The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest library in the world by number of items catalogued. It is estimated to contain 170–200 million+ items from many countries; as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport; the British Library is a major research library, with items in many languages and in many formats, both print and digital: books, journals, magazines and music recordings, play-scripts, databases, stamps, drawings. The Library's collections include around 14 million books, along with substantial holdings of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 2000 BC. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library has a programme for content acquisitions.
The Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. There is space in the library for over 1,200 readers. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum; the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997. The Library is now located in a purpose-built building on the north side of Euston Road in St Pancras and has a document storage centre and reading room near Boston Spa, near Wetherby in West Yorkshire; the St Pancras building was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 25 June 1998, is classified as a Grade I listed building "of exceptional interest" for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972. Prior to this, the national library was part of the British Museum, which provided the bulk of the holdings of the new library, alongside smaller organisations which were folded in.
In 1974 functions exercised by the Office for Scientific and Technical Information were taken over. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs and thousands of tapes; the core of the Library's historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the "foundation collections". These include the books and manuscripts of Sir Robert Cotton, Sir Hans Sloane, Robert Harley and the King's Library of King George III, as well as the Old Royal Library donated by King George II. For many years its collections were dispersed in various buildings around central London, in places such as Bloomsbury, Chancery Lane and Holborn, with an interlibrary lending centre at Boston Spa, 2.5 miles east of Wetherby in West Yorkshire, the newspaper library at Colindale, north-west London. Initial plans for the British Library required demolition of an integral part of Bloomsbury – a seven-acre swathe of streets in front of the Museum, so that the Library could be situated directly opposite.
After a long and hard-fought campaign led by Dr George Wagner, this decision was overturned and the library was instead constructed by John Laing plc on a site at Euston Road next to St Pancras railway station. Following the closure of the Round Reading Room on 25 October 1997 the library stock began to be moved into the St Pancras building. Before the end of that year the first of eleven new reading rooms had opened and the moving of stock was continuing. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this single new building and the collection of British and overseas newspapers was housed at Colindale. In July 2008 the Library announced that it would be moving low-use items to a new storage facility in Boston Spa in Yorkshire and that it planned to close the newspaper library at Colindale, ahead of a move to a similar facility on the same site. From January 2009 to April 2012 over 200 km of material was moved to the Additional Storage Building and is now delivered to British Library Reading Rooms in London on request by a daily shuttle service.
Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013 and the newspaper library at Colindale closed on 8 November 2013. The collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites; the British Library Document Supply Service and the Library's Document Supply Collection is based on the same site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, make up around 70% of the total material the library holds; the Library had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson in collaboration with his wife MJ Long, who came up with the plan, subsequently developed and built. Facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley, it is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century.
In the middle of the building is a six-store
Crusaders is a novel by the British author Richard T. Kelly published in 2008. Crusaders is set in Newcastle upon Tyne in the year 1996, although there are scenes set in earlier years, an epilogue set just before the 1997 General Election; the principal character of the novel is the Reverend John Gore, a 31-year old Church of England vicar who returns to his native north-east in order to start a new church in the run-down area of Hoxheath. Gore is a supporter of the Labour Party, although both his father and his sister, Susannah, a PR consultant, vote Conservative. Gore renews an acquaintanceship with Dr Martin Pallister, a former lecturer and left-wing firebrand who, encouraged by Susannah, has become an ambitious New Labour MP. Another old acquaintance is Simon Barlow, an evangelical vicar whose parish is in a more affluent part of Newcastle but who offers to help Gore. After Gore makes an impression in the local media, Pallister offers him the chance to become involved in an urban regeneration scheme, but Gore is suspicious of the scheme and of Pallister's motives.
Pallister begins to work with Barlow, evidently trying to discredit Gore. Gore becomes the lover of Lindy Clark, a single mother from Hoxheath, accepts the support of Steve Coulson, a local hard man and ‘security consultant’ who works for a dubious businessman by the name of Roy Caldwell. Prompted by Caldwell, Coulson carries out the shooting of two rival gangsters in a restaurant before hiding the murder weapon at Lindy's home. Gore is uneasy about Coulson, but discovers that Coulson is the father of Lindy's son, Jake, as well as her employer. Gore visits the club where Lindy works and becomes involved in an altercation with some of Coulson's associates, one of whom, reveals to Gore that he is an undercover police officer. Gore gives shelter to Mackers, a young assistant of Coulson, suspected of talking to the police about the shootings. After spending the evening at Lindy's home, Gore is angered when she is summoned to the nightclub by Coulson; the couple argue, Gore discovers the gun used by Coulson in the killings.
He confronts Robbie outside the club and tells Robbie he has important information about Coulson. Robbie gives Robbie a contact number. Gore discovers that Lindy works as a cleaner and receptionist at a massage parlour owned by Caldwell, he visits the premises and persuades Lindy to leave but is confronted by Shack, one of Coulson's henchmen. Shack allows Gore and Lindy to leave. At Lindy's, Gore relocates contacts Robbie. Coulson arrives and gives Gore a severe beating, but the house is attacked by a group of men led by Shack, who stab Coulson to death – on the orders of Caldwell. Robbie and the police arrive shortly afterwards, Gore is taken to hospital; some time it transpires that Lindy loses custody of Jake, despite Gore pleading her case. Just before the 1997 General Election, Gore appears in Durham as a campaign manager for the Labour Party, having evidently lost his position in Hoxheath, he works alongside Pallister. Author Richard T. Kelly on Faber
Ahmed Abdul Qader is a citizen of Yemen, held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detainment camps, in Cuba from June 18, 2002, to January 14, 2015. His detainee ID number was 690; the Department of Defense estimated that Qader was born in Sana'a, Yemen. Ahmed Abdul was cleared for release by the Guantanamo Review Task Force, he was accepted as a refugee by Estonia on January 14, 2015. The Bush Presidency asserted that captives apprehended in the "war on terror" were not covered by the Geneva Conventions, could be held indefinitely, without charge, without an open and transparent review of the justifications for their detention. In 2004, the United States Supreme Court ruled, in Rasul v. Bush, that Guantanamo captives were entitled to being informed of the allegations justifying their detention, were entitled to try to refute them. Following the Supreme Court's ruling the Department of Defense set up the Office for the Administrative Review of Detained Enemy Combatants.
Following Freedom of Information Act requests the DoD published documents from Ahmed Abdul's annual OARDEC hearings from 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007. Scholars at the Brookings Institution, led by Benjamin Wittes, studied these documents, listed the captives still held in Guantanamo in December 2008, according to whether their detention was justified by certain common allegations According to their study: Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges... are associated with both Al Qaeda and the Taliban." Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges that the following detainees stayed in Al Qaeda, Taliban or other guest- or safehouses." Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges... took military or terrorist training in Afghanistan." Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges... fought for the Taliban." Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges that the following detainees were captured under circumstances that suggest belligerency."
Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges... served on Osama Bin Laden’s security detail." Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives, an "al Qaeda operative". Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives who "deny affiliation with Al Qaeda or the Taliban yet admit facts that, under the broad authority the laws of war give armed parties to detain the enemy, offer the government ample legal justification for its detention decisions." Ahmed Abdul Qader was listed as one of the captives who "The military alleges... admitted fighting on behalf of Al Qaeda or the Taliban."Ahmed Abdul chose to participate in his initial 2004 Combatant Status Review Tribunal. The United States Department of Defense published an 8-page summary of the transcript of his hearing. Ahmed Abdul requested the Al Wafa director, as a witness. Abdul Aziz stated he did not remember meeting Qadar, since he didn’t remember him Ahmed Abdul could never have worked for him. Ahmed Abdul's habeas corpus petition was turned down in 2011.
On April 25, 2011, whistleblower organization WikiLeaks published secret assessments drafted by Joint Task Force Guantanamo analysts. A 13-page Joint Task Force Guantanamo detainee assessment was drafted about him on May 20, 2008, it was signed by camp commandant Rear Admiral David M Thomas Jr. who recommended continued detention. On January 21, 2009, the day he was inaugurated, United States President Barack Obama issued three Executive orders related to the detention of individuals in Guantanamo, he established a task force to re-review the status of all the remaining captives. Where the OARDEC officials reviewing the status of the captives were all "field grade" officers in the US military the officials seconded to the task force were drawn from not only the Department of Defense, but from five other agencies, including the Departments of State, Homeland Security. President Obama gave the task force a year, it recommended the release of Qader and 54 other individuals, he was accepted as a refugee by Estonia on January 14, 2015.
The government decided to offer an invitation to Qader on October 9, 2014. The invitation told him. Estonia had been in discussions to accept individuals held in Guantanamo, for years; the Baltic Times reported, on August 29, 2009, that Estonia was prepared to accept multiple individuals. However, on October 12, 2010, Russia Today reported that Foreign Minister Urmas Paet, informed the Estonian legislature that Estonian law barred accepting the former captives. In 2011, the whistleblower site WikiLeaks published secret diplomatic cables that stated the USA had offered to pay Estonia 62600 euros for every captive Estonia took. On December 24, 2014, Linda Greenhouse, a long-time commentator on the United States Supreme Court, writing in The New York Times, wrote about Ahmed Abdul habeas corpus petition, comments made by more senior judges on his case. Sara Davidson, writing in the New Yorker magazine and Wells Bennett, writing for Lawfare, both commented on his case, following his transfer to Estonia.
On June 28, 2015, Mark Mackinnon, reporting from Tallinn, for The Globe and Mail, reported that Akhmed Abdul Qader had "disappeared". On July 7, 2015, an article in Postimees stated, that: "Up to now, the man has not been outside the country." On July 29, 2016, Charlie Savage of The New York Times, profiled Qader after an extensive interview. According to Savage, Qader reported'terrible anxiety problems', he reported that Qader was too anxious to travel, sometimes co