British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe, consisting of the islands of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, the Hebrides and over six thousand smaller isles. They have a total area of about 315,159 km2 and a combined population of 72 million, include two sovereign states, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; the islands of Alderney, Jersey and Sark, their neighbouring smaller islands, are sometimes taken to be part of the British Isles though, as islands off the coast of France, they do not form part of the archipelago. The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2.7 billion years old. During the Silurian period, the north-western regions collided with the south-east, part of a separate continental landmass; the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,345 metres, Lough Neagh, notably larger than other lakes in the island group, covers 390 square kilometres.

The climate is temperate marine, with warm summers. The North Atlantic drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the global average for the latitude; this led to a landscape, long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 BC, when Great Britain was still part of a peninsula of the European continent. Ireland, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC. Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC. Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-occupied Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD 43; the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century, dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change in England.

The Norman conquest of England in 1066 and the Angevin partial conquest of Ireland from 1169 led to the imposition of a new Norman ruling elite across much of Britain and parts of Ireland. By the Late Middle Ages, Great Britain was separated into the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland, while control in Ireland fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms, Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland, soon restricted only to The Pale; the 1603 Union of the Crowns, Acts of Union 1707 and Acts of Union 1800 aimed to consolidate Britain and Ireland into a single political unit, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands remaining as Crown Dependencies. The expansion of the British Empire and migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the dispersal of some of the islands' population and culture throughout the world, a rapid depopulation of Ireland in the second half of the 19th century. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty, with six counties remaining in the UK as Northern Ireland.

The term "British Isles" is controversial in Ireland. The Government of Ireland does not recognise the term, its embassy in London discourages its use. Britain and Ireland is used as an alternative description, Atlantic Archipelago has seen limited use in academia; the earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia. The original records have been lost. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, "the British Island", Prettanoi, "the Britons". Strabo used Βρεττανική, Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, used αἱ Πρεττανικαί νῆσοι to refer to the islands. Historians today, though not in absolute agreement agree that these Greek and Latin names were drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί; the shift from the "P" of Pretannia to the "B" of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar.

The Greco-Egyptian scientist Claudius Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave these islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Great Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island called Great Britain. The earliest known use of the phrase Brytish Iles in the English language is dated 1577 in a work by John Dee. Today, this name is seen by some as carrying imperialist overtones although it is still used. Other names used to describe the islands include the Anglo-Celtic Isles, Atlantic archipelago, British-Irish Isles and Ireland, UK an

Yangwon of Goguryeo

Yangwon of Goguryeo was the 24th ruler of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the eldest son of Anwon of Goguryeo. During Yangwon's reign, Goguryeo grew weaker and was obliged to take various urgent measures to block foreign invasions losing the Seoul region to the alliance of the other two Korean kingdoms, he was confirmed as heir to the third year of Anwon's reign. Although he was the heir, it is said that he was not able to assume power after his father's death. Anwon had three wives, because the first did not bear him a son, the other queens strove to put their son on the throne. Yangwon's supporters won the military struggle and he was able to succeed to the throne. Preparing for war in 547, Yangwon rebuilt Baegam repaired Sin fortress. In 548, he sent 6,000 soldiers against Baekje's Doksan fortress but the Silla general Ju Jin led a relief army and the Goguryeo assault failed. In 550, Baekje sacked Dosal fortress. Goguryeo counterattacked and struck Baekje's Geumhyeon fortress, but Silla took advantage of this to seize two more Goguryeo castles.

In 551, the emerging empire of the Göktürks invaded from Central Asia and laid siege to Sin fortress. At this, Yangwon sent his general 10,000 troops against the Göktürks. In the same year, Silla invaded once again and captured ten districts of the present-day Seoul region.. In 552, Jangan fortress was built. In 554, Yangwon's forces failed to take it. In 557, Yangwon designated the prince Go Yang-seong as heir to the throne. In the tenth lunar month of that same year, the commander Gan Juri of Hwando fortress rebelled, but the rebellion was put down and he was executed. Yangwon died after fifteen years on the throne. List of Korea-related topics History of Korea List of Korean monarchs

Hudson Oaks, Texas

Hudson Oaks is a city in Parker County, United States located in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. The population was 1,662 at the 2010 census. Hudson Oaks is located at 32°45′2″N 97°41′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.5 square miles. The town is located near Weatherford; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,637 people, 546 households, 475 families residing in the city. The population density was 641.7 people per square mile. There were 569 housing units at an average density of 223.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 96.09% White, 0.79% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 1.28% from other races, 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.97% of the population. There were 546 households out of which 46.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 78.6% were married couples living together, 4.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.0% were non-families. 10.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.23. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.6% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $69,659, the median income for a family was $74,688. Males had a median income of $57,292 versus $31,818 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,528. About 4.3% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 12.7% of those age 65 or over. Hudson Oaks is served by Aledo Independent School Districts. Hudson Oaks has been the site of two unrelated family murder-suicides. On July 16, 2002, Dee Etta Perez shot and killed her three children before using the same gun to kill herself. On May 29, 2007, Gilberta Estrada and her four daughters Maria Teresa Estrada, Janet Frayre, Magaly Frayre and Evelyn Frayre were found hanging in a closet in their mobile home.

The 8-month-old infant was found alive and taken to Cook Children's Medical Center in Fort Worth, Texas. The sheriffs and other investigators concluded; the surviving infant was placed in a foster home. Telephone Service is provided by AT&T Geographic data related to Hudson Oaks, Texas at OpenStreetMap