunition. U. S. Rubber repurchased the plant from the government for more than US$1 million, converted it back to synthetic rubber tire production; the company began an expansion and modernization program at the plant that lasted through 1951. When it ended, the Eau Claire plant was the fifth largest tire facility in the United States.
The company again expanded the plant in 1965 to produce tires for construction machinery, for many years it was the largest private employer in Eau Claire and the second largest in neighboring Chippewa Falls before it was closed in 1991. In late 1943, U. S. Rubber engineer Dr. Louis Marick developed a propeller de-icing system in which a rubber boot was fitted onto the leading edge of a propeller; the boot contained wires that conducted electricity to heat the break-up ice. In 1958, Uniroyal entered into a partnership with the Englebert tire company of Liège, which became known as Uniroyal Englebert Deutschland AG. In 1963, the name was shortened to Uniroyal-Englebert, in 1967 it became Uniroyal along with all company divisions. Uniroyal sold this division with its four factories in Belgium, Germany and Scotland to Continental AG in 1979. Continental continues to market tires under the Uniroyal brand outside Colombia and Peru. Uniroyal operations in Canada were carried out under the name Dominion Rubber Company for a number of decades.
Dominion started operations as Brown and Bourne, established in 1854. In 1866, the company registered as the Canadian Rubber Company of Montreal Limited and became prosperous manufacturing waterproof cloth, rubber footwear and machinery belts, it began to produce auto tires in 1906 in its Montreal factory and through a series of mergers with other companies in Ontario and Quebec became the Canadian Consolidated Rubber Company Limited. After another series of mergers, the company became the Domini
Rhode Island the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest state in area, the seventh least populous, the second most densely populated, it has the longest official name of any state. Rhode Island is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, the Atlantic Ocean to the south via Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound, it shares a small maritime border with New York. Providence is most populous city in Rhode Island. On May 4, 1776, the Colony of Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown, it was the fourth among the newly independent states to ratify the Articles of Confederation on February 9, 1778; the state boycotted the 1787 convention which drew up the United States Constitution and refused to ratify it. Rhode Island's official nickname is "The Ocean State", a reference to the large bays and inlets that amount to about 14 percent of its total area.
Despite its name, most of Rhode Island is located on the mainland of the United States. Its official name is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, derived from the merger of four Colonial settlements; the settlements of Newport and Portsmouth were situated on what is called Aquidneck Island today, but it was called Rhode Island in Colonial times. Providence Plantation was the name of the colony founded by Roger Williams in the area now known as the city of Providence; this was adjoined by the settlement of Warwick. It is unclear how the island came to be named Rhode Island, but two historical events may have been of influence: Explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano noted the presence of an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay in 1524 which he likened to the island of Rhodes. Subsequent European explorers were unable to identify the island that Verrazzano had named, but the Pilgrims who colonized the area assumed that it was this island. Adriaen Block passed by the island during his expeditions in the 1610s, he described it in a 1625 account of his travels as "an island of reddish appearance,", "een rodlich Eylande" in 17th-century Dutch, one popular notion is that this Dutch phrase might have influenced the name Rhode Island.
The earliest documented use of the name "Rhode Island" for Aquidneck was in 1637 by Roger Williams. The name was applied to the island in 1644 with these words: "Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island." The name "Isle of Rodes" is used in a legal document as late as 1646. Dutch maps as early as 1659 call the island "Red Island". Roger Williams was a theologian, forced out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, seeking religious and political tolerance, he and others founded Providence Plantation as a free proprietary colony. "Providence" referred to the concept of divine providence, "plantation" was an English term for a colony. "State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations" is the longest official name of any state in the Union. In recent years, the word plantation in the state's name became a contested issue, the Rhode Island General Assembly voted on June 25, 2009 to hold a general referendum determining whether "and Providence Plantations" would be dropped from the official name.
Advocates for excising plantation claimed that the word symbolized an alleged legacy of disenfranchisement for many Rhode Islanders, as well as the proliferation of slavery in the colonies and in the post-colonial United States. Rhode Island abolished slavery in 1652, but the law was not enforced and, by the early 18th century, it was "the epicenter of the North American slave trade", according to the Brown Daily Herald. Advocates for retaining the name argued that plantation was an archaic synonym for colony and bore no relation to slavery; the referendum election was held on November 2, 2010, the people voted overwhelmingly to retain the entire original name. In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views, he settled at the top of Narragansett Bay on land sold or given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus, he named the site Providence Plantations, "having a sense of God's merciful providence unto me in my distress", it became a place of religious freedom where all were welcome.
In 1638, Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington, John Clarke, Philip Sherman, other religious dissenters settled on Aquidneck Island, purchased from the local tribes who called it Pocasset. This settlement was governed by the Portsmouth Compact; the southern part of the island became the separate settlement of Newport after disagreements among the founders. Samuel Gorton purchased lands at Shawomet in 1642 from the Narragansetts, precipitating a dispute with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1644, Providence and Newport united for their common independence as the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, governed by an elected council and "president". Gorton received a separate charter for his settlement in 1648 which he named Warwick after his patron. Brown University was founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it was one of nine Colonial colleges granted charters before the American Revolution, but was the first college in America to accept students regardless of religious affilia