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British Guiana

British Guiana was a former British colony, part of the British West Indies, which resided on the northern coast of South America, now known as the independent nation of Guyana. The first European to discover Guiana was an English explorer; the Dutch were the first Europeans to settle there, starting in the early 17th century, when they founded the colonies of Essequibo and Berbice, adding Demerara in the mid-18th century. In 1796, Great Britain took over these three colonies during hostilities with the French, who had occupied the Netherlands. Britain returned control to the Batavian Republic in 1802 but captured the colonies a year during the Napoleonic Wars; the colonies were ceded to the United Kingdom in 1814 and consolidated into a single colony in 1831. The colony's capital was at Georgetown; as the British developed the colony for sugarcane plantations, they imported many Africans as slave labour. The economy has become more diversified since the late 19th century but has relied on resource exploitation.

Guyana became independent of the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966. The English made at least two unsuccessful attempts in the 17th century to colonise the lands that would be known as British Guiana, at which time the Dutch had established two colonies in the area: Essequibo, administered by the Dutch West India Company, Berbice, administered by the Berbice Association; the Dutch West India Company founded Demerara, in the mid-18th century. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the late 18th century, when the Netherlands were occupied by the French, Great Britain and France were at war, Britain took over the colony in 1796. A British expeditionary force was dispatched from its colony of Barbados to seize the colonies from the French-dominated Batavian Republic; the colonies surrendered without a struggle. Little changed, as the British agreed to allow the long-established laws of the colonies to remain in force. In 1802 Britain returned the colonies to the Batavian Republic under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens.

But, after resuming hostilities with France in the Napoleonic Wars in 1803, Britain seized the colonies again less than a year later. The three colonies were ceded to the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814; the UK continued separate administration of the individual colonies until 1822 when the administration of Essequibo and Demerara was combined. In 1831, the administration Essequibo-Demerara and Berbice was combined, the united colony became known as British Guiana; the economy of British Guiana was based on sugarcane production until the 1880s, when falling cane sugar prices stimulated a shift toward rice farming and forestry. However, sugarcane remained a significant part of the economy. Under the Dutch and economic activity was concentrated around sugarcane plantations lying inland from the coast. Under the British, cane planting expanded to richer coastal lands, with greater coastline protection; until the abolition of slavery in the British Empire, sugar planters depended exclusively on slave labour to produce sugar.

Georgetown was the site of a significant slave rebellion in 1823. In the 1880s gold and diamond deposits were discovered in British Guiana, but they did not produce significant revenue. Bauxite deposits would remain an important part of the economy; the colony did not develop any significant manufacturing industry, other than sugar factories, rice mills and certain small-scale industries. The London-based Booker Group of companies dominated the economy of British Guiana; the Bookers had owned sugar plantations in the colony since the early 19th century. With the increasing success and wealth of the Booker Group, they expanded internationally and diversified by investing in rum, publishing, retail stores and petroleum, among other industries; the Booker Group became the largest employer in the colony, leading some to refer to it as "Booker's Guiana". British colonists built the first railway system in British Guiana: 98 kilometres of 1,435 mm standard gauge, from Georgetown to Rosignol, 31 kilometres of 1,067 mm line between Vreeden Hoop and Parika.

Several narrow-gauge lines were built to serve the sugar industry and others were built to serve the mines. In 1948, when the railway in Bermuda was closed down, the locomotives, rolling stock, track and all the associated paraphernalia of a railway were shipped to British Guiana to renovate the aged system; the lines ceased to operate in 1972. Some of the inland mines still operate narrow-gauge lines; the British long continued the forms of Dutch colonial government in British Guiana. A Court of Policy exercised both legislative and executive functions under the direction of the colonial Governor. A group known as the Financial Representatives sat with the Court of Policy in a Combined Court to set tax policies. A majority of the members of the Courts was appointed by the Governor; the Kiezers were elected, with the restrictive franchise based on property holdings and limited to the larger landowners of the colony. The Courts were dominated in the early centuries by the sugar planters and their representat

Rumbo (Texas newspapers)

Rumbo is a chain of Spanish-language newspapers headquartered in Texas, with editions in San Antonio and the Rio Grande Valley. It was headquartered in San Antonio but moved its offices to Houston, it was a daily publication, but the frequency changed to weekly. By 2014 it became online-only, it was established in 2004 by Colombia-born Edward Schumacher Matos and Jonathan Friedland. Both men both worked for The Wall Street Journal, the former as an editor and the latter as the Los Angeles bureau chief, Schumacher formerly worked for The New York Times as a foreign correspondent; the Spanish company Recoletos spent $16.5 million to develop Rumbo. The company Meximerica Media launched the newspaper, which had a daily frequency; as of 2005 the daily circulation was 100,000, there were 86 editorial staff originating from various countries. Regular contributors to the newspaper included Mario Vargas Llosa, two writers; as a result of the establishment of El Rumbo, English language newspapers in Texas acquired smaller Spanish language papers and/or established their own Spanish language divisions in order to compete with Rumbo.

In 2006 Rumbo laid off about 25 % of the employees. It was distributed in the Austin metropolitan area, but in April 2006 Austin distribution ended. By 2007 the paper was a weekly, not daily, publication. In 2007 ImpreMedia LLC had acquired Rumbo; the paper headquartered in San Antonio relocated its offices to Houston. The San Antonio and Valley editions ceased, so only the Houston edition remained; until circa January 2014 Jesús del Toro was general manager. By he was promoted to ImpreMedia's editorial director for all weekly publications. Around that time Rumbo, using freelance writers, received a new local editor; the final print edition of El Rumbo was on May 30, 2014. On June 6 of that year the paper announced that there would be no more print versions, with online versions remaining, due to reduction of costs. List of Spanish-language newspapers published in the United States Hispanics and Latinos in Texas Hispanics and Latinos in Houston Rumbo official website Rumbo official website

Helen Housby

Helen Housby is a professional English netball player. Housby played for the Superleague side Manchester Thunder from 2013 to 2016, helping them to win the 2014 Superleague Grand-Final against rivals Surrey Storm, she plays for the New South Wales Swifts. Housby was selected as a member of the England national netball team that played at the 2014 Commonwealth Games and 2015 Netball World Cup. Housby has completed two years of her zoology degree course at the University of Manchester. Helen was a key member of the England netball team that won the gold medal match against Australia at the 2018 Commonwealth Games in Gold Coast, Australia - she scored in the final second of the game to give victory to England by one point; the England team had beaten Jamaica in the semi-final match by a single point from a last-minute goal. Jamaica had narrowly defeated England in Glasgow 2014 to take the bronze medal. By the time Housby was selected in the final 12-player squad for England's 2019 Netball World Cup campaign, she had 58 caps to her name