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British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, or Empire Air Training Scheme referred to as "The Plan", was a massive, joint military aircrew training program created by the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, during the Second World War. BCATP remains as one of the single largest aviation training programs in history and was responsible for training nearly half the pilots, bomb aimers, air gunners, wireless operators and flight engineers who served with the Royal Air Force, Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force during the war. Under a parallel agreement, the Joint Air Training Scheme, South Africa trained 33,347 aircrew for the South African Air Force and other Allied air forces; this number was exceeded only by Canada. Students from many other countries attended schools under these plans, including Argentina, Ceylon, Denmark, Fiji, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway and the United States, where the similar Civilian Pilot Training Program was underway by the end of 1938.

The United Kingdom was considered an unsuitable location for air training, due to the possibility of enemy attack, the strain caused by wartime traffic at airfields and the unpredictable weather, so the plan called for the facilities in the Dominions to train British and each other's aircrews. Negotiations regarding joint training, between the four governments concerned, took place in Ottawa during the first few months of the war. On 17 December 1939, they signed the Air Training Agreement – referred to as the "Riverdale Agreement", after the UK representative at the negotiations, Lord Riverdale; the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was viewed as an ambitious programme. The 1939 agreement stated that the training was to be similar to that of the RAF: three initial training schools, thirteen elementary flying training schools, sixteen service flying training schools, ten air observer schools, ten bombing and gunnery schools, two air navigation schools and four wireless schools were to be created.

The agreement called for the training of nearly 50,000 aircrew each year, for as long as necessary: 22,000 aircrew from Great Britain, 13,000 from Canada, 11,000 from Australia and 3,300 from New Zealand. Under the agreement, air crews received elementary training in various Commonwealth countries before travelling to Canada for advanced courses. Training costs were to be divided between the four governments. Article XV of the agreement stipulated that graduates belonging to Dominion air forces, where they were assigned to service with the RAF, should be placed in new squadrons identified with the RAAF, RCAF and RNZAF; these units became known as "Article XV squadrons". Articles XVI and XVII stipulated that the UK government would be wholly responsible for the pay and entitlements of graduates, once they were placed with RAF or Article XV units; some pre-war/regular RAAF and RCAF squadrons served under RAF operational control, while New Zealand and Rhodesian personnel were assigned to RAF squadrons with the honorifics of "" and "" in their names.

However, in practice – and technically in contravention of Article XV – most personnel from other Commonwealth countries, while they were under RAF operational control, were assigned to British units. On 29 April 1940, the first Canadian training course commenced, with 221 recruits, at No. 1 Initial Training School RCAF, located at the Eglinton Hunt Club, Toronto. From this intake, 39 received their wings as aircrew on 30 September 1940. All of these graduates, were retained by the BCATP in Canada, as instructors, staff pilots or in similar flying assignments; the first BCATP personnel sent to the UK were 37 Canadian observers, who received their wings at RCAF Trenton, near Trenton, Ontario, on 27 October 1940. The first BCATP-trained pilots posted to Europe as a group were 37 RAAF personnel who graduated in November 1941, from No. 2 Service Flying Training School, RCAF Uplands, Ottawa. Prior to the inception of the Empire Air Training Scheme, the RAAF trained only about 50 pilots per year. Under the Air Training Agreement, Australia undertook to provide 28,000 aircrew over three years, representing 36% of the total number trained by the BCATP.

By 1945, more than 37,500 Australian aircrew had been trained in Australia. During 1940, Royal Australian Air Force schools were established across Australia to support EATS in Initial Training, Elementary Flying Training, Service Flying Training, Air Navigation, Air Observer and Gunnery and Wireless Air Gunnery; the first flying course started on 29 April 1940. Keith Chisholm was the first Australian to be trained under EATS. For a period, most RAAF aircrews received advanced training in Canada. During mid-1940, some RAAF trainees began to receive advanced training at RAF facilities in Southern Rhodesia. On 14 November 1940, the first contingent to graduate from advanced training in Canada embarked for Britain, Following the outbreak of the Pacific War in December 1941, the majority of RAAF aircrews completed their training in Australia and served with RAAF units in the South West Pacific Theatre. In addition, an increasing number of Australian personnel were transferred from Europe and the Mediterranean to RAF squadrons in the South East Asian Theatre.

Some Article XV squadrons were transferred to RAAF or RAF formations involved in the Pacific War. A significa

Zelenikovo Municipality

Zelenikovo Municipality is a municipality in the central part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The municipal seat is located in the village Zelenikovo; the municipality is located in the Skopje Statistical Region. The municipality borders Studeničani Municipality to the west, Petrovec Municipality to the northeast, Čaška Municipality to the south, Veles Municipality to the southeast. According to the 2002 Macedonian census, Zelenikovo Municipality has 4,077 inhabitants. Ethnic groups in the municipality: Macedonians = 2,522 Albanians = 1,206 Bosniaks = 191 Turks = 1 others. Official website

Nesta Carter

Nesta Carter OD is a Jamaican sprinter who specializes in the 100 metres event. Carter has been successful as part of the Jamaican 4 x 100 metres relay team, taking gold and setting successive world records at the 2011 World Championships and 2012 London Olympics, he won a 4 x 100m silver medal at the 2007 World Championship and a gold at the 2015 World Championships. On August 11, 2013, Carter secured an individual 100m World Championship bronze medal in Moscow, behind Justin Gatlin and teammate Usain Bolt, he followed this with another gold in the 4 x 100 metres relay. In August 2010 he became only the fifth sprinter to run the 100 metres in less than 9.8 seconds. His current 100m personal best of 9.78 ranks him as the sixth fastest man of all time, behind fellow Jamaicans Usain Bolt, Yohan Blake and Asafa Powell, Americans Tyson Gay and Justin Gatlin. On 25 January 2017, the International Olympic Committee sanctioned Carter for doping at the 2008 Olympic Games, meaning that Carter lost his gold medal for the men's 4 × 100 m relay.

Carter attended Manchester High School in central Jamaica. He is a member of the MVP. Representing his high school at the ISSA Championships Carter finished second in the Class 2 100 m in 11.58 s, fourth in the 200 m in 22.54. The 4 × 100 m relay team did not finish their heat. Carter's 11.01 was thirteenth fastest in the semi-finals of the Class 1 100 m at the ISSA Championships and he did not advance to the final. He finished seventh in the 200 m final, in 22.01 s. His school did not field a team for the 4 × 100 m relay. In April he finished third in the CARIFTA Games Under 20 200 m, in 21.10, won gold with the Jamaican 4 × 100 m relay team in 39.48 s. Carter finished fourth in the 200 m at the June CAC Junior Championships, his time 21.35 s, ran the third leg of the 4 × 100 m relay team which finished first in 40.63 s. He finished fourth in the 200 m semi-final at the July World Junior Championships in 21.24 s. In the semi-final of the 4 × 100 m relay Carter ran the third leg and the team qualified for the final in 39.90 s.

The Jamaica team finished second in the final without Carter. At the ISSA Championships Carter finished second in the Class 1 100 m in 10.59 s, second in the 200 m in 21.00 s. No relay team was fielded by his school. At the Jamaica International Invitational Carter won the 100 m B race in 10.41 s. In May Carter finished joint-third at the Jamaica International Invitational meet and won the Grande Premio Brasil Caixa de Atletismo in 10.20 s, his first win of an IAAF Grand Prix event. At the Osaka World Championships Carter won his heat in 10.17 s, finished fourth in the quarter-final in 10.23 and finished seventh in the semi-final of the 100 m, his time 10.28 s. Carter ran the third leg of the 4 × 100 m relay team which finished second in a new national record of 37.89 s. At the inaugural UTech Track and Field Classic Carter ran a personal best 20.38 in the 200 m, bettering his previous best by 0.40 s. Carter was named UTech Sportsman of the Year 2007/2008 on April 10. Carter ran the third leg of the 4 × 100 m relay at the Penn Relays, the team winning the USA vs The World event in 39.14 s.

On May 25 Carter defended his title at the Grande Premio Brasil Caixa de Atletismo, winning in 10.19 s. One week he won the 100 m at DKB-ISTAF in a personal best 10.08, his first win at a Golden League event. Carter did not report for the start of the 100 m final at the National Trials, due to a leg cramp, he made the Jamaican team for the Olympics after running a personal best 20.31 in the final of the 200 m. At the July DN Galan in Stockholm Carter won race two in 9.98 s, a new personal best that made him just the fifth Jamaican under the 10 second barrier. At the 2008 Olympics in Beijing he ran the third leg of the 4 x 100 metres relay semi-final with Michael Frater, Dwight Thomas and Asafa Powell, their time of 38.31 s ranked second of sixteen nations in the first round. Thomas was replaced by Usain Bolt for the final, Carter ran the first leg and the team set a new world record of 37.10 s, claiming the gold medal. The split time for Carter's lead-off leg of the relay was 10.34. In 2017 Carter was found guilty of using performance-enhancing drugs, resulting in him and the rest of the Jamaican team being stripped of the gold medals.

Carter equaled his personal best of 9.98. The race was won by Asafa Powell in a new personal best of 9.72 s. At the Zagreb 2008 event Carter won in 10.23 s. Four days Carter finished second in the 100 m at the World Athletics final in 10.07 s. Carter was honoured in a homecoming celebration and received an Order of Distinction in recognition of his achievements at the Olympics. Carter ran on the MVP 4 x 100 m relay team at the Milo Western Relays held at the GC Foster College on February 14; the team recorded a new meet world leading time of 38.72 s. Carter was nominated for the Laureus World Team of the Year award on April 16, as a member of the 2008 Jamaica Olympic sprint team. Two days Carter ran a leg of the 4 × 100 m at the UTech Track and Field Classic at the National Stadium in Kingston, Jamaica; the winning time of 38.46 was a new meet record. Carter finished third in the 200 m at the event in 20.69. Carter next competed at the Penn Relays in the 4 × 100 m relay. Asafa Powell on the fourth leg pulled up and finished ninth in 41.24.

A report in the Jamaica Observer on the morning of the event indicated that Powell had injured his ankle in training and was not expected to run. On May 8 he finished seventh in 10.34 with a reported calf cramp at the Qatar Athletic Super Gr

Ngbandi people

The Ngbandi are an ethnic group from the region of the upper Ubangi River who inhabit the northern Democratic Republic of the Congo and southern Central African Republic. They traditionally speak the Ngbandi language, part of the Ubangian language family; the Ngbandi, were simple farmers who still grow maize and other food crops. Until some of their subsistence depended on traditional hunting and gathering, they were once known as warriors, some of the most prized African knives and lances were made by their craftspersons. There is a close connection between this culture and others of Sudan, as evidence by shared usage of a musical instrument, a kind of harp, whose form is distinctive to this area. Mobutu Sese Seko, the president and de facto dictator of Zaire, came from the Ngbandi ethnic group. Ngbandi Art Linguistic classification of Ngbandi


Adilabad, a municipality, the headquarters of Adilabad district, is a city in Adilabad district of the Indian state of Telangana. Telugu and Urdu are the native languages of Adilabad. Adilabad is famous for its rich cultivation of cotton. Hence, Adilabad is referred as "White Gold City", it is located about 304 kilometres north of the state capital, Hyderabad, 150 kilometres from Nizamabad and 196 kilometres from Nagpur. Adilabad is called as the "Gateway to South India"; the earlier name of Adilabad was Edlabad during the rule of Qutub Shahis. Adilabad was ruled by many dynasties like the Kakatiyas, Satavahanas, Qutub Shahis & Asaf Jahis. Adilabad derives its name from Yusuf Adil Shah. Telugu is the most spoken language in Adilabad. Due to geographical proximity with Maharashtra, Marathi is widely spoken and understood. Other languages spoken here are Gondi. Adilabad has an average elevation of 264 metres; the district shares its boundaries with Nizamabad and Karimnagar districts of Telangana to the south, Asifabad district on the east, with Nanded on the west and Yavatmal and Chandrapur districts of Maharashtra to the north.

The Kuntala Waterfall, rivers like the Godavari, Pranhita, etc flow through the district. Mavala lake, built during the Nizam period, is located 6 km south side of Adilabad town. There is a park adjacent to the lake; as of 2011 India census, Adilabad had a population of 117,167. Males constitute 59,448, females are 57,719 and 12,993 of the population are under the age group of 0–6 years, it has an average literacy rate of 43.45% with 45,259 literates. The urban agglomeration population of the city stands at 139383, it includes the population figures of its constituent census town, Dasnapur as 22,216. Adilabad is one of the seventeen Lok Sabha constituencies in the Indian state of Telangana and consists of eight Legislative Assembly segments, it is a Legislative Assembly constituency. National Highway 44 passes through Adilabad. Hyderabad is 310 km from Adilabad. Nagpur is 196 km away from Adilabad. TSRTC operates buses from Adilabad to various destinations like Hyderabad, Nagpur, Karimnagar, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Nirmal, Banswada and Chandrapur, Adilabad has a railway station on Mudkhed-Majri section of Nanded railway division of South Central Railway.

Kuntala Waterfall Pochera Falls Gayatri Waterfall Kanakai waterfall Mavala Harithavanam Komaram Bheem Samala Sadasiva Thakur Anoop Singh Adilabad district List of cities in Telangana by population

Khăn vấn

Khăn vấn, khăn đóng or khăn xếp, is a kind of garment wear on head of Vietnamese people, popular used from 18th century. The word vấn means coil around; the word khăn means scarf. After the Trịnh-Nguyễn war, the residents in Quảng Nam began to adapt to some customs of Champa, one of those was "vấn khăn" - wrap the scarf around head. Firstly, wrapping scarf around head can avoid intense hot climate in South Central Coast. Secondly, the purpose of that act is to preen. In 1744, Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát of Đàng Trong decreed that both men and women at his court wear trousers and a gown with buttons down the front; that the Nguyen Lords introduced ancient áo dài. The members of the Đàng Trong court were thus distinguished from the courtiers of the Trịnh Lords in Đàng Ngoài, who wore áo giao lĩnh with long skirts and loose long hair. Hence, wrapping scarf around head became a unique custom in the south then. From 1830, Minh Mạng emperor force every civilian in the country to change their clothes, that custom became popular in the whole Vietnam.

Khăn vấn is a textile rectangle quite thick, coiled around the head. According to the decrees of Nguyễn dynasty written in the Historical chronicle of Đại Nam, the Vietnamese remained faithful to the Champa style, but renovated to suit each period of time and for each social class. In addition, according to the law of Nguyễn Dynasty, the problem of being too short and thin was prohibited, but too long and thick was criticized as ugly. There are many types of khăn vấn, but they are classified into three types: Khăn vấn for men and casual. Use a thick or thin cloth and wrap it 1-2 times around your head for a neat fit, except for yellow, all other colors are allowed. There are 2 most popular styles to wear khăn vấn for male: shaped chữ chữ nhất. Chữ nhân style: the pleats on the forehead look like the word "nhân" Chữ nhất style: the pleats on the forehead like the word "nhất" Khăn vấn for women and girl called rí or khăn lương, only worn by women. Handy and casual. A piece of cloth, not too long, with padded hair inside, is wrapped around the head to keep hair neat.

Young women when going to the festival prefer to have ponytail for increased charm. Except for yellow and pink, other colors are popular; the way to wearing khăn vành in the Imperial City of Huế is different from the way to wear khăn vấn of Đàng Ngoài. Huế khăn vành is worn with the edge of the khăn vành facing upwards inside the ring; the second ring is attached to the outside of the first, rather than under the ring like in the North. An formal style of khăn vấn for female is khăn vành mũ mấn: Used on formal occasions; the long, thick cloth was wrapped around the head like a funnel. The traditional khăn vành dây is recorded in dark blue color. Only on the most important occasions did one see a yellow khăn vành dây in the inner of Imperial City of Huế. In addition, from the empress mother, the empress to the princesses only wore the dark blue khăn vành dây. In the old days inner Imperial City of Huế, phấn nụ and khăn vành went together, they use the nhiễu cát textile or Crêpe de Chine in the period to cover their hair.

The nhiễu cát textile was woven by Japanese in the past was only half as thin as the Crêpe de Chine, used in the Imperial City at the end of Nguyễn dynasty. The ladies in Hue Palace wore khăn vành dây on the ceremonies. A khăn vành dây made of the imported textile crêpe de Chine is 30 cm wide, has the average length is 13 cm. A khăn vành dây made of Vietnamese nhiễu cát textile is nearly double longer. From the original width of 30cm, the khăn vành dây is folded into a width of 6 cm with the open edge turn upward. After that, it is wrapped around head in the shape chữ nhân, which means the pleats on the forehead look like the word "nhân", look like letter "V" upside down, covering the shoulder hair and folds the scarf inside; when the scarf has wrapped around, fold the scarf half the width, starting from the nape, leaving the open edge facing up and continuing. The khăn vành is wrapped around head and forms a large dish shape; because of nhiễu cát textile has high elasticity and roughness, the khăn vành slips.

The end of the scarf is cleverly tucked into the back of the scarf, but sometimes the women use pins for convenience. In the Mekong Delta region, there is a popular variant called khăn rằn, which combines the traditional khăn vấn of Vietnamese with the kerchief of the Khmer, but unlike the red color of the Khmer, Vietnamese towels are white. Towels 1m2 long, size 40–50 cm; because it is only popular in the South, it is temporarily considered a characteristic of this place. In the 21st century more types of fake khăn vấn, mũ mấn were created, such as the mũ mấn made of wooden and metal. However, those were criticized by the press as harsh and disgusting. Therefore, the problem of neat and beautiful towels is considered a general trend to evaluate the quality of each person. Vietnamese clothing Áo dài Nguyễn dynasty