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British Pakistanis

British Pakistanis are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestral roots lie in Pakistan. This includes people born in the UK who are of Pakistani descent, Pakistani-born people who have migrated to the UK; the majority of British Pakistanis originate from the Azad Kashmir and Punjab regions, with a smaller number from other parts of Pakistan including Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. The UK is home to the largest Pakistani community in Europe, with the population of British Pakistanis exceeding 1.17 million based on the 2011 census. British Pakistanis are the second-largest ethnic minority population in the United Kingdom and make up the second-largest sub-group of British Asians. In addition, they are one of the largest overseas Pakistani communities, similar in number to the Pakistani diaspora in Saudi Arabia. Due to the historical relations between the two countries, immigration to the UK from the region, now Pakistan began in small numbers in the mid-19th century.

During the mid-nineteenth century, parts of what is now Pakistan came under the British Raj and people from those regions served as soldiers in the British Indian Army, some were deployed in other parts of the British Empire. However, it was following the Second World War, the break-up of the British Empire and the independence of Pakistan, that Pakistani immigration to the United Kingdom increased during the 1950s and 1960s; this was made easier. Pakistani immigrants helped to resolve labour shortages in the British steel and engineering industries. Doctors from Pakistan were recruited by the National Health Service in the 1960s; the British Pakistani population has grown from about 10,000 in 1951 to over 1.1 million in 2011. The vast majority of these live in England, with a sizable number in Scotland and smaller numbers in Wales and Northern Ireland; the most diverse Pakistani population is in London which comprises Punjabis, Mirpuri Kashmiris, Sindhis, Saraikis and others. The majority of British Pakistanis are Muslim.

The majority are Sunni Muslims, with a significant minority of Shia Muslims. The UK has one of the largest overseas Christian Pakistani communities. Since their settlement, British Pakistanis have had diverse contributions and influence on British society, culture and sport. Whilst social issues include high relative poverty rates among the community according to the 2001 census, significant progress has been made in recent years, with the 2011 Census showing British Pakistanis as having amongst the highest levels of home ownership in Britain. A large number of British Pakistanis have traditionally been self-employed, with a significant number working in the transport industry or in family-run businesses of the retail sector; the earliest period of Asian migration to Britain has not been ascertained. It is known that Romani groups such as the Romanichal and Kale arrived in the region during the Middle Ages, having originated from North India and Pakistan and traveled westward to Europe via Southwest Asia around 1000 CE, intermingling with local populations over the course of several centuries.

Immigration from what is now Pakistan to the United Kingdom began long before the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Muslim immigrants from Kashmir, Sindh, the North-West Frontier and Balochistan as well as other parts of South Asia, arrived in the British Isles as early as the mid-seventeenth century as employees of the East India Company as lashkars and sailors in British port cities; these immigrants were the first Asians to be seen in British port cities and were perceived as indolent due to their reliance on Christian charities. Despite this, most early Pakistani immigrants married local white British women because there were few South Asian women in Britain at the time. During the colonial era, Asians continued coming to Britain as seamen, students, domestic workers, political officials and visitors, some of them settled in the region. South Asian seamen being abandoned by ship masters. Many early Pakistanis came to the UK as scholars and studied at major British institutions, before returning to British India.

An example of such a person is the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah came to the UK in 1892 and started an apprenticeship at Graham's Shipping and Trading Company. After completing his apprenticeship, Jinnah joined Lincoln's Inn. At 19, Jinnah became the youngest person from South Asia to be called to the bar in Britain. Most early Pakistani settlers and their families moved from port towns to the Midlands, as Britain declared war on Germany in 1939. Many of these Kashmiris and Sindhis worked in the munition factories of Birmingham. After the war, most of these early settlers stayed on in the region and took advantage of an increase in the number of jobs; these settlers were joined by the arrival of their families to Britain. In 1932, the Indian National Congress survey of'all Indians outside India' estimated that there were 7,128 Indians in the United Kingdom. There were 832,500 Muslim Indian soldiers in 1945; these soldiers fought alongside the British Army during the

Kopskiekelwein

Kopskiekelwein was a currant wine produced in the former German province of East Prussia. The wine was made from either blackcurrants or redcurrants, was fermented with Burgundy yeast. Kopskiekelwein took its name from the jocular saying that whoever became too fond of the drink would fall down headfirst - or kopskiekel in the old Low Prussian dialect. Popular pubs where the wine was available included the forester's lodge in Moditten and the Four Brothers Inn in Metgethen, both located in the suburbs of Königsberg; these establishments no longer exist, as they were destroyed during World War II. Barbara Zander: Alkoholische Spezialitäten aus Ostpreußen

Des Plaines Fish and Wildlife Area

Des Plaines Fish and Wildlife Area is an Illinois state park on 5,000 acres in Will County, United States. It is located on floodplain adjacent to the confluence of the Des Plaines River and the Kankakee River to form the Illinois River. Prior to 1948 what is now called the Des Plaines Fish and Wildlife Area was owned by the federal government; the Illinois Department of Conservation acquired the site in 1948 and established its use as a recreation area. Additional land was accessed following the completion of Interstate 55 in the 1960s. From that time to 1975, the area was used by hunters and unmanaged day use; the Division of Land Management took over the area in 1976 and since extensive upgrading of facilities has occurred. In recent years, more than 350,000 people annually visit Des Plaines—an area of over 5,000 acres, with 200 acres of water. A restful break from hunting, fishing or hiking can be a special event. Picnickers can choose to lunch along the Kankakee River or under the large shelter on the banks of Milliken Lake.

Both sites provide tables and water along with cooling shade trees and picturesque views. A playground area is provided at the Milliken Lake site. Open water and ice fishing are popular events as well, productive! Milliken Lake, as well as several ponds and the river backwaters, provide panfish and bass fishing. Milliken Lake is stocked with catchable trout in the spring; the Kankakee River borders the site on the south with 3 miles of shoreline providing access to boating enthusiasts and excellent walleye and northern pike fishing. Camping area closed indefinitely effective 3/2010 due to lack of funding. Designated camping areas were available for those wishing to stay overnight at the site; these were Class C areas with graveled pads and pit toilets. The campground was open from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. daily, from mid-April to mid-October, closed the rest of the year. A public boat launch with 3 paved ramps is available on the Kankakee River for boating on the river or its backwaters. Motors are limited to 10 horsepower or less on the backwaters, but there are no limits on the Kankakee River.

No boating is allowed on Milliken Lake. A twelve mile trail is open from mid April through October weather permitting; the trail hours are 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. Pheasant hunting is the most popular choice for sportsmen at Des Plaines, the largest pheasant hunting facility in the state is located at the site. For variety, there are unlimited numbers of deer, rabbit and coyote. All hunters are required to check in at the site office. Waterfowl hunting is available at the nearby Will County Waterfowl Management Area, with hunting blinds being allocated via drawings. Eighty acres of the Des Plaines Wildlife and Conservation Area make up a dedicated nature preserve which contains many remnants of the natural prairie of years past; the preserve is managed so it can protect and perpetuate this prairie heritage for future generations. Visitors are encouraged to view this area, but are reminded that all plants and animals here are protected and are not to be disturbed in any way. Two hand trap ranges and an archery range are open to the public daily except during pheasant hunting season.

Sportsmen are welcome to hone their skills so they will be ready to go on opening day. In addition to the two hand trap ranges and the archery range. Des Plaines hosts three wingshooting clinics and two Hunter Safety Classes annually; the wingshooting clinics are held on the first weekend following Mothers Day, on the first weekend in June and the third weekend in September. The Des Plaines Fish and Wildlife Area is well known for numerous field trials and dog training events held throughout the year; the plentiful open areas, swampy backwater areas, woodlands provide a perfect spot for all types of training. Whether you are training your animal or just being a spectator, these events can be a great way to spend a day or weekend outdoors; the following programs have disabled accessibility: Hunting, Fishing and Picnicking. Https://web.archive.org/web/20160923135401/http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/landmgt/PARKS/I%26M/EAST/DESPLAIN/Park.htm "Des Plaines Fish and Wildlife Area". Illinois Department of Natural Resources.

Retrieved 2018-07-09. USGS. "Des Plaines State Conservation Area, USGS Channahon Quad". TopoQuest. Retrieved 2008-07-05