The Mercury Prize, formerly called the Mercury Music Prize, is an annual music prize awarded for the best album from the United Kingdom and Ireland. It was established by the British Phonographic Industry and British Association of Record Dealers in 1992 as an alternative to the Brit Awards, the prize was originally sponsored by Mercury Communications, a brand owned by Cable & Wireless, from which the prize gets its name. It was sponsored by Technics, Nationwide Building Society, the 2015 prize was sponsored by the BBC, while in 2016 it was announced that a three-year deal had been struck with Hyundai to sponsor the event. Any album released by a British artist, or by a band where over 50% of the members are British, may be submitted for consideration by their record label. The shortlist is chosen by an independent panel of musicians, music presenters, music producers, music journalists, festival organisers and other figures in the industry in the UK. The prize is open to all types of music, including pop, folk, grime, jazz, blues and classical.
Presentation of the awards usually takes place at an Awards Show in October, after the shortlist is announced at the Album of the Year Launch in September. It is often observed that bands albums are shortlisted, or win the prize, experience a large increase in album sales. Each shortlisted artist receives a specially commissioned Albums of the Year trophy at the Awards Show, unlike some other music awards, the overall winner of the Mercury Prize receives a cheque, as of 2014, the value of the prize money is £20,000. The winner receives an additional winners trophy, to date, PJ Harvey is the only artist to have won the award on more than one occasion. She was the first female solo artist to receive the award, radiohead are the most shortlisted artists with five, but they have never won. The Mercury Prize can have an effect on sales for those artists who are shortlisted. Elbow saw a 700% sales increase of their album The Seldom Seen Kid after winning the Prize in 2008, in their winners speech, Elbows frontman Guy Garvey said that winning the Mercury Prize was Quite literally the best thing that has ever happened to us.
2011 winner PJ Harveys album Let England Shake jumped from number 181 to 24 in the UK official charts the week after the 2011 Awards Show. Despite being regarded by many as highly prestigious, it has suggested that having an album nominated for or winning the Mercury Prize could be a curse on a career in music. All genres of music are eligible for entry, and it is stated that all are treated equally, Simon Frith, chair of the Mercury Prize judging panel, has said that albums are chosen because they are the strongest each year, rather than according to genre. However, the presence of classical and jazz recordings has been cited by some as anomalous, classical acts to have an album nominated have included Sir John Tavener, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Gavin Bryars and Nicholas Maw. None has ever won, and there has not been a classical album since 2002
Recording Industry Association of Japan
The Recording Industry Association of Japan is an industry trade group composed of Japanese corporations involved in the music industry. It was founded in 1942 as the Japan Phonogram Record Cultural Association, the RIAJs activities include promotion of music sales, enforcement of copyright law, and research related to the Japanese music industry. It publishes the annual RIAJ Year Book, a summary of each years music sales. The association is responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in Japan, in 1989, the Recording Industry Association of Japan introduced the music recording certification systems. It is awarded based on shipment figures of compact disc or cassette tape which was reported by record labels, in principle, the criteria are limitedly applied to the materials released after January 21,1989. Currently, all music sales including singles, digital download singles are on the same criteria, unlike many countries, the highest certification is not called Diamond or Platinum, but Million.
Before the unification of criteria and introduction of music videos category in July 2003, certifications for songs and albums released digitally began on September 20,2006, using download data collected since the early 2000s. From 2006 until 2013, there were three categories for certifications, Chaku-uta, Chaku-uta Full and PC Haishin for songs purchased on services such as iTunes, on February 28,2014, the Chaku-uta Full and PC categories were merged to create the Single Track category. And Hikaru Utadas sixth studio album Fantôme among others, Avex Group¹ Avex Entertainment Being Inc
Music in Medieval England
The sources of English secular music are much more limited than for ecclesiastical music. Medieval musicians had a variety of instruments available to them. The Anglo-Saxon scop and gleeman were replaced in the century by the minstrel. This was superseded, from the century by Gregorian chant. English musicians developed some distinctive forms of music, including the Contenance Angloise, the rota, polyphonic votive antiphons and the carol, the impact of humanism on music can be seen in England the late fifteenth century. There were increasing numbers of musicians, particularly those from France. The result was an elaborate style which balanced the many parts of the setting. Surviving sources indicate there was a rich and varied musical soundscape in medieval England. Because literacy, and musical notation in particular, were preserves of the clergy in this period, some were noted, often by clergymen who had an interest in secular music. Medieval musicians had a variety of instruments available to them.
These included the shawm, rebec, portative organ, timbrel, lute, in Anglo-Saxon England, the professional poet was known as a scop. Often attached to a royal or noble court, he composed his own poems, beneath the scop was the gleeman, who was usually itinerant, and performed the works of others. In the late century, the term minstrel began to be used to designate a performer who earned their living with poetry. They often performed other entertainments, such as jesting and acrobatics, the existence of an oral tradition of music is suggested by Aldhelm, who was of Bishop of Sherborne from 715, and who set religious lyrics to popular songs in order to spread the Christian message. Thanks to Bede, one of Cædmons songs survive as Cædmons Hymn, in the early Middle Ages, ecclesiastical music was dominated by monophonic plainchant. Although no notations of this music survive, sources suggest distinctive melodic patterns and this was superseded, as elsewhere in Europe, from the eleventh century by Gregorian chant.
The version of this chant linked to the liturgy as used in the Diocese of Salisbury and this Sarum Chant became the model for English composers until it was supplanted at the Reformation in the mid-sixteenth century, influencing settings for masses and Magnificats. Church music was accompanied by instruments such as the guitar, pipes
It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have called the pound. At various times, the sterling was commodity money or bank notes backed by silver or gold. The pound sterling is the worlds oldest currency still in use, the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey produce their own local issues of sterling, the Guernsey pound and the Jersey pound. The pound sterling is used in the Isle of Man, the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those three currencies it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights, Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves. The full, official name, pound sterling, is used mainly in formal contexts, otherwise the term pound is normally used.
The abbreviations ster. or stg. are sometimes used, the term British pound is commonly used in less formal contexts, although it is not an official name of the currency. The pound sterling is referred to as cable amongst forex traders, the origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the dollar/pound sterling exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex brokers are sometimes referred to as cable dealers, as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived, silver coins known as sterlings were issued in the Saxon kingdoms,240 of them being minted from a pound of silver. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in pounds of sterlings, in 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection. And because the Leagues money was not frequently debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the Easterlings, and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called Easterlings Hall, or Esterlingeshalle.
For further discussion of the etymology of sterling, see sterling silver, the currency sign for the pound sign is £, which is usually written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. The ISO4217 currency code is GBP, the abbreviation UKP is used but this is non-standard because the ISO3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes, GGP, JEP, stocks are often traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices. A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, since decimalisation in 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence. The symbol for the penny is p, hence an amount such as 50p properly pronounced fifty pence is more colloquially, quite often, pronounced fifty pee /fɪfti, pi and this helped to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system
Michael Philip Batt LVO is an English singer-songwriter, record producer, director and former Deputy Chairman of the British Phonographic Industry. He is best known for creating The Wombles pop act, writing the chart-topping Bright Eyes, michael Philip Batt was born on 6 February 1949, in Southampton, England. He attended Peter Symonds School and his blog refers to his role as cadet Company Sergeant Major at the school. Batt began his career in pop music at the age of eighteen when he answered an advertisement placed by Ray Williams in the New Musical Express on behalf of Liberty Records, Batt initially signed as a songwriter and artist to Liberty, but became head of A&R for the label. He signed and produced Tony McPhees The Groundhogs and produced their first album, in 1969 he took over production duties from Noel Walker on McKenna Mendelson Mainlines first release, Stink. Walker and Batt were credited on the album only as Liberty Staff and he produced and played piano on s second album Western Flier.
Also in 1969, Batt released as producer/artist a Liberty single, instead of taking his £200 fee, Batt asked for the character rights for musical production. The choice produced his first hits as a singer/songwriter/producer by The Wombles, the collaboration produced eight hit singles and four gold albums. He produced the hit version of Lilac Wine for Elkie Brooks in 1978, the song was a hit in the UK and across Europe. He wrote the song Bright Eyes for the film version of Watership Down. Recorded by Art Garfunkel, it reached number 1 in the UK Singles Chart, Batt wrote the score for the 1978 film Caravans. As a singer, his albums included Schizophonia and Tarot Suite. From these albums came the European hit songs Railway Hotel, Lady of the Dawn, the latter is telling the story of Moroccans fighting the French colonial power. He worked together quite a few fellow artists on them, e. g. Colin Blunstone. A version of Introduction from Tarot Suite was used as the theme for the Sydney, Australia radio station, Triple M and this was released to air at the end of June 2010.
In 1980, Batt released his album, entitled Waves. At the end of that journey, he wrote for the 50th anniversary of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation the musical, Zero Zero. Returning to the UK in 1983, Batt wrote and produced three more Top Ten hits, Please Dont Fall in Love, A Winters Tale and I Feel Like Buddy Holly, in the same year, he helped write lyrics for Abbacadabra
Music in Medieval Scotland
Music in Medieval Scotland includes all forms of musical production in what is now Scotland between the fifth century and the adoption of the Renaissance in the early sixteenth century. The sources for Scottish Medieval music are extremely limited, there are no major musical manuscripts for Scotland from before the twelfth century. There are occasional indications that there was a musical culture. Instruments included the cithara and chorus, visual representations and written sources demonstrate the existence of harps in the early Middle Ages and bagpipes and pipe organs in the Late Middle Ages. As in Ireland there were probably filidh in Scotland, who acted as poets, in the early Middle Ages there was a distinct form of liturgical Celtic chant. It is thought have been superseded from the century, as elsewhere in Europe. The English Sarum Use was the basis for most surviving chant in Scotland, from the thirteenth century, Scottish church music was increasingly influenced by continental developments.
Survivals of works from the first half of the sixteenth century indicate the quality, in the High Middle Ages, the need for large numbers of singing priests to fulfill these obligations led to the foundation of a system of song schools. A stress was placed on the technique of Faburden, which allowed easy harmonisation according to strict rules, James III founded a Chapel Royal at Restalrig near Holyrood and his son James IV refounded the Chapel Royal within Stirling Castle, with a new and enlarged choir. James IV was said to be accompanied by music. There is evidence there was a flourishing culture of popular music in Scotland during the late Middle Ages. Some surviving Scottish ballads may date back to the late Medieval era and deal with events and they remained an oral tradition until they were collected as folk songs in the eighteenth century. The sources for Scottish Medieval music are extremely limited and these limitations are the result of factors including a turbulent political history, the destructive practices of the Scottish Reformation, the climate and relatively late arrival of music printing.
What survives are occasional indications that there was a musical culture. There are no musical manuscripts for Scotland from before the twelfth century. Neither does Scottish music have an equivalent of the Bannatyne Manuscript in poetry, giving a large, the oldest extant piece of Church music written in Scotland is in the Inchcolm Fragment. Other early manuscripts include the Dunkeld Music Book and the Scone Antiphoner, other sources include occasional written references in accounts and in literature and visual representations of musicians and instruments. The chithara is probably the clarsach or Celtic harp and the probably an string instrument rather than a form of drum
Music of the United Kingdom
In the 20th century, influences from the music of the United States became most dominant in popular music. This led to the explosion of the British Invasion, while subsequent notable movements in British music include the new wave of British heavy metal, the United Kingdom has one of the worlds largest music industries today, with many British musicians having influenced modern music. English madrigals, lute ayres and masques in the Renaissance era led particularly to English language opera developed in the early Baroque period of the seventeenth century. In contrast, court music of the kingdoms of England and Ireland, British chamber and orchestral music drew inspiration from continental Europe as it developed into modern classical music. Musical composition and training in the United Kingdom inherited the European classical traditions of the eighteenth century, each of the four countries of the United Kingdom has its own diverse and distinctive folk music forms. Folk music flourished until the era of industrialisation when it began to be replaced by new forms of music, including music hall.
Realisation of this led to two folk revivals, one in the century and the other in the mid-20th century. England has a long and diverse history of folk music dating back at least to the period and including many forms of music, song. Through two periods of revival from the nineteenth century much of the tradition has been preserved. Ireland, including Northern Ireland, has vibrant folk traditions, the popularity of traditional instruments such as fiddles has remained throughout the centuries even as analogues in Great Britain died out. Perhaps the most famous musician from Northern Ireland influenced by folk tradition is Van Morrison. Scottish folk music includes kinds of songs, including ballads and laments. Traditional dances include waltzes, reels and jigs, alongside the other areas of the United Kingdom, Scotland underwent a roots revival in the 1960s. Wales is a Celtic country that features music played at twmpathau. Welsh music includes male voice choirs and songs accompanied by a harp, having long been subordinate to English culture, Welsh musicians in the late 20th century had to reconstruct traditional music when a roots revival began.
This revival began in the late 1970s and achieved mainstream success in the UK in the 80s with performers like Robin Huw Bowen, Moniars. Further technological and social changes led to new forms of music in the century, including the brass band. Similarly, the music hall sprang up to cater for the entertainment of new urban societies, adapting existing forms of music to popular songs
Australian Recording Industry Association
It oversees the collection and distribution of music licenses and royalties. The association has more than 100 members, including small labels typically run by one to five people, medium size organisations, ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small. As of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica, in 1956, the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was formed by Australias major record companies. It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members, by 1997, the six major labels provided 90% of all recordings made in Australia. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards.
ARIA provided peer voting for awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Since 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own entirely peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to recognise excellence, initially included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and has held separate annual ceremonies since 2005. The ARIA Hall of Fame honours Australian musicians achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world, in February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association announced its own legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches. The trial began on 29 November 2004, on 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial.
In 2006, ARIA formed sponsorship deals with Motorola and Nova and changed the appearance, Motorola took naming-rights sponsorship seeing the charts referred to in the media as the Motorola ARIA Charts. ARIA, have commented that as part of the same marketing printed charts would be reintroduced into media retailing shops, as part of the deal Nova began broadcasting the charted singles in reverse order on a Sunday afternoon show before it was released on the ARIA charts website. The ARIA Charts is the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association, the charts are a record of the highest selling singles and albums in various genres. All charts are compiled from data of both physical and digital sales from retailers in Australia, the ARIA No.1 Chart Awards were established in 2002 to recognise Australian recording artists, who reached number one on the ARIA albums and music DVDs charts. The ARIA Music Awards is a series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry.
This criticism is stauncher in Australia due to the absence of an equivalent Digital Millennium Copyright Act or state crimes acts which clearly establish copyright infringement as a crime, in February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association took legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches. The trial began on 29 November 2004, on 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial
Early music of the British Isles
Surviving sources indicate that there was a rich and varied musical soundscape in medieval Britain. Our understanding of music is limited by a lack of written sources for much of what was an oral culture. In the early Middle Ages, ecclesiastical music was dominated by monophonic plainchant, although no notations of this music survive, sources suggest distinctive melodic patterns. This was superseded, as elsewhere in Europe, from the 11th century by Gregorian chant, the version of this chant linked to the liturgy as used in the Diocese of Salisbury, the Sarum Use, first recorded from the 13th century, became dominant in England. This Sarum Chant became the model for English composers until it was supplanted at the Reformation in the century, influencing settings for masses, hymns. Scottish collections of music like the thirteenth-century Wolfenbüttel 677, which is associated with St Andrews, contain mostly French compositions, the first notations of Welsh music that survive are from the 14th century, including matins and vespers for St Davids Day.
Included in the list is J, from the mid-15th century we begin to have relatively large numbers of works that have survived from English composers in documents like the early 15th century Old Hall Manuscript. The existence of copies is testament to his widespread fame within Europe. He may have been the first composer to provide liturgical music with an instrumental accompaniment, Royal interest in music is suggested by the works attributed to Roy Henry in the Old Hall Manuscript, suspected to be Henry IV or Henry V. This tradition was continued by figures such as Walter Frye, whose masses were recorded and highly influential in France, often accompanying themselves on the harp, they can be seen in records of the Scottish courts throughout the medieval period. We know from the work of Gerald of Wales that at least from the 12th century, many appear to have composed their own works, and can be seen as the first secular composers and some crossed international boundaries, transferring songs and styles of music.
Because literacy, and musical notation in particular were preserves of the clergy in this period the survival of music is much more limited than for church music. Nevertheless, some were noted, occasionally by clergymen who had an interest in secular music, England in particular produced three distinctive secular musical forms in this period, the rota, the polyphonic votive antiphon and the carol. A rota is the a form of round, known to have been used from the 13th century in England, de Wycombe, precentor of the priory of Leominster in Herefordshire, and set for six parts. Although few are recorded, the use of rotas seems to have been widespread in England, polyphonic votive antiphons emerged in England in the 14th century as a setting of a text honouring the Virgin Mary, but separate from the mass and office, often after compline. Towards the end of the 15th century they began to be written by English composers as expanded settings for as many as nine parts with increasing complexity, the largest collection of such antiphons is in the late 15th century Eton choirbook.
Carols developed in the 14th century as simple songs with a verse, carols were usually connected with a religious festival, particularly Christmas. They were derived from a form of dance accompanied by singers
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Classical music of the United Kingdom
The term in this sense emerged in the early 19th century, not long after the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland came into existence in 1801. Composed music in these islands can be traced in musical notation back to the 13th century and it has never existed in isolation from European music, but has often developed in distinctively insular ways within an international framework. Similar developments occurred in the other expanding states of Europe and their empires, the dominant figure in classical music in the baroque era, and beyond, was the German-born George Frideric Handel. Music in this period has seen as dominated by continental trends. In 1813 the London Philharmonic Society was established, which played an important role in the development of life in the kingdom. Founders included Sir George Smart, Johann Baptist Cramer, Muzio Clementi, William Ayrton, William Shield, Henry Bishop, Thomas Attwood, Johann Peter Salomon, under their aegis an annual programme of concerts of international calibre was established.
The Society was a patron of Beethovens Choral Symphony. Its first principal was the oratorio composer Dr William Crotch, Potter was the first London performer of Mozart and Beethoven concerti. He wrote nine symphonies and four piano concerti and as principal from 1832-59 was highly influential in the development of British music and the profession of musician. Braham, whose career spanned the opera stage and concert platform. Arias or ballads from the English opera became concert standards in recital, the Irish composer and virtuoso pianist John Field was highly influential in his style of playing, inventing the nocturne and he is thought to have been an inspiration to Schumann and Liszt. Perhaps the most influential composer of the first half of the 19th century was the German Felix Mendelssohn and he won a strong following through the Philharmonic Society, sufficient for him to make a deep impression on British musical life. Not only did he compose and perform, but he edited for British publishers the first critical editions of oratorios of Handel.
Scotland inspired two of his most famous works, the overture Fingals Cave and the Scottish Symphony and his oratorio Elijah was premièred in Birmingham at the Triennial Music Festival on August 26,1846. A number of British piano students of promise were sent to the Leipzig Conservatory established by Mendelssohn, native singers shared the dramatic stage with international stars in Italian and German opera, notably Clara Novello, Helen Lemmens-Sherrington, Sims Reeves and Charles Santley. After 1856 the Swedish born Jenny Lind, perhaps the most internationally renowned singer of the era, settled permanently in England, continuing to perform, among the most important figures in British classical music in this period was Sir William Sterndale Bennett. A RAM pupil of Potters, he was a pianist, lucy Anderson and her pupil Arabella Goddard, with Franklin Taylor, were leading native mid-Victorian pianists. This century saw the trend towards larger orchestras and correspondingly larger musical venues, covent Gardens Royal Opera House was opened in 1858, on the site of an earlier theatre and the Royal Albert Hall was built in 1878