Cirencester is a market town in east Gloucestershire, England, 80 miles west northwest of London. Cirencester lies on the River Churn, a tributary of the River Thames, is the largest town in the Cotswold District, it is the home of the Royal Agricultural University, the oldest agricultural college in the English-speaking world, founded in 1840. The town's Corinium Museum is well known for its extensive Roman collection; the Roman name for the town was Corinium, thought to have been associated with the ancient British tribe of the Dobunni, having the same root word as the River Churn. The earliest known reference to the town was by Ptolemy in AD 150. Cirencester is twinned with Germany. Cirencester lies on an outcrop of oolitic limestone. Natural drainage is into the River Churn, which flows north to south through the eastern side of the town and joins the Thames near Cricklade a little to the south; the Thames itself rises just a few miles west of Cirencester. The town is split into five main areas: the town centre, the suburbs of Chesterton, Stratton and The Beeches.
The village of Siddington to the south of the town is now contiguous with Watermoor. Other suburbs include New Mills; the area and population of these 5 electoral wards are identical to that quoted above. The town serves as a centre for surrounding villages, providing employment, shops and education, as a commuter town for larger centres such as Cheltenham and Stroud. Cirencester is the hub of a significant road network with important routes to Gloucester, Leamington Spa, Wantage, Chippenham, Bristol and Stroud. However, only Gloucester, Cheltenham and Swindon have slow bus connections; these good roads bring the town passing trade. Although the ring road and bypass take traffic away from the town centre, both roads have busy service areas with adequate parking. Since closure of the Kemble to Cirencester branch line to Cirencester Town in 1964 the town has become one of the largest in the region without its own rail station; however Kemble railway station, 3.7 miles away, serves as a railhead. It provides regular services between Swindon and Gloucester, with peak-time direct trains to London Paddington station.
The nearest airports are Bristol Airport, Cotswold Airport at Kemble and Birmingham. Cirencester is known to have been an important early Roman area, along with St. Albans and Colchester, the town includes evidence of significant area roadworks; the Romans built a fort where the Fosse Way crossed the Churn, to hold two quingenary alae tasked with helping to defend the provincial frontier around AD 49, native Dobunni were drawn from Bagendon, a settlement 3 miles to the north, to create a civil settlement near the fort. When the frontier moved to the north after the conquest of Wales, this fort was closed and its fortifications levelled around the year 70, but the town persisted and flourished under the name Corinium. In Roman times, there was a thriving wool trade and industry, which contributed to the growth of Corinium. A large forum and basilica were built over the site of the fort, archaeological evidence shows signs of further civic growth. There are many Roman remains in the surrounding area, including several Roman villas near the villages of Chedworth and Withington.
When a wall was built around the Roman city in the late 2nd century, it enclosed 240 acres, making Corinium the second-largest city by area in Britain. The details of the provinces of Britain following the Diocletian Reforms around 296 remain unclear, but Corinium is now thought to have been the capital of Britannia Prima; some historians would date to this period the pillar erected by the governor Lucius Septimus to the god Jupiter, a local sign of the pagan reaction against Christianity during the principate of Julian the Apostate. The Roman amphitheatre still exists in an area known as the Querns to the south-west of the town, but has only been excavated. Investigations in the town show that it was fortified in the 6th centuries. Andrew Breeze argued that Gildas received his education in Cirencester in the early 6th century, showing that it was still able to provide an education in Latin rhetoric and law at that time; this was the palace of one of the British kings defeated by Ceawlin in 577.
It was the scene of the Battle of Cirencester, this time between the Mercian king Penda and the West Saxon kings Cynegils and Cwichelm in 628. The minster church of Cirencester, founded in the 9th or 10th century, was a royal foundation, it was made over to Augustinian canons in the 12th century, replaced by the great abbey church. At the Norman Conquest the royal manor of Cirencester was granted to the Earl of Hereford, William Fitz-Osbern, but by 1075 it had reverted to the Crown; the manor was granted to Cirencester Abbey, founded by Henry I in 1117, following half a century of building work during which the minster church was demolished, the great abbey church was dedicated in 1176. The manor was granted to the Abbey in 1189, although a royal charter dated 1133 speaks of burgesses in the town; the struggle of the townsmen to gain the rights and privileges of a borough for Cirencester began in the same year, when they were amerced for a false presentment. Four inquisitions during the 13th century supported the abbot's claims, yet the townspeople remained unwavering in their quest for borough status: in 1342, they lodged a Bill of compla
The Great Conspiracy was a year-long state of war and disorder that occurred in Roman Britain near the end of the Roman occupation of the island. The historian Ammianus Marcellinus described it as a barbarica conspiratio that capitalized on a depleted military force in the province brought about by Magnentius' losses at the Battle of Mursa Major after his unsuccessful bid to become emperor, it is difficult to ascertain the exact chronology of the events because the main source—Ammianus—was living in Antioch at that time. As a consequence there are several different views of. In the winter of 367, the Roman garrison on Hadrian's Wall rebelled, allowed Picts from Caledonia to enter Britannia. Attacotti, the Scotti from Hibernia, Saxons from Germania landed in what might have been coordinated and pre-arranged waves on the island's mid-western and southeastern borders, respectively. Franks and Saxons landed in northern Gaul; these warbands managed to overwhelm nearly all of the loyal Roman settlements.
The entire western and northern areas of Britannia were overwhelmed, the cities sacked and the civilian Romano-British murdered, raped, or enslaved. Nectaridus, the comes maritime tractus, was killed and the Dux Britanniarum, was either besieged or captured and the remaining loyal army units stayed garrisoned inside southeastern cities; the miles areani or local Roman agents that provided intelligence on barbarian movements seem to have betrayed their paymasters for bribes, making the attacks unexpected. Deserting soldiers and escaped slaves roamed the countryside and turned to robbery to support themselves. Although the chaos was widespread and concerted, the aims of the rebels were personal enrichment and they worked as small bands rather than larger armies. Historian Ian Hughes argued that it is Nectaridus and Fullofaudes were killed by Saxon and Frankish raiders along the coast of Gaul, rather than by enemies in Britain, although Hughes's account lacks historical evidence. Emperor Valentinian I was campaigning against the Alamanni at the time and unable to respond personally.
A series of commanders to act in his stead were chosen but swiftly recalled. The first was Severus, the emperor's comes domesticorum, soon recalled and replaced by Jovinus, the magister equitum. Jovinus wrote back to Valentinian requesting reinforcements; the Emperor recalled Jovinus—probably to take part in a campaign along the Rhine, a higher priority—and sent out Flavius Theodosius. Historian Ian Hughes argued that Severus and Jovinus were never sent to Britain, it being unlikely they would go all that way and come back, he proposed the following alternative chronology: June 367 – Valentinian informed of Saxon and Frankish raids along the coast of Gaul which resulted in the deaths of Nectaridus and Fullofaudes. In the spring of 368, a relief force commanded by Flavius Theodosius gathered at Bononia, it included four units, Heruli and Victores as well as his son, the Emperor Theodosius I and the usurper Magnus Maximus, his nephew. Theodosius took advantage of a break in the winter weather to cross the Channel to Richborough, leaving the rest of his troops at Bononia to await better weather.
This enabled Theodosius to gather vital intelligence. He discovered that the British troops had either been refused to fight or deserted. Once the troops landed, Theodosius marched with them to Londinium. There he began to deal with the invaders: There he divided his troops into many parts and attacked the predatory bands of the enemy, which were ranging about and were laden with heavy packs, and when all this had been restored to them, except for a small part, allotted to the wearied soldiers, he entered the city, plunged into the greatest difficulties, but had been restored more than rescue could have been expected, rejoicing and as if celebrating an ovation. An amnesty was promised to deserters. A new Dux Britanniarum was appointed, with Civilis granted vicarius status to head a new civilian administration. After discovering that the local areani had collaborated with the invaders, Theodosius removed them from their positions. By the end of the year, the barbarians had been driven back to their homelands.
Theodosius overcame and defeated the force of Valentinus, a Pannonian, exiled to Britain and joined the invaders. Considerable reorganization was undertaken in Britain, including the creation of a new province named Valentia to better address the state of the far north. Claudian suggests, it is possible that Theodosius mounted punitive expeditions a
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The Carausian Revolt was an episode in Roman history, during which a Roman naval commander, declared himself emperor over Britain and northern Gaul. His Gallic territories were retaken by the western Caesar Constantius Chlorus in 293, after which Carausius was assassinated by his subordinate Allectus. Britain was regained by Constantius and his subordinate Asclepiodotus in 296. Carausius, a Menapian of humble birth, rose through the ranks of the Roman military and was appointed to a naval command at Bononia, tasked with clearing the English Channel of Frankish and Saxon raiders. However, he was accused of collaborating with the pirates to enrich himself, the western Augustus, ordered him to be put to death. Carausius responded by declaring himself emperor in Britain, his forces comprised not only his fleet, augmented by new ships he had built, the three legions stationed in Britain, but a legion he had seized in Gaul, a number of foreign auxiliary units, a levy of Gaulish merchant ships, barbarian mercenaries attracted by the prospect of booty.
A panegyric delivered to Maximian in AD 288 or 289 refers to the emperor preparing an invasion to oust Carausius. A panegyric to Constantius Chlorus says that this invasion failed due to bad weather, although Carausius claimed it as a military victory, Eutropius says that hostilities were in vain thanks to Carausius's military skill, peace was agreed. Carausius began to entertain visions of official recognition, he minted his own coins and brought their value into line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and Diocletian. This suggests that he would have been willing to participate in a rapprochement, if the others had agreed, he appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae and Genius Britanniae. Britain had been part of the Gallic Empire established by Postumus in 260, which had included Gaul and Hispania and had only been restored by Aurelian in 274. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.
In 293 Constantius Chlorus, now the western Caesar, isolated Carausius by retaking the territory he held in Gaul. He besieged the port of Bononia, building a mole across the harbour mouth to prevent the rebels from escaping by sea and ensure they could not receive maritime aid, invaded Batavia in the Rhine delta, securing his rear against Carausius's Frankish allies. However, it was impossible to mount an invasion of Britain. Carausius, in power for seven years, was assassinated by his subordinate Allectus, who assumed command. Three years in 296, the reconquest of Britain began. With Maximian holding the Rhine frontier, Constantius divided his fleet into several divisions, he led one division himself from Bononia. They set sail in poor weather, but fog allowed Asclepiodotus's ships to pass Allectus's fleet, stationed at the Isle of Wight, unseen, they burned their ships. The rebels were forced to retreat from the coast, but in doing so, fell into the hands of another division and were routed. Allectus himself was killed in the battle, having removed all insignia in the hope that his body would not be identified.
Archaeology suggests. A group of Roman troops, separated from the main body by the fog during the channel crossing, caught up with the remnants of Allectus's men Franks, at Londinium, massacred them. Constantius himself, it seems, did not reach Britain until it was all over, the panegyrist claims he was welcomed by the Britons as a liberator. At some point following the island's recovery by the Empire, the Diocletian Reforms were introduced: Britain as a whole became the Diocese of the Britains under the administration of the Prefecture of the Gauls based in Augusta Treverorum and was divided from two provinces into four or five. Carausius, Allectus and Constantius appear in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae in distorted guise, as rulers of Britain. Here, Carausius is a native Briton who persuades the Romans to give him a naval command, uses that to overthrow the king of Britain, Bassianus, or Caracalla; the Romans send Allectus with three legions to remove him, but Allectus proves an oppressive ruler, Asclepiodotus, here a duke of Cornwall, leads a popular uprising to depose him.
He defeats Allectus near London, besieges his last legion in the city. The Romans surrender on the condition they are allowed safe passage out of Britain, which Asclepiodotus grants, but his allies the Venedoti behead them and throw their heads in the river Gallobroc. Ten years Asclepiodotus is deposed by Coel, duke of Colchester, for his part in the persecution of Christians under Diocletian; the Romans send Constantius to negotiate with him. Coel agrees to pay tribute to Rome and gives Constantius his daughter Helena in marriage, upon his death Constantius becomes the new king of Britain. Casey, P. J.. Carausius and Allectus: The British Usurpers. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203974353. Clayson, Alan. "Ahead of his time: Carausius was a pirate, a rebel and the first ruler of a unified Britain". The Independent. Retrieved 10 July 2014. Vagi, David. "Coins document revolt of Carausius". Coin World. Retrieved 10 July 2014
End of Roman rule in Britain
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain. Roman rule ended in different parts of Britain at different times, under different circumstances. In 383, the usurper Magnus Maximus withdrew troops from northern and western Britain leaving local warlords in charge. Around 410, the Romano-British expelled the magistrates of the usurper Constantine III, ostensibly in response to his failures to use the Roman garrison he had stripped from Britain to protect the island. Roman Emperor Honorius replied to a request for assistance with the Rescript of Honorius, telling the Roman cities to see to their own defence, a tacit acceptance of temporary British self-government. Honorius was fighting a large-scale war in Italy against the Visigoths under their leader Alaric, with Rome itself under siege. No forces could be spared to protect distant Britain. Though it is that Honorius expected to regain control over the provinces soon, by the mid-6th century Procopius recognised that Roman control of Britannia was lost.
By the early 5th century, the Roman Empire could no longer defend itself against either internal rebellion or the external threat posed by Germanic tribes expanding in Western Europe. This situation and its consequences governed the eventual permanence of Britain's detachment from the rest of the Empire. In the late 4th century, the empire was controlled by members of a dynasty that included the Emperor Theodosius I; this family retained political power within itself and formed alliances by intermarriage with other dynasties, at the same time engaging in internecine power struggles and fighting off outside contenders attempting to replace the ruling dynasty with one of their own. These internal machinations drained the Empire of both civilian resources. Many thousands of soldiers were lost in battling attempted coups by figures such as Firmus, Magnus Maximus and Eugenius; the Empire's historical relationship with Germanic tribes was sometimes hostile, at other times cooperative, but fatal, as it was unable to prevent those tribes from assuming a dominant role in the relationship.
By the early 5th century, as a result of severe losses and depleted tax income, the Western Roman Empire's military forces were dominated by Germanic troops, Romanised Germans played a significant role in the empire's internal politics. Various Germanic and other tribes beyond the frontiers were able to take advantage of the Empire's weakened state, both to expand into Roman territory and, in some cases, to move their entire populations into lands once considered Roman, culminating in various successful migrations from 406 onwards; the crossing of the Rhine caused intense fear in Britannia, prone as it was to being cut off from the Empire by raids on the primary communications route from Italy, to Trier to the Channel Coast. In the event, this was much more than just another raid. In 383, the Roman general assigned to Britain, Magnus Maximus, launched his successful bid for imperial power, crossing to Gaul with his troops, he ruled Gaul and Britain as Caesar. 383 is the last date for any evidence of a Roman presence in the north and west of Britain excepting troop assignments at the tower on Holyhead Mountain in Anglesey and at western coastal posts such as Lancaster.
These outposts may have lasted into the 390s, but they were a minor presence, intended to stop attacks and settlement by groups from Ireland. Coins dated than 383 have been excavated along Hadrian's Wall, suggesting that troops were not stripped from it, as once thought or, if they were, they were returned as soon as Maximus had won his victory in Gaul. In the De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written c. 540, Gildas attributed an exodus of troops and senior administrators from Britain to Maximus, saying that he left not only with all of its troops, but with all of its armed bands and the flower of its youth, never to return. Raids by Saxons and the Scoti of Ireland had been ongoing in the late 4th century, but these increased in the years after 383. There were large-scale permanent Irish settlements made along the coasts of Wales under circumstances that remain unclear. Maximus campaigned in Britain against both the Picts and Scoti, with historians differing on whether this was in the year 382 or 384.
Welsh legend relates that before launching his usurpation, Maximus made preparations for an altered governmental and defence framework for the beleaguered provinces. Figures such as Coel Hen were said to be placed into key positions to protect the island in Maximus' absence; as such claims were designed to buttress Welsh genealogy and land claims, they should be viewed with some scepticism. In 388, Maximus led his army across the Alps into Italy in an attempt to claim the purple; the effort failed when he was defeated in Pannonia at the Battle of the Save and at the Battle of Poetovio. He was executed by Theodosius. With Maximus' death, Britain came back under the rule of Emperor Theodosius I until 392, when the usurper Eugenius would bid for imperial power in the Western Roman Empire, surviving until 394 when he was defeated and killed by Theodosius; when Theodosius died in 395, his 10-year-old son Honorius succeeded him as Western Roman Emperor. The real power behind the throne, was Stilicho, the son-in-law of Theodosius' brother and the father-in-law of Honorius.
Britain was suffering raids by the Scoti and Picts and, sometime between 396 and 398, Stilicho ordered a campaign against the Picts, li