HOTOL, for Horizontal Take-Off and Landing, was a 1980s British design for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane, to be powered by an airbreathing jet engine. Development was being conducted by a consortium led by British Aerospace. Designed as a single-stage-to-orbit reusable winged launch vehicle, HOTOL was to be fitted with a unique air-breathing engine, the RB545 or Swallow, under development by British engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce; the propellant for the engine technically consisted of a combination of liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen. Since the oxidizer represents the majority of the takeoff weight of a rocket, HOTOL was to be smaller than normal pure-rocket designs the size of a medium-haul airliner such as the McDonnell Douglas DC-9/MD-80. While HOTOL's proof-of-concept design study was being carried out, attempts were made by both industry and the British government to establish international cooperation to develop and deploy the spacecraft. In spite of American interest in the programme, there was little appetite amongst the members of the European Space Agency, the British government was not prepared to depart from ESA cooperation.
Additionally, technical issues were encountered, there were allegations that comparisons with alternative launch systems such as conventional rocket vehicle using similar construction techniques failed to show much advantage to HOTOL. In 1989, funding for the project ended; the termination of development work on HOTOL led to the formation of Reaction Engines Limited to develop and produce Skylon, a proposed spacecraft based on HOTOL technologies, including its engine. The ideas behind HOTOL originated from work done by British Engineer Alan Bond in the field of pre-cooled jet engines. Bond had performed this research with the intention of producing a viable engine for powering a space launch system. In 1982, British Aerospace, Europe's principal satellite-builder, began studying a prospective new launch system with the aim of providing launch costs that were 20 per cent of the American Space Shuttle operated by NASA. BAe became aware of work by British engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce on a suitable engine, soon conceived of an unmanned reuseable single-stage-to-orbit winged spaceplane as a launch vehicle.
Thus, the project had soon became a joint venture between BAe and Rolls-Royce, led by John Scott-Scott and Dr Bob Parkinson. Early on, there was an ambition to'Europeanise' the project and to involve other nations in its development and manufacture as it was recognised that an estimated £4 billion would be needed to fund full-scale development. In August 1984, BAe unveiled a public display of the HOTOL satellite launcher project and released details on its proposed operations. In December 1984, a Department of Trade and Industry memorandum noted that West Germany was interested in the program, while France had adopted a critical attitude towards HOTOL, which the ministry viewed as due to it being seen as a competitor to French-led projects. According to the Minister of Trade and Industry Geoffrey Pattie, French diplomatic pressure to gather support for its own proposed Hermes space vehicle had inadvertently generated support and interest amongst European Space Agency members in the HOTOL project.
Despite this climate of tentative interest and possible European support, there was a general attitude of reluctance within the British government to take the lead on a new space launcher. In March 1985, there were claims that Rolls-Royce was in the process of conducting licensing talks for HOTOL engine technology with American propulsion company Rocketdyne. In April 1985, Pattie wrote to Secretary of State for Defence Michael Heseltine to propose a two-year £3 million proof of concept study be performed under a public-private partnership arrangement, consisting of £1 million provided by the UK government and the remainder being financed by Rolls-Royce and BAe themselves. Pattie reasoned that the project would serve Britain's "strategic capability, that tests of key technologies could foster international collaboration. According to aerospace publication Flight International, the support of the Ministry of Defense was critical as the design of HOTOL's engine had been classified. In July 1985, Rolls-Royce's technical director Gordon Lewis stated that the firm sought the involvement of the Royal Aircraft Establishment's propulsion group, that Rolls-Royce was not prepared to invest its own funds into engine development for HOTOL.
By the second half of 1985, work had commenced on the two-year concept-of-proof study. Early on, there was considerable pressure to demonstrate the project's feasibility and credibility in advance of final decisions being taken by the ESA on the Hermes and what would become the Ariane 5 launch system, thus the work concentrated on the validation of critical technologies involved. By November 1985, DTI and RAE discussions noted that Rolls-Royce were seeking American data on ramjet technology to support their work on the engine, which it referred to by the name Swallow; the United States Air Force were interested in the technology used in the Swallow engine for its own purposes. In November 1985, discussions between Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Minister without portfolio David Young and US President Ronald Reagan's scientific advisor George Keyworth noted American interest in collaboration on developing hypersonic vehicles such as HOTOL, that a prototype could be flying as early as 1990.
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Fair and Warmer is a three-act comedy play by the American writer Avery Hopwood. It was first staged at the Eltinge Theatre in New York City on November 15, 1915, running for 377 performances, featuring Madge Kennedy, John Cumberland, Janet Beecher, Ralph Morgan, Hamilton Revelle, Olive May, Robert Fisher and Harry Lorraine. Staged by Robert Milton, it was well received by critics, it is a farce about a mild-mannered banker who becomes embroiled in an innocent scheme to rekindle the romance in his marriage using his best friend's wife. Friends Laura Bartlett and Jack Wheeler enjoy going out partying, but their respective spouses, Billy Bartlett and Blanche Wheeler, do not. One evening when Laura and Jack are out together and Blanche decide to try partying themselves; the inexperienced drinkers mix a cocktail so potent that they pass out together after one drink, leading their spouses to think they are having an affair. Blanche returns the next day to apologize, but Laura has decided to leave Billy and is having the furniture removed.
The misunderstanding is resolved by the Barletts' maid. The characters and cast from the Broadway production are given below: The reviewer for The New York Times praised the play as well-written and the acting of the Broadway cast Kennedy and Cumberland. In 1919 the play was turned into an American silent film of the same title; the 1937 German comedy The Model Husband with Heinz Rühmann was based on Hopwood's play and was followed up by West German and Swiss remakes in 1956 and 1959 respectively. A Swedish film version Gröna hissen was made in 1944, another Swedish film version Oppåt med Gröna Hissen in 1952, a Danish film version Den grønne elevator was made in 1961, a Norwegian film version Den grønne heisen in 1981. Fisher, James & Hardison Londre, Felicia; the A to Z of American Theater: Modernism. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009. Fair and Warmer at the Internet Broadway Database Script from the Federal Theatre Project Collection
Pali Hill is a residential area in the suburb of Bandra in Mumbai, India. Pali Hill lies on the west side of Mumbai, it runs parallel to a popular sea-front and promenade. Both roads are situated in Mumbai's Bandra suburb. Situated on a rolling hills with alternate steep and shallow sides, it garnered the name Pali Hill, although more than one hill is present; the main route of the road was paved. The buildings and bungalows are set within the "valleys" and "crests" of the hills. Nearby localities include Pali Naka; until the 1950s, the area was forested with dense undergrowth. Over the years, it was converted to grow crops. At one time, the sea was plainly visible from the foothills. A few buildings were constructed by builders. However, most people lived in bungalows. Construction of apartment buildings commenced in the mid to late 1960s, including Nibbana Apartments. Cottage dwellers sold their homes to real estate developers and Pali Hill grew into an affluent neighbourhood. K. Street Pali Hill, a thriller television soap on StarPlus, produced by Ekta Kapoor was set in the suburb.
Pali Hill has an expanse of trees. An area of orchards and untamed forests, from 1980-2020 it was deforested and made suitable for residential habitation. A few giant trees remain on the roads; the most seen tree is the gulmohar tree. Large banyan trees, peepul trees, mango trees, ashoka trees, wild almond trees, wild neem trees as well as a variety of shrubs, grasses and trees, like those of the papaya, custard-apple, guavaare abundant. Flowering shrubs are cultivated and sometimes grow wild. Most abundant are bougainvillea, birds of paradise flowers and other wild, indigenous varieties. Pali Hill is frequented by migratory birds, present during different seasons. Although the native species are sparrows, Asian koels, wrens, pigeons and ravens. Bai Avabai Framji Petit Girls High School sees egrets, storks and other rare birds. Ashy dorus, kestrels, woodpeckers as well as seagulls and kingfishers are present. Ornithologist Salim Ali was known to walk around Pali Hill with his binoculars and a notebook taking notes and listening to or making bird calls.
Mammals such as dogs and small bats are abundant. Pali Hill's landmarks are its bungalows. At the southern end is Rajendra Kumar Junction, its four roads lead west to Carter Road, north to Pali Hill, east to Pali Naka and south to the Auxilium Convent High School. At the northern end is Union Park, another crossing and the area around it. Candies eatery is another local landmark; the road diverges downhill on the East side – the Zig Zag Road. At this junction was the Anand Bungalow. At this junction is the bungalow of the Narangs and owners of the Croissants patisserie and the Ambassador Flight kitchen. On Nargis Dutt road, further down on the west side is the House Of Sushil Kumar shinde. On the other side residence of the late Rajni Patel Rajni Patel's widow Bakul Patel was a former Sheriff of Mumbai. More down the road on the hill is BSES Niwas, a property now being developed for and by Reliance ADAGnow Adnani. Lying adjacent is the Reservoir at'The Top Of The Hill' holding and supplying Water to the residents of both side of the Hill.
Further down the southern slopes of the hill resided the Late Nagris Dutt and her husband the late Sunil Dutt, the two besides been thespians were connected politically Mr Sunil Dutt, a politician, after he joined the Indian National Congress party, he had the unique distinction of getting elected to the Parliament of India for five terms from the Mumbai North West constituency. On the bend is the Residence of the famous Dilip Kumar whose thespian wife Saira Banu live therein. Down towards Union Park & Golf Links at the North end if the hill is the residence of the former chief minister of Maharashtra Mr Narayan Rane; the Golf Course today is no more, it is filed by high rise buildings over seeing the nets of The "Danda' fishing Village. Other landmarks include Kangaroo Kids Nursery and Playschool, Juice Salon, Sundaram Stores, cozy home apartments. At Union Park lies Bai Avabai Framji Petit Girls' High School. Down the slope on the eastern side is the Pali Market, now under reconstruction. In the 19th Century Pali Hill was called Pakhari HIll President of The Indian Music Industry & Phonographic Performance Ltd. and Ex-Chairman of Polygram Music Ltd. and Universal Music India, Vijay Lazarus.
Sudbury Rugby Union Football Club is a rugby union club located in Great Cornard near Sudbury, Suffolk. The first XV play in London 1 North, a sixth tier league in the English rugby union system; when the league system was established in 1987, Sudbury was placed in the fourth tier, playing in 1987–88 Courage Area League South. The remained at this level until 1993–94 Courage League Division 4 when they were relegated after finishing bottom. Since they have drifted down the leagues, ending up at level 8. In the mid 2010s the club now play at the sixth level. 1992–93 Courage National 4 South champions London 2 North East/West promotion play-off winners: 2015-16, 2017-18 London 3 North East champions: 2014-15 Official club site
Charles Henry Wharton, who grew up Catholic and became a Catholic priest, converted to Protestantism and became one of the leading Episcopal clergyman of the early United States, as well as served as president of Columbia University. The family plantation, Notley Hall, was presented to his grandfather by Lord Baltimore. In 1760 he was sent to the English Jesuit College at St Omer, where he was studious, became fluent in Latin, so as to be able to converse in it, he was ordered deacon in June, 1772, priest the following September, both in the Roman Catholic Church. At the close of the American Revolution Wharton resided at Worcester, England, as chaplain to the Roman Catholics in that city. There he addressed a poetical epistle to George Washington, with a sketch of his life, published for the benefit of American prisoners in England. Wharton returned to what had become the United States in 1783 in the first vessel that sailed after the peace. In May, 1784, he converted to the Church of England, published his celebrated "Letter to the Roman Catholics of Worcester", became rector of Immanuel Church, New Castle, Delaware.
Together with the only other remaining Anglican clergyman remaining in the state and several laymen, Rev. Wharton attended the first General Convention that established the Episcopal Church At that convention, Rev. Wharton served on the committee to "draft an ecclesiastical constitution for the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States", as well as the committees "to prepare a form of prayer and thanksgiving for the Fourth of July", to Americanize the Book of Common Prayer. In 1786 he was elected a mere-bet of the American Philosophical Society. After ten years' further residence in Delaware, in 1798 Wharton accepted a position as rector of St. Mary's Church, New Jersey, where he would serve the rest of his life. Among the leading scholars and most influential clergymen of the early Episcopal Church, Rev. Wharton served as president of the standing committee of the diocese of New Jersey, several times as a deputy to the General Convention. A gifted poet, as well as an able controversialist, Rev. Wharton published "Reply to an Address to the Roman Catholics of the United States".
In 1813-14 he was co-editor, with Reverend Dr. Abercrombie, of the Quarterly Theological Magazine and Religious Repository, his "Remains," with a memoir, were published by Bishop George W. Doane. In 1801 Rev. Wharton accepted the presidency of Columbia College, New York, conditioned upon his ability to continue his position in Burlington, he was to assume the position at Columbia's August commencement ceremonies, but either failed to appear, or only delivered that commencement oration, for he resigned as Columbia's president by December. At the time of his death in 1833, Wharton was the senior presbyter of the Episcopal Church, he is buried in the graveyard of the church he led for 35 years
Günter Schmölders was a German economist at Breslau and Cologne universities. He was among the early pioneers of behavioral studies in economics, his first works dealt with the failure of prohibition and alcohol regulation laws e.g. in Sweden. He received a tenure at Breslau university, he dealt with Staatswissenschaften, the Prussian equivalent of macro and state economics and spatial planning. He had some contacts with the Kreisauer Kreis later. Military service and the effects of Allied air bombing raids interrupted his university activities. After the war, he found a new university post in Cologne; the Marshall Plan and the Europäische Zahlungsunion made him aware of international financial instruments and institutions and their scientific role. In Cologne, he founded the Zentralarchiv für empirische Sozialforschung, the first European archive collecting economical empirical data and opinion polls, his works includes as well studies on the psychology of taxing and tax evasion, e.g. Das Irrationale in der öffentlichen Finanzwirtschaft in 1960.
His grandfather Franz August Schmölders was professor for orientalism in Breslau. Schmölders had been married with a journalist, they had three children, their daughter Claudia Schmölders, a cultural scholar and author heads the Schmölders foundation in memory of her father together with Christian Opelt. The foundation has some connection with the Verein für Socialpolitik, an important association for economics in Germany; the foundation has provided e.g. scholarschips for transatlantic studies. The prize of the Schmölders foundation contains a 3.000 € donation and is honoring outstanding contributions to behaviorial studies in economics. Laureates include e.g. 2013 Andreas Knabe, Steffen Raetzel, Ronnie Schoeb and Joachim Weimann 2014 Johannes Rincke, Nadja Dwenger, Henrik J. Kleven and Imran Rasul 2015 Moritz Schularick and Alan TaylorFrom 1968 till 1970, Schmölders presided Mont Pelerin Society and got member of Vaduzer Institut, a libertarian think tank, he received various honorary doctorates and orders of the Großes Bundesverdienstkreuz in 1969 and with star 1979.