National Bus Company (UK)
The National Bus Company was a nationalised bus company that operated in England and Wales between 1969 and 1988. NBC did not run buses itself, but was the owner of a number of regional subsidiary bus operating companies. Following the Labour Party victory at the 1966 general election, Barbara Castle was appointed Minister for Transport. Castle ordered a review of public transport, with a view to formulating a new transport policy. Among the issues to be tackled were the ownership and operation of bus services, which were losing patronage and profitability due to increased prevalence of private motor cars; the state owned a considerable proportion of scheduled bus operators outside the major cities, having obtained the Tilling Group companies in 1948 as a byproduct of nationalising the railways. The Tilling Group was subsequently placed under the ownership of the nationalised Transport Holding Company. London Transport was nationalised in 1948 and others voluntarily aquiesced, such as Red & White in 1950.
When the Labour Party lost power to the Conservatives in 1951, the Nationisation Policy remained unfinished. Castle proposed forming regional transport authorities, which would take over the THC subsidiaries and municipal transport undertakings in their area, would have the power to acquire private bus operators. However, in November 1967 British Electric Traction unexpectedly offered to sell its bus operations to the government. BET, the only major private bus operating group, received £35 million for its 25 provincial bus companies and 11,300 vehicles; the deal meant that the state or municipal bus operators now operated some 90% of scheduled bus services in England and Wales. Instead of forming the regional authorities, the government published a white paper proposing the merger of the THC and BET organisations into a single National Bus Company; the recommendations of the white paper formed part of the Transport Act 1968. The 1968 Act reorganised the nationalised bus operation in Scotland, where subsidiaries formed the Scottish Bus Group.
The National Bus Company was formed on 1 January 1969. In 1970, the company was enlarged when it acquired the country area buses of London Transport, the bus operations of the county boroughs of Exeter and Luton, the Gosport & Fareham Omnibus Company, trading under the name of Provincial. Buses were operated with their own fleetnames and liveries. In the early years of the company, there was some rationalisation leading to the amalgamation of operators into larger units and the transfer of areas between them. One was the merging of Aldershot & District with Thames Valley on 1 January 1972. Another example was the transfer of the'land-locked' Trowbridge operations from Western National to Bristol Omnibus in 1970. Following the appointment of Fred Wood as chairman in 1972, NBC introduced corporate images. Henceforward its coaches were branded as National Travel and painted in unrelieved white, with the NBC logo and the'NATIONAL' name in alternate red & blue letters; the services were rebranded as National Express soon afterwards.
The addition of blue and white stripes appeared in 1978. National Travel was the country's first attempt at a uniformly marketable express network, which superseded Associated Motorways and the plethora of other services provided by individual NBC subsidiaries; the coaches were managed by a few areas and included travel agent booking offices based at major bus stations. A hub and spoke system operated with the main hub at Cheltenham. Around the same time the company launched a wide number of UK holiday services under the banner "National Holidays"; this brand and its travel agent booking offices existed until the mid-1990s when the coach holiday division closed. The National Express overseas travel business was relaunched under the name Eurolines. In the 1970s all local service buses adopted a uniform design in either leaf green or poppy red with white relief, bearing the company fleetname in white with the new NBC "double-N" arrow logo. There were, exceptions: buses operating in the area of the Tyne & Wear Passenger Transport Executive became yellow in a similar fashion to the PTE's own fleet but to the NBC design.
Although NBC operated throughout England and Wales, it was not a monopoly. Services were provided by London Transport in Greater London, the fleets of the municipal bus companies and passenger transport executives, by independent operators in some rural areas and a few small towns; the NBC inherited from the Transport Holding Company 75% shareholdings in chassis manufacturer Bristol Commercial Vehicles and body builder Eastern Coach Works. In 1969 NBC formed a joint venture with British Leyland, by means of which British Leyland became a 50% owner of the NBC's manufacturing companies; the joint venture built a new single-deck bus, the Leyland National. The first was delivered in 1972, it remained in production until 1986; the National was available to other bus operators. In 1982 NBC sold its 50% interest in the joint venture to British Leyland. In the late 1970s and early 1980s services were reviewed under a process known within instigator Midland Red as the Viable Network Project and subse
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
German National Library of Economics
The German National Library of Economics is the world’s largest research infrastructure for economic literature, online as well as offline. The ZBW is a member of the Leibniz Association and has been a foundation under public law since 2007. Several times the ZBW received the international LIBER award for its innovative work in librarianship; the ZBW allows for access of millions of documents and research on economics, partnering with over 40 research institutions to create a connective Open Access portal and social web of research. Through its EconStor and EconBiz and students have accessed millions of datasets and thousands of articles; the ZBW edits two journals: Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics. The ZBW is Germany's central subject research infrastructure for economics in Germany, its mandate is to acquire, to index, to archive theoretical and empirical literature and subject-specific information from economics and business studies, to provide access to these materials to the general public on a national basis.
The ZBW acquires all publications from related and auxiliary disciplines focussing on economics, in order to accommodate the increasing tendency towards interdisciplinary work in economic research. The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation; the ZBW holds 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents. The search portal. More than 134,000 full-texts from German research institutes and universities are available online and free of charge on the repository EconStor; the ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but for articles in journals and working papers, i.e. they are indexed with keywords from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics and business studies; the ZBW offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk, which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies.
The ZBW is an active player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output. It is the chief negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany; the repository EconStor serves as a platform for the free publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor. More than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access, it is an input service for RePEc and one of its most used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, distributed to databases such as WoldCat, OpenAire and EconBiz; the ZBW Journal Data Archive is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other material relating to empirical articles and provide access to them in order to enable reproducibility of published research findings; the ZBW publishes two journals of Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.
The ZBW provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management. The ZBW participates in international projects to develop new services for its users. GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure; the project aims to develop a linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to link existing and future research data centres all over Germany; this allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines and without barriers. The ZBW coordinates the project, funded by the German Research Foundation. Linked Open Citation Database; the project LOC-DB develops tools and processes based on linked data technologies that will enable individual libraries to participate in an open, distributed infrastructure for the indexation of citations. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery. Metrics: MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS.
The project focuses on gaining a deeper understanding of alternative indicators for measuring scientific performance. Under review are the quality and reliability of the indicators, but how far they are able to map discipline-specific differences. MOVING: the project aims to build a working environment for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of large collections of documents and data; the ZBW is the research partner for text and data mining and the scientific coordinator, contributes its expertise in the field of Science 2.0. Digital Imperial Statistics: Historical statistics are not available online. In this pilot project, the German Imperial Statistics 1873-1883 have been digitised and processed into a format that researchers can download for re-use in spreadsheets; this project is funded by the German Research Foundation. Digital preservation: Because of the rapid technical development of recent years, information is only available in digital form. At the same time, the hard- and software needed for reading this information becomes obsolete more rapidly.
Digital preservation ensures. To this end, the ZBW cooperates with two other German Libraries, the Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology (TIB
Ribble Motor Services
Ribble Motor Services was a large regional bus operator in the North West England based in Preston. Ribble Motor Services commenced operating in 1919, grew to be the largest operator in the region, with a territory stretching from Carlisle in Cumberland to southern Lancashire. In 1961, the Scout Motor Services business was purchased, absorbed into Ribble in 1968; the W. C. Standerwick coaching business had been purchased in 1932 but was kept as a separate subsidiary of Ribble. Ribble operated Cherry Red and Ivory liveried vehicles throughout its BET Group ownership, changing to Poppy Red for buses and white for coaches in 1972, 3 years after it had passed into the ownership of the nationalised operator National Bus Company when corporate liveries were introduced; the first batch of Leyland Nationals were delivered from the factory finished in dark red paint but were repainted into Poppy Red by the company before they entered service. Prior to the deregulation of bus services in 1986, Ribble's territory was reduced with the company's north Cumbrian operations passing to Cumberland Motor Services, the Merseyside operations to a recreated North Western.
As part of the privatisation of the National Bus Company, Ribble was sold on 2 March 1988 in a management buyout. In May 1989, Ribble was purchased by Stagecoach Holdings. In May 1989, Barrow Borough Transport was purchased. In April 2001, Stagecoach sold the Ribble operations in Blackburn, Hyndburn and Bolton to the Blazefield Group, which rebranded them as Lancashire United and Burnley & Pendle; as a subsidiary of Stagecoach, the company remained registered as Ribble Motor Services. Its services were operated under the trading name Ribble Buses as Stagecoach Ribble, Stagecoach in Lancashire and as part of Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire, its bus routes were transferred to Glenvale Transport Ltd in 2013. The company operated Leyland vehicles, built nearby in Leyland, Lancashire. However, there were some exceptions. In 1948/9 Sentinel had developed an underfloor-engined single deck bus, which increased the seating capacity significantly. Ribble took two batches of these buses. In the 1960s Ribble ordered ten lightweight Bedford coaches for their extended tour fleet.
A batch of Bristol single deck vehicles was ordered before the government brought together Leyland Bus and National Bus Company into the plan to build the Leyland National bus factory in Cumberland. After the first batch of 10 fitted with Leyland engines showed poor fuel economy, a larger batch of 30 was delivered with Gardner engines, which had better fuel efficiency; some Bristol VR double-deckers were acquired. Ribble engineers were responsible for specifying and maintaining coaches for Standerwick and North Western after they were transferred and became National Travel. Two batches of the lowheight Albion Lowlander double deck service bus were purchased by Ribble, all the LR1 model. 1851 to 1860, a year 1861 to 1866. They had a fronted cab, were a replica of the highbridge PD3's that Ribble operated. Ribble acquired a 17th example, when they took over Bamber Bridge Motor Services, 747EUS the ex demonstrator. Ribble were leaders as regards the introduction of double-deck coaches, after the Second World War when demand was heavy for express services - the single deck coach with the engine at the front would seat 35 passengers.
In the early 1950s Leyland introduced the Royal Tiger underfloor coach, which increased the number of passengers to 41. However, Ribble introduced the'White Lady' double-deck coach. Painted in coach livery, these lowbridge buses had 49 seats. There were two batches of'White Lady' 1201 - 1230 with Burlingham 5 bay window arrangement downstairs bodywork; the initial batch were downgraded to red liveried service buses in the mid 1950s, were to be found round Dalton-in-Furness and Ulverston depots. The East Lancs double deck coaches operated as such into the 1960s. Throughout the 1950s the "White Ladies" ran on all the major express and limited stop services out of Lower Mosley Street, Manchester. In particular they served the routes due north including X3 & X13 to Great Harwood, X23 Clitheroe, X43 Skipton and Colne, X53 Burnley, X66 Blackburn, they ran on the X27 service from Liverpool to Skipton via Southport. The upper deck configuration of a sunken side aisle with four seats all together on one side was an unusual combination..
Motorways were developed in the late 1950s – in 1958 the M6 Preston Bypass was the first motorway in the UK. Arrangements were in hand for a new double deck coach, based on the Leyland Atlantean, 50 reclining seats and plenty of room for luggage. Christened ` Gay Hostess', these coaches were the M1 in the 1960s. One was at the opening of the M1, Ribble milked the publicity for all it was worth. The'Gay Hostess' operated into London's Victoria Coach Station, stood out from all the other operator's vehicles - their application of the cream and maroon red was applied, to give a coach of distinction; when introduced in the 1960s, these vehicles were icons of the bus industry.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
20th Century Press Archives
The 20th Century Press Archives comprises about 19 million of newspaper clippings, organized in folders about persons, wares and topics. It originates from the Hamburg Kolonialinstitut founded in 1908. Within the Hamburg Institute of International Economics it turned into a unique public press archives. In 2007 it was absorbed by the German National Library of Economics and merged with the Wirtschaftsarchiv of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, founded in 1914. Article collection was discontinued by end of 2005. After a few years, the "Zentralstelle" of the Kolonialinstitut was transformed from a free information center for colonial issues into a comprehensive archive of global political and economic topics, which supported Hamburg's merchants. After the breakdown of the German colonial empire in World War I, the renaming to "Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv" in 1919 sealed this reorientation; the staff of HWWA reflected its importance and grew from 54 in 1919 to 183 permanent or temporary employees in 1958 - a state that seems to have remained stable until the late 1990s.
Founded shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the Kiel Economic Archive and its library were linked to the scientific work of the IfW, which focused on global economic contexts and their practical use. In 1966, the library of the IfW was given the function of a central library for economics by the German Research Foundation in the Federal Republic of Germany, in 1993, the department was renamed accordingly. During the First and the Second World War both archives were intensively involved in the foreign and wartime planning of the empire and the Nazi state. Starting in 1936, "Confidential Reports from the Foreign Press" provided selected economic leaders and Nazi departments with "largely unfiltered information and comments on economic issues from foreign media and represented a unique feature in Nazi media policy". By acting with the informal means of a foreign cultural and information policy supplementing the military expansion policy, HWWA and IfW dedicated their services to the Nazi regime.
In 1996, a closer cooperation between HWWA and ZBW / Wirtschaftsarchiv began with the aim of merging the two archives. Since the beginning of 2001, the articles were indexed according to a new common classification system and made retrievable via a reference database, "EconPress". Following a recommendation from the evaluation within the Leibniz Association in 2003, the current press documentation was finished at the end of 2005 and the materials were frozen at the level reached; the existence of the HWWA ended in 2007 with the integration of its press documentation and library into the ZBW as a newly formed foundation under public law. Today, the press archive belongs to the infrastructures of the Leibniz Association. By 1919 at the latest, the Hamburg archive collected "press clippings on a global scale"; the archive was subdivided in four sections: The Sacharchiv with subject matter "from all countries and the whole world". For the individual countries and regions, which constituted the primary order criterion, up to 1200 individual topics were recorded.
Further special folders were created for individual events or questions "such as the Boer War, the issue of slavery or the Suez Canal". Since the late 1990s, collecting had focused on "domestic and international economic issues"; the Warenarchiv with national and international raw materials, semi-finished and finished products. The product names are subdivided into 980 upper and 3400 sub-terms. Here and regions represent the secondary order criterion; the Firmenarchiv with business reports, anniversary publications and press clippings of c. 36,000 domestic and foreign companies. In addition, material on several hundred institutions and international organizations and research institutes has been collected; the Personenarchiv with dossiers of about 16,000 people from business, science and society. More than 1400 sources have been evaluated for the press archives, their broad international distribution provides access to the history of political thought and receptive history of the covered topics.
The collected publications go back as far as 1826. While the persons archive was only available in paper form until its partial digitization, the holdings of the topics and companies archives have been saved every ten years on roll film or microfiche since the 1960s and the paper clippings were pulped; the holdings of the Kiel Wirtschaftsarchiv are less comprehensively documented. They are subdivided into a topics archive, which served the research and teaching of the IfW and, microfilmed up to 1945, a personal archive, only in paper form, which contains publications of these persons, a home archive with publications about the IfW itself in paper; the archive on corporate bodies, which in 1958 comprised 4800 companies and more than 5600 German and international scientific and cultural societies and institutions, political parties and trade associations. And represented "one of the most complete collections for twentieth-century business history" is not mentioned any more in the archive's profile.
The "war archive" of 1914-1918, which comprehended one million clippings, was destroyed by a bomb strike in 1942. For 1958, when six scientific experts and more than 30 employees in total were collecting and organizing the material, the total extent of the archive was estimated a