Admiral Sir George Frederick Basset Edward-Collins, was a British senior officer in the Royal Navy during the first half of the twentieth century. Edward-Collins was born in Bodmin, the son of Edward Charles Edward-Collins, of Trewardale, Blisland, a local landowner, he was the younger brother of Charles Edward-Collins. Edward-Collins enrolled in the navy on 15 January 1898; as a midshipman he was appointed to HMS Goliath on 27 March 1900, on her first commission, to the China station. During the First World War Edward-Collins served on both HMS HMS Tiger. Edward-Collins commanded the light cruisers HMS Carysfort from April till September 1925, HMS Comus from September 1925 till April 1927, he was captain of the battlecruiser HMS Renown from December 1930 till March 1932, was appointed Chief of Staff to the Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet on 13 September 1935. From 1938 until 1940 he commanded the 2nd Cruiser Squadron, in 1940 he became second in command of the Home Fleet. From June to November 1940 he commanded the 18th Cruiser Squadron.
In December 1940 Edward-Collins became Flag Officer Commanding Gibraltar and Mediterranean Approaches. He was promoted to admiral on 21 January 1943, retired on 7 February 1944. Edward-Collins became Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on 17 June 1939, he was mentioned in dispatches in 1940, became Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 1 January 1941. He was awarded the Order Odrodzenia Polski in recognition of services to the Polish Navy on 22 December 1942
Rear admiral (Royal Navy)
Rear admiral is a flag officer rank of the British Royal Navy. It is superior to commodore and is subordinate to vice admiral, it is a two-star rank and has a NATO ranking code of OF-7. The rank originated in the days of naval sailing squadrons and each naval squadron would be assigned an admiral as its head, he would direct the activities of the squadron. The admiral would in turn be assisted by a vice admiral, who commanded the lead ships which would bear the brunt of a naval battle. In the rear of the naval squadron, a third admiral would command the remaining ships and, as this section of the squadron was considered to be in the least danger, the admiral in command of the rear would be the most junior of the squadron admirals; this has survived into the modern age, with the rank of rear admiral the most-junior of the admiralty ranks of many navies. Prior to 1864 the Royal Navy was divided into colored squadrons; the command flags flown by Rear-Admiral changed a number of times during this period included.
The Royal Navy rank of rear admiral should be distinguished from the office of Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom, an Admiralty position held by a senior "full" admiral. Coloured squadrons of the Royal Navy Rear-Admiral of the Blue Rear-Admiral of the White Rear-Admiral of the Red List of Royal Navy rear admirals Perrin, W. G.. "IV:Flags of Command". British flags, their early history, their development at sea. Cambridge, England: Cambridge: The University Press
British Armed Forces
The British Armed Forces known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They promote Britain's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid. Since the formation of a Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, the armed forces have seen action in a number of major wars involving the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the First World War, the Second World War. Emerging victorious from conflicts has allowed Britain to establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Today, the British Armed Forces consist of: the Royal Navy, a blue-water navy with a fleet of 75 commissioned ships, together with the Royal Marines, a specialised amphibious light infantry force; the British Armed Forces include standing forces, Regular Reserve, Volunteer Reserves and Sponsored Reserves.
Its Commander-in-chief is the British monarch Queen Elizabeth II, to whom members of the forces swear allegiance. The UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the British Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, as required by the Bill of Rights 1689; the Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and Royal Marines among with all other forces do not require this act. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence, headed by the Secretary of State for Defence; the United Kingdom is one of five recognised nuclear powers, is a permanent member on the United Nations Security Council, is a founding and leading member of the NATO military alliance, is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained at Ascension Island, Belize, British Indian Ocean Territory, Canada, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Qatar and the United States. With the Acts of Union 1707, the armed forces of England and Scotland were merged into the armed forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
During the half of the seventeenth century, in particular, throughout the eighteenth century, British foreign policy sought to contain the expansion of rival European powers through military and commercial means – of its chief competitors. This saw Britain engage in a number of intense conflicts over colonial possessions and world trade, including a long string of Anglo-Spanish and Anglo-Dutch wars, as well as a series of "world wars" with France, such as. During the Napoleonic wars, the Royal Navy victory at Trafalgar under the command of Horatio Nelson marked the culmination of British maritime supremacy, left the Navy in a position of uncontested hegemony at sea. By 1815 and the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain had risen to become the world's dominant great power and the British Empire subsequently presided over a period of relative peace, known as Pax Britannica. With Britain's old rivals no-longer a threat, the nineteenth century saw the emergence of a new rival, the Russian Empire, a strategic competition in what became known as The Great Game for supremacy in Central Asia.
Britain feared that Russian expansionism in the region would threaten the Empire in India. In response, Britain undertook a number of pre-emptive actions against perceived Russian ambitions, including the First Anglo-Afghan War, the Second Anglo-Afghan War and the British expedition to Tibet. During this period, Britain sought to maintain the balance of power in Europe against Russian expansionism, who at the expense of the waning Ottoman Empire had ambitions to "carve up the European part of Turkey"; this led to British involvement in the Crimean War against the Russian Empire. The beginning of the twentieth century served to reduce tensions between Britain and the Russian Empire due to the emergence of a unified German Empire; the era brought about an Anglo-German naval arms race which encouraged significant advancements in maritime technology, in 1906, Britain had determined that its only naval enemy was Germany. The accumulated tensions in European relations broke out into the hostilities of the First World War, in what is recognised today, as the most devastating war in British military history, with nearly 800,000 men killed and over 2 million wounded.
Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Central Powers, the end of the German Empire, the Treaty of Versailles and the establishment of the League of Nations. Although Germany had been defeated during the First World War, by 1933 fascism had given rise to Nazi Germany, which under the leadership of Adolf Hitler re-militarised in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles. Once again tensions accumulated in European relations, following Germany's invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Second World War began; the conflict was the most widespread in British history, with British Empire and Commonwealth troops fighting in campaigns from Europe and North Africa, to the Middle East and the Far East. 390,000 British Empire and Commonwealth troops lost their lives. Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Axis powers and the
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Spain; the landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of, a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people Gibraltarians. In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne; the territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, only 8 miles wide at this naval choke point, it remains strategically important. Today Gibraltar's economy is based on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling; the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was rejected.
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave. Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name. There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had stopped living in caves. During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance; the Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci, as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin.
Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period, they settled at the head of the bay in. The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count of the territory; the area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD. Following a raid in 710, a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar. Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.
Mons Calpe was renamed the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar. In 1160 the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built, it received the name of Medinat al-Fath. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today. From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia. After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. Six years Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain. In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. Subsequently most of the population left the town with many settling nearby; as the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated, which ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence. Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000; the first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more t
Rigid-hulled inflatable boat
A rigid-hulled inflatable boat or rigid-inflatable boat is a lightweight but high-performance and high-capacity unsinkable boat constructed with a rigid hull bottom joined to side-forming air tubes that are inflated with air to a high pressure so as to give the sides resilient rigidity along the boat’s topsides. The design is stable, light and seaworthy; the inflated collar acts like a life jacket in that the vessel keeps its buoyancy if much water comes aboard in heavy sea conditions, so is unsinkable. The RIB is an evolutionary development of the inflatable boat with a rubberized fabric bottom, stiffened with flat boards within the collar to form the deck or floor of the boat. Uses include work boats in trades that operate on the water, military craft, where they are used in patrol roles and to transport troops between vessels or ashore, lifeboats; the combination of rigid hull and large inflatable buoyancy tubes was conceived by a Royal National Lifeboat Institution team working under Inspector of Lifeboats Dag Pike in 1964 as a means of reducing the wear and tear of the fabric bottoms of the existing inflatable inshore lifeboats.
Although working versions were built, the plywood rigid hulls were not strong enough and broke up in waves. Development was being undertaken by students and staff at Atlantic College in South Wales under the direction of retired RN Admiral Desmond Hoare who headed the school which started in 1962. A series of experimental and prototype solutions for combining a hard hull form with an inflated fabric sponson lasted for over a decade; the RIB craft developed at Atlantic College served as an effective seafront activities safety and rescue boat for the college's fleet of sailing dinghies on the challenging. Bristol Channel, the college went on to become an Inshore Lifeboat Station for the RNLI in 1963, carrying out countless rescues over the next 50 years; the Atlantic College Lifeboat Station was decommissioned by the RNLI in 2013. The video RIB History at UWC Atlantic College provides a visual historical summary; the first commercial RIB was introduced in 1967 by Tony and Edward Lee-Elliott of Flatacraft, patented by Admiral Desmond Hoare in 1969 after research and development at Atlantic College.
In 1964, Rear-Admiral Hoare and his students at Atlantic College replaced the torn bottom of their 12-foot-long sailing activity rescue inflatable boat with a plywood sheet glued to the inflatable tubes. This proved a successful modification but was rather uncomfortable at speed offshore, so the hull was rebuilt with a shallow-vee bow entry transitioning to a nearly flat section stern; this boat was named Atlanta and that year an Atlantic College RIB was displayed at the London Boat Show. By 1966 the students had built a further five rigid inflatable boats – Aphrodite, Triton and X1–X3. Aphrodite and Triton were for the College’s own use. X1 and X2 were launched in 1965 by Queen Elizabeth II and made under a development agreement with the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, they were taken by the RNLI for trials at Gorleston and Great Yarmouth from which they returned to Atlantic College in Spring 1967. X3 was an experimental vortex-lift hull funded by a private developer and was not successful.
By that time Hoare had concluded that for the conditions under which they operated a boat of around 18 feet long was optimum which led to X4, X5 and X6, X7 to X8. These boats were used to support the college's sailing activities and to fulfil the college's responsibility as an inshore lifeboat station for the RNLI – a responsibility it discharged up until 2013. At the same time, work started on a smaller series of beach-launchable boats to support lifeguards on local beaches. All the above boats’ hulls were built from plywood. In summer 1968, student Paul Jefferies designed and constructed a hull from fiberglass, not a success due to lack of strength; however that development led to the building of Psychedelic Surfer, a twin-engined 21 ft RIB, for John Caulcott, Graeme Dillon and Simon de’Ath to race in the 1969 Round Britain Powerboat Race, in which it was one of the few boats to finish. From that time, the RNLI transferred development to its research centre in Cowes, who took the Atlantic College designs and developed from them the 21 ft Atlantic 21 class of inshore lifeboats which entered service from 1970 through 2007.
Atlantic 21-class lifeboat provides a class history of this vessel. The first commercial RIB is believed to be the Avon Rubber Searider, launched at the January 1969 London Boat Show; the 108th Engineering Heritage Award by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers was presented to UWC Atlantic College on 30th July 2017 by Carolyn Griffiths, President of the IMeche for its development of the X Alpha Rigid Inflatable Boat || In the mid-1970s Avon tubes for two 21-foot RHIBs were ordered by the new sister school of Atlantic College, being established on the west coast of Canada, the Lester B. Pearson College of the Pacific, at Pedder Bay near Race Rocks, British Columbia on the Straight of Juan de Fuca. Three former Atlantic College students built the first hull during the summer of 1974. Three more graduates who were trained as RNLI inshore lifeboat coxswains worked at the school during its inaugural year and coached some Pacific College students to build and operate the two boats, which were referred to as X-27, propelled by twin outboard engines and X-28, propelled by inboard-outboard stern drive.
During summer, the college loaned their fast rescue craft to the Canadian Coast Guard on the west coast
Scimitar-class patrol vessel
The Scimitar class is a class of fast patrol boat in service with the British Royal Navy. The two vessels of this class are of a commercial design known as the Lifespan Patrol Vessel built by Halmatic, served in an inshore waterways anti-terrorist role in Northern Ireland, they were acquired for the Royal Navy in 2003 for service with the Gibraltar Squadron, releasing two Archer-class boats that had filled this role for service with the Cyprus Squadron. With the decommissioning of the survey launch HMS Gleaner in February 2018, the two Scimitar-class boats became the smallest commissioned vessels in the Royal Navy. "Patrol Boats - Scimitar class". Royal Navy
Gibdock is a shipyard in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. It operated as a Royal Navy Dockyard. HM Dockyard, Gibraltar was first developed in the 18th century. After the Capture of Gibraltar, victualling facilities were provided from a small quay around what is now the North Mole, but a lack of berths prevented further development. In the 1720s, the building of the South Mole was accompanied by the establishment of a small dockyard facility consisting of a careening wharf, mast house and various workshops; the yard remained small in scale for a century and a half, although coaling facilities were added in the 1840s. In 1871 Captain Augustus Phillimore made the proposal that a new naval dockyard should be constructed in Gibraltar. Phillimore's scheme lay dormant in the Admiralty for 22 years before it was put to Parliament in 1895; the idea was to take just under £ 1.5 m pounds. In 1896 the scheme was further extended with the creation of new moles and three dry docks and a new budget of £4.5m pounds.
The transformation was large and the government were still passing enabling legislation in 1905. The three large graving docks known as docks Number 1, 2 and 3, were excavated on what had been the site of the old naval yard. Number 3 dock, the smallest at just over 50,000 tons of water capacity, was the first to be named in 1903 and was named King Edward VII, Queen Alexandra named the 60,000 ton Number 2 dock after herself in 1906, the largest, Number 1 dock, which could hold over 100,000 tons of water, was called the Prince and Princess of Wales dock, having been named by their Royal Highnesses in 1907, subsequently King George V and Queen Mary. In 1937 the warning of the Chiefs of Staff gave way to rearmament; the danger of a war being settled in the Mediterranean meant that No. 1 and No. 2 dock were extended so that Gibraltar could handle aircraft carriers and the new larger battleships. The dockyard was used extensively by the Royal Navy, docking many of the Navy’s most prestigious ships.
In the early 1980s a decision by the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence to cut back the Royal Navy surface fleet meant that the dockyard was no longer financially viable. In 1984 the dockyard passed into the hands of A&P Group. A government grant and a prospect of lucrative Royal Fleet Auxiliary refit contracts did not help A&P Group however and they passed the yard into the hands of the Government of Gibraltar. A company was set up to run the yard and it became known as Gibraltar Ship Repair. In the early 1990s the dockyard was taken over by Norway-based engineering and construction services company, Kværner, who ran the yard until 1996, the yard closed for a period of 18 months. In 1997 the British shipbuilding company Cammell Laird based in Merseyside, were looking to expand their operations outside the UK and in early 1998 a management team arrived at Gibraltar; the yard was reopened and the first ship docked within a few weeks. The dockyard's future was again put at risk when in early 2001 Cammell Laird Group PLC ran into difficulties, which led to its closure.
When it became inevitable that Cammell Laird Group PLC was to close, senior management in Gibraltar, with the backing of the Government of Gibraltar, were successful in their quest to source the necessary financial assistance to keep the company's Gibraltar operations running. During the first quarter of 2006, Cammell Laird Group was sold in its entirety to private investors; the new owner's intention was to continue with the existing business. The company continued to trade as Cammell Laird Gibraltar Ltd until 7 December 2009 when it was renamed Gibdock following the sale of the rights in the historic brand to Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders in the UK for an undisclosed sum. Gibdock remains a ship repair and conversion facility, providing repair services to all sectors of the maritime industry. Gibdock.com