The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Dennis Christopher George Potter was an English television dramatist and journalist. He is best known for his BBC TV serials Pennies from Heaven, The Singing Detective, the television plays Blue Remembered Hills and Brimstone and Treacle, his television dramas mixed fantasy and reality, the personal and the social, used themes and images from popular culture. Potter is regarded as one of the most influential and innovative dramatists to have worked in British television. Born in Gloucestershire and graduating from Oxford University, Potter worked in journalism. After standing for parliament as a Labour candidate at the 1964 general election, his health was affected by the onset of psoriatic arthropathy which necessitated Potter changing careers and led to him becoming a television dramatist, his new career began with contributions to the BBC's Wednesday Play anthology series in 1965, he continued to work in the medium for the rest of his life. He wrote screenplay adaptations for the Hollywood studios.
He died of pancreatic cancer in 1994. Dennis Potter was born in Berry Hill, Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, his father, Walter Edward Potter, was a coal miner in this rural mining area between Gloucester and Wales. Potter had a sister named June. In 1946, Potter passed the eleven-plus and attended Bell's Grammar School at Coleford. Most of his secondary education however, was in London, it was in a street near Hammersmith Broadway that the ten-year-old Potter was sexually abused by his uncle, an experience he would allude to many times in his writing. During his speech at the 1993 James MacTaggart Memorial Lecture, Potter referred to this event when explaining his decision to switch from newspaper journalism to screenwriting: "Different words had to be found, with different functions, but why? Why, why. E. Day and V. J. Day, I was trapped by an adult's sexual appetite and abused out of innocence." His family returned to the Forest of Dean in 1952, having first left it in 1945, but Potter remained in London.
From the sixth form of St Clement Danes School, a grammar school in Hammersmith, he won a State Scholarship to the University of Oxford. Between 1953 and 1955, Potter did his National Service and learnt Russian at the Joint Services School for Linguists. On 10 January 1959 he married, at the Christ Church parish church in Berry Hill, Margaret Amy Morgan, a local girl he met at a dance, they lived a "surprisingly quiet private life" at Ross-on-Wye and had a son and two daughters and Sarah, to achieve prominence in the 1980s as an international cricketer. Potter's first non-fiction work, The Glittering Coffin, was published by the Gollancz Press in 1960; the book was a rumination on the changing face of England in the prosperity following the end of the war years. It was followed by The Changing Forest: Life in the Forest of Dean Today, based on the "Between Two Rivers" documentary; this book is a study of class and social mobility that demonstrates an early fascination with the effects of the mass media on British cultural life.
He soon returned to television. Daily Herald journalist David Nathan persuaded Potter to collaborate with him on sketches for That Was the Week That Was, their first piece was used in the edition of 5 January 1963. Potter stood as the Labour Party candidate for Hertfordshire East, a safe Conservative Party seat, in the 1964 general election against the incumbent Derek Walker-Smith. By the end of the unsuccessful campaign, he claimed that he was so disillusioned with party politics he did not vote for himself. Potter now embarked on work as a television playwright, he had begun to suffer in 1962 from a condition known as psoriatic arthropathy causing arthritis to develop in his joints as well as affecting his skin with psoriasis. It made futile any attempt to follow a conventional career path. Potter's career as a television playwright began with The Confidence Course which Potter had begun as a novel. An exposé of the Dale Carnegie Institute, it drew threats of litigation from that organisation.
Although Potter disowned the play, excluding it from his Who's Who entry, it used non-naturalistic dramatic devices which would become hallmarks of Potter's subsequent work. The Confidence Course script was liked by Wednesday Play script editor Roger Smith who commissioned Potter to write what became the second Nigel Barton play for the new anthology series. Alice, his next transmitted play, chronicled the relationship between Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his nom de plume, Lewis Carroll, his muse Alice Liddell; the play drew complaints from the descendants of Dodgson, of Macmillan, the publisher, who objected to the way the relationship was depicted. George Baker played Dodgson. Potter's most regarded works from this period were the semi-autobiographical plays Stand Up, Nigel Barton! and Vote, Vote for Nigel Barton, which featured Keith Barron. The former recounts the experience of a miner's son going to Oxford University where he finds himself torn between two worlds, culminating in Barton's participation in a television documentary.
This mirrored Potter's participation in Does Class Matter, a television documentary made while Potter was an Oxford undergraduate. The second play features the same character standing as a Labour cand
Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio. In an analog television broadcast, the brightness and sound are represented by rapid variations of either the amplitude, frequency or phase of the signal. Analog signals vary over a continuous range of possible values which means that electronic noise and interference becomes reproduced by the receiver, thus with analog, a moderately weak signal becomes subject to interference. In contrast, a moderately weak digital signal and a strong digital signal transmit equal picture quality. Analog television can be distributed over a cable network using cable converters. All broadcast. Motivated by the lower bandwidth requirements of compressed digital signals, since the 2000s a digital television transition is proceeding in most countries of the world, with different deadlines for cessation of analog broadcasts; the earliest systems of analog television were mechanical television systems, which used spinning disks with patterns of holes punched into the disc to scan an image.
A similar disk reconstructed the image at the receiver. Synchronization of the receiver disc rotation was handled through sync pulses broadcast with the image information; however these mechanical systems were slow, the images were dim and flickered and the image resolution low. Camera systems used similar spinning discs and required intensely bright illumination of the subject for the light detector to work. Analog television did not begin as an industry until the development of the cathode-ray tube, which uses a focused electron beam to trace lines across a phosphor coated surface; the electron beam could be swept across the screen much faster than any mechanical disc system, allowing for more spaced scan lines and much higher image resolution. Far less maintenance was required of an all-electronic system compared to a spinning disc system. All-electronic systems became popular with households after the Second World War. Broadcasters of analog television encode their signal using different systems.
The official systems of transmission are named: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, K1, L, M and N. These systems determine the number of scan lines, frame rate, channel width, video bandwidth, video-audio separation, so on; the colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a high frequency or ultra high frequency carrier. Each frame of a television image is composed of lines drawn on the screen; the lines are of varying brightness. The next sequential frame is displayed; the analog television signal contains timing and synchronization information, so that the receiver can reconstruct a two-dimensional moving image from a one-dimensional time-varying signal. The first commercial television systems were black-and-white. A practical television system needs to take luminance, chrominance and audio signals, broadcast them over a radio transmission; the transmission system must include a means of television channel selection.
Analog broadcast television systems come in a variety of frame resolutions. Further differences exist in the modulation of the audio carrier; the monochrome combinations still existing in the 1950s are standardized by the International Telecommunication Union as capital letters A through N. When color television was introduced, the hue and saturation information was added to the monochrome signals in a way that black and white televisions ignore. In this way backwards compatibility was achieved; that concept is true for all analog television standards. There were three standards for the way the additional color information can be encoded and transmitted; the first was the American NTSC color television system. The European/Australian PAL and the French-former Soviet Union SECAM standard were developed and attempt to cure certain defects of the NTSC system. PAL's color encoding is similar to the NTSC systems. SECAM, uses a different modulation approach than PAL or NTSC. In principle, all three color encoding systems can be combined with any scan line/frame rate combination.
Therefore, in order to describe a given signal it's necessary to quote the color system and the broadcast standard as a capital letter. For example, the United States, Canada and South Korea use NTSC-M, Japan uses NTSC-J, the UK uses PAL-I, France uses SECAM-L, much of Western Europe and Australia use PAL-B/G, most of Eastern Europe uses SECAM-D/K or PAL-D/K and so on. However, not all of these possible combinations exist. NTSC is only used with system M though there were experiments with NTSC-A in the UK and NTSC-N in part of South America. PAL is used with a variety of 625-line standards but with the North American 525-line standard, accordingly n
Frederick Richard Dimbleby, CBE was an English journalist and broadcaster, who became the BBC's first war correspondent, its leading TV news commentator. As host of the long-running current affairs programme Panorama, he pioneered a popular style of interviewing, respectful but searching. At formal public events, he could combine gravitas with creative insights based on extensive research, he was able to maintain interest throughout the all-night election specials. The annual Richard Dimbleby Lecture was founded in his memory. Dimbleby was born near Richmond, the son of Gwendoline Mabel and Frederick Jabez George Dimbleby, a journalist, he was educated at Mill Hill School, began his career in 1931 on the Richmond and Twickenham Times, which his grandfather had acquired in 1894. He worked as a news reporter on the Southern Evening Echo in Southampton, before joining the BBC as a radio news reporter in 1936, going on to become their first war correspondent, he accompanied the British Expeditionary Force to France, made broadcasts from the battle of El Alamein and the Normandy beaches during the D-Day landings.
During the war, he flew on some twenty raids as an observer with RAF Bomber Command, including one to Berlin, recording commentary for broadcast the following day. He was one of the first journalists to experiment with unconventional outside broadcasts, such as when flying in a de Havilland Mosquito accompanying a fighter aircraft raid on France, or being submerged in a diving suit. In April 1945, as the BBC's war correspondent, he accompanied the British 11th Armoured Division to the liberation of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp making one of the first reports, his description of what he saw there was so graphic the BBC declined to broadcast his despatch for four days, relenting only when he threatened to resign: I passed through the barrier, found myself in the world of a nightmare. Dead bodies, some of them in decay, lay strewn about the road and along the rutted tracks Inside the huts it was worse. I've seen many terrible sights in the last five years, but nothing, nothing approaching the dreadful interior of this hut at Belsen.
The dead and the dying lay close together. I picked my way over corpse after corpse through the gloom, until I heard one voice that rose above the gentle, undulating moaning. I found a girl, she was a living skeleton, impossible to gauge her age, for she had no hair left on her head, her face was only a yellow parchment sheet, with two holes in it for eyes Babies were born at Belsen, some of them shrunken, wizened little things that could not live because their mothers could not feed them. One woman, distraught to the point of madness, flung herself at a British soldier, on guard in the camp on the night that it was reached by the 11th Armoured Division, she begged him to give her some milk, for the tiny baby. She threw herself at the sentries feet and kissed his boots, and when, in his distress, he asked her to get up, she put the baby in his arms and ran off, crying that she would find milk for it because there was no milk in her breast. And when the soldier opened the bundle of rags to look at the child, he found that it had been dead for days I have never seen British soldiers so moved to cold fury as the men who opened the Belsen camp this week, those of the police and the RAMC, who are now on duty there trying to save the prisoners who are not to far gone in starvation.
He described in the wrecked interior of Hitler's Reich Chancellery at the war's end. After the war Dimbleby switched to television becoming the BBC's leading news commentator, is best remembered as the commentator on a number of major public occasions; these included the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 and the funerals of George VI, John F. Kennedy and Winston Churchill, he wrote a book about the coronation, Elizabeth Our Queen, given free to many schoolchildren at the time. He wrote a London crime novel Storm at the Hook, published in 1948, he took part in the first Eurovision television relay in 1951 and appeared in the first live television broadcast from the Soviet Union in 1961. He introduced a special programme in July 1962 showing the first live television signal from the United States via the Telstar satellite. In addition to heavyweight journalism, he took part in lighter sound radio programmes such as Twenty Questions and Down Your Way. From 1955 he was the host of the flagship current affairs series Panorama.
This programme saw him use his journalistic skills to full advantage in conducting searching, but polite interviews with key figures of the day, while acting as an urbane anchorman for the programme. He was able to maintain his reporting talents by visiting places like Berlin, standing in front of the Brandenburg Gate a week before the Berlin Wall was erected across it by the communist authorities of East Germany. Dimbleby's reputation was built upon his ability to describe events yet with a sense of the drama and poetry of the many state occasions he covered. Examples included the Lying-in-State of George VI in Westminster Hall where he depicted the stillness of the guardsmen standing like statues at the four corners of the catafalque, or the description of the drums at Kennedy's funeral which, he said, "beat as the pulse of a man's heart." His commentary for the funeral of Churchill in January 1965 was the last state event he commentated upon. To produce his commentaries he carried out encyclopedic research on all aspects of the venues of great events, their history and that of the ceremonies taking place, the personalities involved.
This was a necessary par
The BAFTA Fellowship, or the Academy Fellowship, is a lifetime achievement award presented by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts in recognition of "outstanding achievement in the art forms of the moving image". The award is the highest honour the Academy can bestow, has been awarded annually since 1971. Fellowship recipients have been film directors, but some have been awarded to actors and television producers, film editors, screenwriters and to contributors to the video game industry. People from the United Kingdom dominate the list, but it includes over a dozen U. S. citizens and several from other countries in Europe, though none of the latter have been recognized since 1996. In 2010, Shigeru Miyamoto became the first citizen of an Asian country to receive the award; the inaugural recipient of the award was producer Alfred Hitchcock. The award has been made posthumously to the comedy pair Morecambe and Wise, in 1999, to Stanley Kubrick, who died that year and was made a fellow in 2000.
The most recent recipient was the American film editor Thelma Schoonmaker at the 72nd British Academy Film Awards on 10 February 2019. BAFTA official site Fellows of BAFTA
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter. A satellite receiver decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be a built-in television tuner. Satellite television provides a wide range of services, it is the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service. Modern systems signals are relayed from a communications satellite on the Ku band frequencies requiring only a small dish less than a meter in diameter; the first satellite TV systems were an obsolete type now known as television receive-only. These systems received weaker analog signals transmitted in the C-band from FSS type satellites, requiring the use of large 2–3-meter dishes.
These systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, were more expensive and less popular. Early systems used analog signals, but modern ones use digital signals which allow transmission of the modern television standard high-definition television, due to the improved spectral efficiency of digital broadcasting; as of 2018, Star One C2 from Brazil is the only remaining satellite broadcasting in analog signals, as well as one channel on AMC-11 from the United States. Different receivers are required for the two types; some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are transmitted with encryption, requiring the viewer to subscribe and pay a monthly fee to receive the programming. The satellites used for broadcasting television are in a geostationary orbit 37,000 km above the earth's equator; the advantage of this orbit is that the satellite's orbital period equals the rotation rate of the Earth, so the satellite appears at a fixed position in the sky.
Thus the satellite dish antenna which receives the signal can be aimed permanently at the location of the satellite, does not have to track a moving satellite. A few systems instead use a elliptical orbit with inclination of +/−63.4 degrees and orbital period of about twelve hours, known as a Molniya orbit. Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are large, as much as 9 to 12 meters in diameter; the increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite; the transponder re-transmits the signals back to Earth at a different frequency in the 10.7-12.7 GHz band, but some still transmit in the C-band, Ku-band, or both.
The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink. A typical satellite has up to 32 Ku-band or 24 C-band transponders, or more for Ku/C hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 50 MHz; each geostationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2° longitude from the next satellite to avoid interference. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites or 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain; the latter is more adversely affected by ice crystals in thunder clouds. On occasion, sun outage will occur when the sun lines up directly behind the geostationary satellite to which the receiving antenna is pointed; the downlink satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance, is collected with a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point.
Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn or collector. The feedhorn is a section of waveguide with a flared front-end that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and conducts them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter; the LNB amplifies the signals and downconverts them to a lower block of intermediate frequencies in the L-band. The original C-band satellite television systems used a low-noise amplifier connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish; the amplified signal, still at the higher microwave frequencies, had to be fed via expensive low-loss 50-ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable with complex N-connectors to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, a downconverter for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend, but this design evolved. Designs for microstrip-based converters for amateur radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-band.
Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, more handled IF. The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable can be used to connect the indoor receiver to the satellite te