The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2019, the British Army comprises just over 79,300 trained regular personnel and just over 27,200 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Members of the British Army swear allegiance to the monarch as their commander-in-chief, but the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars. Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers.
Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation. Until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants, it relied on militia organised by local officials, or private forces mobilised by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent in theology, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organised and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the alleged excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell were used as propaganda and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for England. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is b
Eshrat Kordestani is an Iranian Paralympian in Sitting volleyball. She competed in volleyball before she lost her foot in an Anti-personnel mine accident in 2002. At the 2014 Incheon Iranian women Sitting volleyball team won silver medal where she was the captain; the team qualified to compete at both the 2016 Summer Paralympics for the first time. She was the captain of Iranian women Sitting volleyball team and the flag-bearer for Iran in Rio 2016. Kordestani has been war wounded and lost her right foot in Shalamcheh in 2002 when she was 19 years old, hitting an Anti-personnel mine as a leftover from the Iran-Iraq war, she started sitting volleyball after being paralyzed, following her volleyball career. Captain of the Iran women's sitting volleyball team to first qualify for the Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro 2016; the Flagbearer for Iran in Rio 2016 paralympics. Top scorer for Iran team List of athletes who have competed in the Paralympics and Olympics
"So Wrong" is a song written by Carl Perkins, Danny Dill and Mel Tillis and popularized by country music artist Patsy Cline. The song was released as a single on Decca Records in 1962 by Patsy Cline. Patsy Cline was best known for her string of Country and Pop ballads like "I Fall to Pieces", "Crazy" and "She's Got You". By 1962, Cline was successful on both the Country and Pop singles charts, her first hit that year was the song "She's Got You". After that, Cline released a string of hits, including "So Wrong". "So Wrong" was released in mid-1962 as a Decca 45 single, 31406, b/w "You're Stronger Than Me", became a Billboard Top 20 Country Hit, reaching #14. Its success on the Pop charts was not as successful as her previous hits, reaching #85 on the Pop charts; the song was released as a single in Canada on Decca and on Brunswick in the UK, 45-05874. The song was released as a 45 single in New Zealand on Festival Records as FK-253 as a B side and as part of a picture sleeve 45 EP. Cline uses her expressive voice in this song, as she did with many other hits.
The song talks about how someone was wrong towards their lover. They regret how wrong they were for letting their lover go, express how much they miss them; the song appeared on the 1962 EP So Wrong/You're Stronger Than Me and was featured on the 1963 The Patsy Cline Story collection and the Patsy Cline's Greatest Hits album in 1967, which would sell over 10 million copies and be certified a Diamond album, one of the all-time best-selling country albums. Cline performed. "So Wrong" was featured on an episode of CSI. Enid Cohen, Jessi Alexander, Pam Tillis on the 2002 album It's All Relative: Tillis Sings Tillis, Mandy Barnett on the 2011 album Sweet Dreams, Terri Simpson have covered the song. Perkins and David McGee. Go, Cat, Go!: The Life and Times of Carl Perkins, The King of Rockabilly. Hyperion Press, 1996, pages 253-254. ISBN 0-7868-6073-1 Morrison, Craig. Go Cat Go!: Rockabilly Music and Its Makers. University of Illinois Press, Mark. I Fall to Pieces: the Life of Patsy Cline. Adams Media Corporation.
Hazen and Mike Freeman. Love Always, Patsy; the Berkley Publishing Group. Jones, Margaret. "Patsy Cline". In The Encyclopedia of Country Music. Paul Kingsbury, Editor. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 98–9. Nassour, Ellis. Honky Tonk Angel: The Intimate Story of Patsy Cline. St. Martins Press. Wolff, Kurt. Country Music: The Rough Guide. Penguin Publishing. Mel Tillis interview Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics