The British National Party is a far-right, fascist political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Wigton and its current leader is Adam Walker. A minor party, it has no elected representatives at any level of UK government. Founded in 1982, the party reached its greatest level of success in the 2000s, when it had over fifty seats in local government, one seat on the London Assembly, two Members of the European Parliament. Taking its name from that of a defunct 1960s far-right party, the BNP was created by John Tyndall and other former members of the fascist National Front. During the 1980s and 1990s, the BNP placed little emphasis on contesting elections, in which it did poorly. Instead, it focused on street marches and rallies, creating the Combat 18 paramilitary—its name a coded reference to Nazi German leader Adolf Hitler—to protect its events from anti-fascist protesters. A growing'moderniser' faction was frustrated by Tyndall's leadership, ousted him in 1999; the new leader Nick Griffin sought to broaden the BNP's electoral base by presenting a more moderate image, targeting concerns about rising immigration rates, emphasising localised community campaigns.
This resulted in increased electoral growth throughout the 2000s, to the extent that it became the most electorally successful far-right party in British history. Concerns regarding financial mismanagement resulted in Griffin being removed from office in 2014. By this point the BNP's membership and vote share had declined groups like Britain First and National Action had splintered off, the English Defence League had supplanted it as the UK's foremost far-right group. Ideologically positioned on the extreme-right or far-right of British politics, the BNP has been characterised as fascist or neo-fascist by political scientists. Under Tyndall's leadership, it was more regarded as neo-Nazi; the party is ethnic nationalist, it espouses the view that only white people should be citizens of the United Kingdom. It calls for an end to non-white migration into the UK and for non-white Britons to be stripped of citizenship and removed from the country, it called for the compulsory expulsion of non-whites, although since 1999 has advocated voluntary removals with financial incentives.
It promotes biological racism and the white genocide conspiracy theory, calling for global racial separatism and condemning interracial relationships. Under Tyndall, the BNP emphasised anti-semitism and Holocaust denial, promoting the conspiracy theory that Jews seek to dominate the world through both communism and international capitalism. Under Griffin, the party's focus switched from anti-semitism towards Islamophobia, it promotes economic protectionism, a transformation away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism, LGBT rights, societal permissiveness. Operating around a centralised structure that gave its chair near total control, the BNP built links with far-right parties across Europe and created various sub-groups, including a record label and trade union; the BNP attracted most support from within White British working-class communities in northern and eastern England among middle-aged and elderly men. Polls suggested, it faced much opposition from anti-fascists, religious organisations, the mainstream media, most politicians, BNP members were banned from various professions.
The British National Party was founded by the extreme-right political activist John Tyndall. Tyndall had been involved in neo-Nazi groups since the late 1950s before leading the far-right National Front throughout most of the 1970s. Following an argument with senior party member Martin Webster, he resigned from the NF in 1980. In June 1980 Tyndall established the New National Front. At the recommendation of Ray Hill—who was secretly an anti-fascist spy seeking to sow disharmony among Britain's far-right—Tyndall decided to unite an array of extreme-right groups as a single party. To this end, Tyndall established a Committee for Nationalist Unity in January 1982. In March 1982, the CNU held a conference at the Charing Cross Hotel in London, at which 50 far-right activists agreed to the formation of the BNP; the BNP was formally launched on 7 April 1982 at a press conference in Victoria. Led by Tyndall, most of its early members came from the NNF, although others were defectors from the NF, British Movement, British Democratic Party, Nationalist Party.
Tyndall remarked that there was "scarcely any difference in ideology or policy save in the minutest detail", most of the BNP's leading activists had been senior NF figures. Under Tyndall's leadership the party was neo-Nazi in orientation and engaged in nostalgia for Nazi Germany, it adopted the NF's tactic of holding street marches and rallies, believing that these boosted morale and attracted new recruits. Their first march took place in London on St. George's Day 1982; these marches involved clashes with anti-fascist protesters and resulted in multiple arrests, helping to cement the BNP's association with political violence and older fascist groups in the public eye. As a result, BNP organisers began to favour indoor rallies, although street marches continued to be held throughout the mid-to-late 1980s. In its early years, the BNP's involvement in elections was "irregular and intermittent", for its first two decades it faced consistent electoral failure, it suffered from low finances and few personnel, its leadership was aware that its electoral viability was weakened by the anti-immigration rhetoric of Conservative Party Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
In the 1983 general election the BNP stood 54 candidates, although it only ca
In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a rigid, truss-like structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports. Like the truss, a space frame is strong because of the inherent rigidity of the triangle. Alexander Graham Bell from 1898 to 1908 developed space frames based on tetrahedral geometry. Bell's interest was in using them to make rigid frames for nautical and aeronautical engineering, with the tetrahedral truss being one of his inventions. Dr. Ing. Max Mengeringhausen developed the space grid system called MERO in 1943 in Germany, thus initiating the use of space trusses in architecture; the used method, still in use has individual tubular members connected at node joints and variations such as the space deck system, octet truss system and cubic system. Stéphane de Chateau in France invented Unibat system, Pyramitec. A method of tree supports was developed to replace the individual columns.
Buckminster Fuller patented the octet truss in 1961 while focusing on architectural structures. Space frames are designed using a rigidity matrix; the special characteristic of the stiffness matrix in an architectural space frame is the independence of the angular factors. If the joints are sufficiently rigid, the angular deflections can be neglected, simplifying the calculations; the simplest form of space frame is a horizontal slab of interlocking square pyramids and tetrahedra built from aluminium or tubular steel struts. In many ways this looks like the horizontal jib of a tower crane repeated many times to make it wider. A stronger form is composed of interlocking tetrahedra. More technically this is referred to as an isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss. More complex variations change the lengths of the struts to curve the overall structure or may incorporate other geometrical shapes. Within the meaning of space frame, we can find three systems different between them:Curvature classification Space plane covers: These spatial structures are composed of planar substructures.
Their behavior is similar to that of a plate in which the deflections in the plane are channeled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals. Barrel vaults: This type of vault has a cross section of a simple arch; this type of space frame does not need to use tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its backing. Spherical domes and other compound curves require the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin. Classification by the arrangement of its elements Single layer grid: All elements are located on the surface to be approximated. Double layer grid: Elements are organized in two layers parallel to each other at a certain distance apart; each of the layers form a lattice of triangles, squares or hexagons in which the projection of the nodes in a layer may overlap or be displaced relative to each other. Diagonal bars connect the nodes of both layers in different directions in space. In this type of meshes, the elements are associated into three groups: upper cordon and cordon lower diagonal.
Triple layer grid: Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the diagonals. They are always flat. Other examples classifiable as space frames are these: Pleated metallic structures: Emerged to try to solve the problems that formwork and pouring concrete had their counterparts. Run with welded joint, but may raise prefabricated joints, a fact which makes them space meshes. Hanging covers: Designs on the cable taut and the catenary arch antifunicular show their ability to channel forces theoretically better than any other alternative, have an infinite range of possibilities for composition and adaptability to any type of plant cover or ensure vain. However, imprecisions in shape having the loaded strand and the risk of bending the arc to unexpected stresses are problems that require pre-compression and prestressing elements. Although in most cases tend to be the cheapest and the technical solution that best fits the acoustics and ventilation of the covered enclosure, are vulnerable to vibration.
Pneumatic structures: Closure membranes subjected to a pressurized state may be considered within this group. O Industrial Buildings, Factory o Sports Hall o Warehouses o Swimming Pools o Conference Hall & Exhibition Center o Stadiums with Long Span distance o Museum and Fair Houses o Shopping Centers and Malls o Airports and Canopy o Exhibition hall o Mosque o Atrium Space frames are a common feature in modern building construction. Examples of buildings based on space frames include: Stansted Airport, by Foster + Partners Bank of China Tower and the Louvre Pyramid, by I. M. Pei Rogers Centre by Rod Robbie and Michael Allan McCormick Place East in Chicago Arena das Dunas in Natal, Brazil by Populous Eden Project in Cornwall, England Globen, Sweden - Dome with diameter of 110 m, Biosphere 2 by John P. Allen, Phil Hawes, Peter Jon Pearce in Oracle, Arizona Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, New York City, New York Palau Sant Jordi in Barcelona, Spain by Arata Isozaki Sochi International Airport in Sochi, Russia Entrance to Six Flags Magic Mountain Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport airport terminal 2Large portable stages and lighting gantries are frequently built from space frames a
Cyma Zarghami is an Iranian American cable television executive who served as the president of Nickelodeon and Viacom Media Networks Kids & Family Group from 2006 to 2018. Zarghami was born in Abadan, Iran to an Iranian father, a Scottish mother, Catherine; the family moved to Canada and to Englewood, New Jersey, where she graduated in the class of 1980 from the Dwight-Englewood School and was a recipient of the school's Distinguished Alumni Award. At Dwight-Englewood, she played lacrosse. In 1980, Zarghami entered the University of Vermont in Burlington, Vermont as an elementary education major, but changed her major to English, she did not complete her degree, but was awarded an honorary diploma by the University of Vermont College of Education and Social Services in 2000. Zarghami traveled in Europe after leaving college returned to Burlington to work for Business Digest. Zarghami joined Nickelodeon as a scheduling clerk in 1985, she moved up through the programming department and became the channel's general manager in 1996, overseeing programming, acquisitions and day-to-day management of the network.
Zarghami was promoted to general manager and executive vice-president in 1997. In 2004, the position of president of Nickelodeon Television was created for Zarghami, where she oversaw production and development for the network, along with marketing and creativity. After the resignation of Herb Scannell on January 5, 2006, Zarghami became president of the newly formed Kids & Family Group, which included Nickelodeon, Nick@Nite, Nick Jr. TeenNick, Nicktoons, TV Land, CMT, CMT Pure Country. On June 4, 2018, Zarghami resigned as president of Nickelodeon and retired, after being with the network for 33 years. Zarghami lives in New York City with her husband George Obergfoll, a stage manager, their three sons, she served on the board of the Children's Museum of Manhattan. MIPCOM Junior 2008 Keynote address Cyma Zarghami biography on Nick.com Cyma Zarghami on IMDb