British Honduras was a British Crown colony on the east coast of Central America, south of Mexico, from 1862 to 1964 a self-governing colony, renamed Belize in June 1973, until September 1981, when it gained full independence as Belize. British Honduras was the last continental possession of the United Kingdom in the Americas; the colony grew out of the Treaty of Versailles between Britain and Spain, which gave the British rights to cut logwood between the Hondo and Belize rivers. The Convention of London expanded this concession to include the area between the Belize and Sibun rivers. In 1862, the Settlement of Belize in the Bay of Honduras was declared a British colony called British Honduras, the Crown's representative was elevated to a lieutenant governor, subordinate to the governor of Jamaica; as the British consolidated their settlement and pushed deeper into the interior in search of mahogany in the late 18th century, they encountered resistance from the Maya. In the second half of the 19th century, however, a combination of events outside and inside the colony redefined the position of the Maya.
During the Caste War in Yucatán, a devastating struggle that halved the population of the area between 1847 and 1855, thousands of refugees fled to the British settlement. The Legislative Assembly had given large landowners in the colony firm titles to their vast estates in 1855 but did not allow the Maya to own land; the Maya could only live on reservations. Most of the refugees were small farmers, who by 1857 were growing considerable quantities of sugar, rice and vegetables in the Northern District. In 1857, the town of Corozal six years old, had 4,500 inhabitants, second in population only to Belize Town, which had 7,000 inhabitants; some Maya who had fled the strife in the north, but had no wish to become British subjects, settled in the remote Yalbac Hills, just beyond the woodcutting frontier in the northwest. By 1862, about 1,000 Maya established themselves in 10 villages in this area, with the center in San Pedro. One group of Maya, led by Marcos Canul, attacked a mahogany camp on the Bravo River in 1866, demanding ransom for their prisoners and rent for their land.
A detachment of British troops sent to San Pedro was defeated by the Maya that year. Early in 1867, more than 300 British troops marched into the Yalbac Hills and destroyed the Mayan villages, provision stores, granaries in an attempt to drive them out of the district; the Maya returned, in April 1870, Canul and his men marched into Corozal and occupied the town. Two years Canul and 150 men attacked the barracks at Orange Walk. After several hours of fighting, Canul's group retired. Canul, mortally wounded, died on 1 September 1872; that battle was the last serious attack on the colony. In the 1880s and 1890s, Mopán and Kekchí Maya fled from forced labour in Guatemala and came to British Honduras, they settled in several villages in southern British Honduras around San Antonio in Toledo District. The Maya could use Crown lands set aside as reservations. Under the policy of indirect rule, a system of elected alcaldes, adopted from Spanish local government, linked these Maya to the colonial administration.
However, the remoteness of the area of British Honduras in which they settled, combined with their subsistence way of life, resulted in the Mopán and Kekchí Maya maintaining more of their traditional way of life and becoming less assimilated into the colony than the Maya of the north. The Mopán and Kekchí Maya maintained a strong sense of identity, but in the north, the distinction between Maya and Spanish was blurred, a Mestizo culture emerged. In different ways and to different degrees the Maya who returned to British Honduras in the 19th century became incorporated into the colony as poor and dispossessed ethnic minorities. By the end of the 19th century, the ethnic pattern that remained intact throughout the 20th century was in place: Protestants of African descent, who spoke either English or Creole, lived in Belize Town; the forestry industry's control of land and its influence in colonial decision making hindered the development of agriculture and the diversification of the economy. In many parts of the Caribbean, large numbers of former slaves, some of whom had engaged in the cultivation and marketing of food crops, became landowners.
British Honduras had vast areas of sparsely populated, unused land. Land ownership was controlled by a small European monopoly, thwarting the evolution of a Creole landowning class from the former slaves. Rather than the former slaves, it was the Garifuna and Mestizos who pioneered agriculture in 19th-century British Honduras; these groups either lived as squatters. However, the domination of the land by forestry interests continued to stifle agriculture and kept much of the population dependent on imported foods. Landownership became more consolidated during the economic depression of the mid-19th century. Exports of mahogany peaked at over 4 million linear metres in 1846 but fell to about 1.6 million linear meters in 1859 and 8,000 linear meters in 1870, the lowest level since the beginning of the century. Mahogany and logwood continued to account for over 80 percent of the total value of exports, but the price of these goods was so low that the economy was in a state of prolonged depression after the 1850s.
Major results of this depression included the decline of the old settler class, the
Sabrina Ashley Vida Santamaria is an American tennis player of Filipino and Panamanian descent. She has a career-high WTA singles ranking of world No. 384, achieved on June 20, 2016. She has a best doubles ranking of No. 56, achieved on September 10, 2018. Santamaria alongside Jarmere Jenkins was given a mixed-doubles wild card into the 2013 US Open where they lost in the first round to Alizé Cornet and Édouard Roger-Vasselin, she was awarded a wild card into the 2015 US Open women's doubles event alongside Kaitlyn Christian. Santamaria graduated from the University of Southern California in 2015 with a degree in International Relations. During her collegiate career, she was the 2013 NCAA Doubles Champion alongside Christian, while being the 2013 Pac-12 Player of the Year and Doubles Team of the Year, she was the 2013 World University Games silver medalist in singles in Kazan, Russia. Sabrina Santamaria at the Women's Tennis Association Sabrina Santamaria at the International Tennis Federation USC Trojans profile
Hugh Sidey was an American journalist who worked for Life magazine starting in 1955 moved on to Time magazine in 1957. Born in Greenfield, Iowa, in 1927, he attended Iowa State College and graduated with a B. S. in journalism. After graduation he worked for local newspapers in Council Omaha. While in Omaha, he taught undergraduate journalism classes at Creighton University where he was exposed to frequent, lengthy political debates between conservatives and liberals alike, he learned the lasting lesson that it was paramount to have all your facts straight and that how you said something was sometimes more important than what you said. An old Jesuit at Creighton recommended him to some former students in New York and Sidey landed a job with Life magazine where he made an immediate impact. In 2006, The Hugh S. Sidey Scholarship in Print Journalism was established at the Greenlee School of Journalism and Communications at Iowa State University by The White House Historical Association, he covered several Presidents, from Eisenhower to Clinton, was author of the book Time Hugh Sidey's Portraits of the Presidents.
He hosted the PBS series The American Presidents. Sidey served as president of the board of directors of the White House Historical Association from 1998 to 2001, during the White House's bicentennary celebration, he died of an apparent heart attack while vacationing in Paris at the age of 78. Former president George H. W. Bush delivered a eulogy at Sidey's funeral. Sidey left behind a son and his wife, Anne. "Time biography". Archived from the original on February 10, 2001. Retrieved November 23, 2005. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Time Warner author page "The Meaning of Cordovans" reporter Hugh Sidey recalls the event when he saw Lyndon B. Johnson wearing the wrong shoes Appearances on C-SPAN IMDB