There have been several British 21-inch diameter torpedoes used by the Royal Navy since their first development just before the First World War. The 21-inch was the largest size of torpedo in common use in the RN, they were used by surface ships and submarines rather than aircraft which used smaller 18-inch torpedoes. The first British 21-inch torpedo came in two lengths, "Short" at 17 ft 10.5 in, "Long" at 23 ft 1.25 in. The explosive charge was 200 lb of gun cotton increased to 225 lb; the Mark II, chiefly used by destroyers, entered service in 1914. Apart from some older British ships, it was used with the old US Town-class destroyers provided to the UK during the early part of the Second World War; the running speed was reduced from 45 knots for better reliability. The Mark II *, an improved Mark II was used by battlecruisers. A wet heater design, it could run for 4.1 km at 45 knots. From 1912, used by destroyers and other surface ships and was an important weapon in the first World War. In the Second World War they were carried on HMS Hood.
The Mark V was used by the A and B-class destroyers and, with modification, by the Kent-class heavy cruisers. The Mark VII was issued for use on the British heavy cruisers. Designed in the mid-1920s the County-class cruisers were built at the same time in the post Washington Naval Treaty period; the power came from the use of oxygen enriched air, though torpedo stocks were converted to run on normal air at the start of the Second World War. Specifications: Mark VIII Entered Service: 1927 Weight: 3,452 lb Length: 259 inches Explosive Charge: 750 lb TNT Range & Speed: 5,000 yards / 40 knotsEarly Mark VIII** Range & Speed: 5,000 yards / 45.6 knots Explosive Charge: 722 lb TorpexLate Mark VIII** Range & Speed: 7,000 yards / 41 knots Explosive Charge: 805 lb TorpexThe Mark VIII was designed around 1925 and was the first British burner-cycle design torpedo. It was used from 1927 on submarines of the O class motor torpedo boats; the principal World War II version was the improved Mark VIII**, 3,732 being fired by September 1944.
The torpedo is still in service with the Royal Navy albeit in a limited role, with the Royal Norwegian Navy until 1993. The Mark VIII** was used in two notable incidents: On 9 February 1945 the Royal Navy submarine HMS Venturer sank the German submarine U-864 with four Mark VIII** torpedoes; this is the only intentional wartime sinking of one submarine by another. On 2 May 1982 the Royal Navy submarine HMS Conqueror sank the Argentine cruiser ARA General Belgrano with three Mark VIII** torpedoes during the Falklands War; this is the only sinking of a surface ship by a nuclear-powered submarine in wartime. First appeared in 1930 and was improved by 1939. Used on Leander and cruisers, "A" and destroyer classes. Replaced the old Mark VII in some 8" cruisers during the war. From 1939, used by submarines, motor torpedo boats and destroyers from other navies such as the Grom. Electric battery powered torpedo with a 322 kg TNT warhead. Entering service during the Second World War it was used by destroyers.
At first codenamed Ferry Fancy, the Mark 12 never reached production. From 1952, it had a warhead of 340 kg Torpex. Using high test peroxide fuel, it attained a top speed of 28 knots for 5 km. There were accidents during testing caused by the unstable nature of high test peroxide. One such engine explosion, after loading aboard the submarine HMS Sidon, caused enough damage to have the submarine taken permanently out of service. Mark 12 torpedoes were out of service in 1959 and the programme was cancelled. Developed under the codename "Bidder", the Mark 20 was a passive-seeker battery-powered torpedo for use by surface ships and submarines; the E variant was not long in service due to problems with its programming. This led to several of the frigates that were intended to have used them never being fitted with torpedo tubes or having them removed, it was replaced in the submarine service in the 1980s by Tigerfish. A project for an autonomous active/passive sonar torpedo to be carried by the Short Sturgeon anti-submarine aircraft.
It was cancelled after protracted work but the seeker development was used in Tigerfish. A wire-guided version of the Mark 20 produced by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering as a private venture. A wire-guided version of the Mark 20. Entered service in 1971 although obsolescent, serving only as an interim before Tigerfish entered service; the MK23 was fitted with a 10,000 m outboard dispenser that contains a control wire to guide the weapon, During 1973, all of the RN torpedoes had to be taken out of service as the control system was failing at extreme range. After months of investigation, it was discovered that the fault lay in the Guidance Unit made by GEC. A germanium diode in the AGC circuit had been replaced by a silicon diode, following an instruction by RN stores that all germanium diodes had to be replaced by silicon diodes; the silicon diode's different characteristics caused the automatic gain control circuit to fail. Once the mistake was found, replacing the diode with the original type cured the problem.
The first Tigerfish entered service in 1980. Tigerfish was removed from service in 2004. There were several models of Tiger
The Circus is an oil on canvas painting by Georges Seurat. It was his last painting, made in a Neo-Impressionist style in 1890-91, remained unfinished at his death in March 1891; the painting is located at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris. The painting was Seurat's third major work treating the theme of the circus, after his Parade of 1887-88 and Le Chahut of 1889-90, it depicts a female performer standing on a horse at the Circus Fernando. The Circus Médrano was located at the corner of the Rue des Martyrs and the Boulevard de Rochechouart, close to Seurat's studio, it was a popular entertainment in Paris, depicted in the 1880s by other artists such as Renoir and Toulouse-Lautrec. Seurat makes use of Charles Henry's theories on the emotional and symbolic meaning of lines and colours, the works of Chevreul and Ogden Rood on complementary colours, he was influenced by Japanese prints, the graphic works of Jules Chéret. The work is similar to chromolithograph Au cirque by Karl Gampenrieder, but it is not clear if Seurat had seen it.
The work measures 185 × 152 centimetres. Seurat used a Neo-Impressionist Divisionist style, with pointillist dots creating the sense of other colours; the work is dominated by white and the three primary colours red and yellow with blue shading. A deeper blue border painted around the edge of the canvas, merging into a flat frame in the same shade of blue; the painting is divided into two spaces, with the circus artists occupying the lower right, characterised by curves and spirals creating a sense of movement, the audience occupying the upper left, confined to rows of benches. The audience shows the distinctions between social classes sitting in rows, from the well-dressed higher classes near the front to the lower classes in the gallery at the back. A sense of space is created by the whiteface clown in the foreground, facing away from the viewer, the tiers of bleachers. Another pair of clowns are tumbling to the right behind the ringmaster. Seurat made few preparatory studies, using few colours.
Le Cirque was first exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in an unfinished state. The work remained unfinished at Seurat's death a few days later: in places, the white ground and a grid of blue lines used by Seurat to create his composition are still visible. Early critics complained. Others saw it as a forerunner of Cubism; the painting was returned to Seurat's mother after the exhibition in 1891, she hung it in the room in the Boulevard de Magenta where he had died. The painting was acquired by Paul Signac around 1900, by American collector John Quinn, who donated the painting to the Louvre in 1927, it was exhibited at the Musée du Luxembourg, the Musée National d'Art Moderne and the Galerie du Jeu de Paume. It has been located at the Musée d'Orsay since 1977. Georges Seurat, Musée d'Orsay Georges Seurat, Musée d'Orsay Georges Seurat, 1859-1891, edited by Robert L. Herbert, Metropolitan Museum of Art, p.360-362
Paired-like homeobox 2b known as neuroblastoma Phox, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHOX2B gene located on chromosome 4. It codes for a homeodomain transcription factor, it is expressed in the nervous system, in most neurons that control the viscera. It is required for their differentiation. Essential for the differentiation and survival of sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells, the transcription factor PHOX2B is specific for the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Neuroblasts are derived from sympathoadrenal lineage neural crest cells and therefore require and constitutively express PHOX2B. PHOX2B immunohistochemical staining, as a marker of neural crest derivation, has been shown to be sensitive and specific for undifferentiated neuroblastoma, enabling identification where other markers fail to recognize neuroblastoma among various different small round blue cell tumors of childhood; the diagnostic utility of PHOX2B staining extends to stages of differentiation. Its strength and specificity can detect the small foci of neuroblastic tumors metastatic to the bone marrow, an identification critical for determining disease staging.
PHOX2B staining overcomes frequent obstacles to neuroblastoma detection in post-treatment samples, which exhibit dense fibrosis, prominent inflammatory infiltrates, and/or diffuse calcification. Mutations in human PHOX2B cause a rare disease of the visceral nervous system: congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, Hirschsprung's disease, ROHHAD, tumours of the sympathetic ganglia. In most people, Exon 3 of the gene contains a sequence of 20 polyalanine repeats. An increase in the number of repeats is associated with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. There may be other pathogenic mutations further along the gene. GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome Phox2b+protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings
Jack Coffey Field is a 7,000-seat multi-purpose stadium in The Bronx, New York. It is home to the Fordham Rams football, Fordham Rams men's soccer, Fordham Rams women's soccer and Fordham Rams baseball teams; the facility opened for baseball in 1930. It was named after former Fordham baseball coach and longtime athletic director, Jack Coffey, in 1954, four years before his 1958 retirement. Starting in 1964, students began using the left field and center field area for their club football team; the team was sponsored by the students themselves and it was these same students who rented temporary wooden stands, to be set around the gridiron, for the 1964 and 1965 seasons. The university stepped in to build permanent wooden stands behind the left field home run wall which served as a grandstand for football. A press box and scoreboard were added in 1967 and the university reinstated varsity football for the 1970 season. In 1990, with Fordham football moving up to the I-AA ranks, those wooden stands were torn down and replaced with aluminum bleachers.
Bathrooms and concessions were added beneath the new set of bleachers while an elevator was added to the new press box. Beneath the bleachers, a 3,200 square foot weight room, added in 1996. FieldTurf replaced the grass field in 2005 while, behind home plate, other renovations during 2004 and 2005 included lights, new dugouts, as well as a new grandstand and press box for the baseball section of the facility; this section now goes as the recognized home of the Fordham Rams baseball team. In 2014 Jack Coffey Field underwent further renovations including the addition of a full-color DakTronics video scoreboard beyond the Southern Boulevard endzone as well as chair back seating between the 40 yard lines. FieldTurf surface was replaced with FieldTurfTM. Aside from college baseball and soccer, professional soccer came to Jack Coffey Field in 2016 as it hosted the Fourth Round U. S. Open Cup match between the New York Cosmos and NYCFC. Coffey Field was featured in the film Second Act. List of NCAA Division I FCS football stadiums
Eusebio Leal Spengler, is the Havana City Historian, director of the restoration program of Old Havana and its historical center, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Deputy to the National Assembly of the Popular Power in the IV, V and VI Legislature, Ambassador of Good Will of the United Nations, the University of Havana and has his masters in Latin American and Cuban Studies. He is President of the Commission of Monuments in the City of Havana and a specialist in Archeological Sciences, his son, Javier Leal, runs an art gallery in Barcelona, Spain. Academic studies: Lawyer in History, University of Havana, 1979. Postgraduate in Italy on restoration of Historical Centers, he was granted a scholarship conferred by the Ministry of Foreign Relations of the Italian Republic Specialist in Archaeological Science, University of Havana, 1987 Master of Studies on Latin America, the Caribbean and Cuba, University of Havana, 1996 Doctor in Historical Sciences, University of Havana, 1997 Doctor Honoris Causes in Philosophy and Letters of the University of Athens, Greece Doctor Honoris Causes in Architecture of the University of Ferrara, Italy Doctor Honoris Causes in Architecture of the University of the Republic, Uruguay Member of: The Permanent Commission of International Relations of the National Assembly of Cuba The Group of Patrimony of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Cuba The Advisory Technical Council of the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Cuba Scientific Council of the Faculty of Arts and Letters of the University of Havana The Cuban National Committee of ICOMOS Member of Honor of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba Member of Honor of the National Union of Historians of Cuba Member of Honor of the Union of Writers and Artists of Cuba The Advisory Committee for the Eradication of the Poverty of the Program of the Nations United for the Development The Society Smithsonian, the United States The National Trust of Preservation, England Honor of the Latin American Organization of Cooperación Intermunicipal The Academy of History of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia Academic activity: Academic of Number of the Cuban Academy of the Language, Corresponding of the Real Academia Española Professor Titular of the Chair of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Havana Member of the Chairs Eloy Alfaro and Juan Gualberto Go'mez of the University of Havana Corresponding member of the Real Spanish Academy of History Corresponding member of the Real Spanish Academy of Beautiful Arts of San Fernando, like Competent in Art Corresponding member of the Venezuelan Academy of History Corresponding member of the Peruvian Academy of History.
Member of the Association of Latin American Historians Member of Honor of the Union of Architects and Engineers of Cuba Eminent Professor of the catholic university of Valley of Atemajac University, Mexico Corresponding member of the National Academy of History of Peru Emeritus Professor of the University of San Marcos, Peru Emeritus Professor of the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Highest Rank Professor of the Soka University, Japan Invited professor of the Universidad de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia Visitant professor on the matter "Compared History of Hispanic-America" in the Institute of Diplomacy and International Sciences of the University of Guayaquil, Ecuador President of the Society of Cuba-Mexico Friendship Adviser of the Congress of Integración Latin American Cultural Patron of Honor of the Foundation of File of Indian, Spain Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Charles III. Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Isabella the Catholic. Order of Merit of the Italian Republic with the degree of Official Horseman Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland with Star of Silver Order to the Merit of the Republic of Poland with Gold Star Order of Merit by Distinguished Services of the Republic of Peru, Grand Cross Order of Merit by Distinguished Services of the Republic of Peru, Grand Official Order to the Merit of the Republic of Colombia in the degree of Commander Order of Academic Palms of France in the Commission rank Order of the Arts and Letters of France National Order of the Legion of Honour of France Various awards: Prize the International of Architecture Philippe Rothie of Belgium Prize 2002 of the Association for the Management of the Urban Centers AGECU in the Section of Latin American Initiative, Spain First Prize to the Restoration of the city of Alcalá de Henares Prize ARPAFIL of the Fair the International of Libro - Guadalajara 2002 Prize of the city of Barcelona of 1998 Prize of the city of Valencia Prize Arthur Posnansky granted by the Presidency of the Republic of Bolivia Prize of the Real Foundation of Toledo by the Rehabilitation of the Historical Center of Havana, in act presided over by HM the King of Spain Golden Medal for Merit to Culture – Gloria Artis, Poland Medal 1300 years of the Bulgarian State Medal by the XL Anniversary of the victory on the fascismo of the Republic of Bulgaria Medal by the XL Anniversary of the victory on the fascismo of the socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia.
Drogoradz – is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Police, within Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border. It lies 13 kilometres north-west of Police and 25 km north of the regional capital Szczecin. Before 1945 the area was part of Germany. For the history of the region, see History of Pomerania. Drogoradz, known as Hammer to its residents while part of Germany from 1815 – 1945, became part of Poland after the end of World War II and changed its name to the Polish Drogoradz. Below is a timeline showing the history of the different administrations that this city has been included in. Political-administrative membership 1815 – 1866: German Confederation, Kingdom of Prussia, Pomerania 1866 – 1871: North German Confederation, Kingdom of Prussia, Pomerania 1871 – 1918: German Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, Pomerania 1919 – 1933: Weimarer Republik, Free State of Prussia, Pomerania 1933 – 1945: Nazi Germany, Pomerania 1945 – 1946: Enclave Police, 1946 – 1952: People's Republic of Poland, Szczecin Voivodeship 1952 – 1975: People's Republic of Poland, Szczecin Voivodeship 1975 – 1989: People's Republic of Poland, Szczecin Voivodeship 1989 – 1998: Poland, Szczecin Voivodeship 1999 – Current: Poland, Western Pomerania, powiat Police County, gmina PoliceDemography The village has a population:1939 – 505 1972 – 350 2006 – 250 PTTK path in an area of Drogoradz in Wkrzanska Forest.